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Article
Functional Status of Patient with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
الحالة الوظيفية لمريض السل الرئوي

Author: Mohammed Hakim Shamran Al-Hchaim محمد حاكم
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2019 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top infectious causes of death worldwide. Patients with treated TB may remain lifelong sufferers of disabling sequelae of the disease which subsequently impair their quality of life.Aims of study: The present study aimed to assess the functional status of patient with pulmonary tuberculosis and to and the relationship between the patients functional status and their Socio-demographic data which as (Residence, Gender, Age, Occupation, Socio-economic status, Duration of disease, number of previous hospitalization and Smoking). Methodology: A descriptive study was used to achieve the study objectives. The study was started from March, 4th, 2018 to Sept., 11th, 2018. The study is conducted in a City of Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf in Consultant Clinic for tuberculosis and Chest Diseases. A non-probability accidental sample of thirty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who are selected from patients whose visit the Consultant Clinic for T.B. and Chest Diseases in "Al-Hakeem General Hospital". Data collected on structured questionnaire planned specifically for this study, and it is consist of two parts: Part one Included Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical data, and Part two Include (5) domain related to functional status for patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. The study instrument validity is conducted through a panel of experts who have years of experience in nursing field. Data analysis by using descriptive and inferential statistics (percentage, frequency, mean of score and Chi-Square)Results: The study results revealed that the overall assessment for the patients' response to the functional status domains is acceptable. Also there was no-significant relationship between the study subject functional status and their demographic data except with the study subject residency and age. Conclusions: The study concluded that the patients living in urban residential area are more vulnerable to get pulmonary tuberculosis than those living in rural area and males also more vulnerable to get pulmonary tuberculosis than females. Recommendations: improved the role of physician and nurse to take their roles toward instruct patient toward their disease and how to dealing problems to achieve the highly quality of life and continuous follow-up for all tuberculosis patients especially those who live in urban area.Key wards: assessment, patient, pulmonary tuberculosis.

خلفية البحث: يعد السل من أهم الأسباب المعدية المؤدية للوفاة في جميع أنحاء العالم. يبقى مريض السل يعاني من مضاعفات المرض حتى بعد العلاج ويؤثر على جودة حياة المريض فيما بعد.الهدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم الحالة الوظيفية لمرضى السل الرئوي وكذلك لإيجاد العلاقة بين الحالة الوظيفية للمريض والمتغيرات الديموغرافية (السكن الجنس والعمر ونوع الوظيفة والحالة الاقتصادية ومدة المرض وعدد المرات السابقة لدخول المستشفى والتدخين) المنهجية : دراسة وصفية بدأت بتأريخ الرابع من اذار 2018 ولغاية الحادي عشر من أيلول 2018, أجريت الدراسة في مدينة النجف الأشرف في العيادة الاستشارية لمرض السل وأمراض الصدر. تم اختيار عينة غرضية غير احتمالية. جمعت المعلومات من خلال إعداد استبانة تم بنائها لغرض الدراسة وتكونت الاستمارة من جزئيين الجزء الاول اشتمل على المعلومات الديمغرافية والسريرية والجزء الثاني اشتمل على (5) مجالات تتعلق بالحالة الوظيفية لمريض السل الرئوي. و تم تحيد مصداقية الاستمارة من خلال عرضها على مجموعة من الخبراء ضمن الاختصاص. النتائج: كشفت نتائج الدراسة أن التقييم العام لاستجابة المرضى لنطاقات الحالة الوظيفية مقبول. كما لم تكن هناك علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين الحالة الوظيفية للمرضى والبيانات الديموغرافية الخاصة بهم, ماعدا العمر ومكان السكن.الاستنتاج: استنتجت الدراسة إلى أن المرضى الذين يعيشون في المناطق السكنية الحضرية هم أكثر عرضة للإصابة بالسل الرئوي من أولئك الذين يعيشون في المناطق الريفية والذكور أكثر عرضة للإصابة بالسل الرئوي من الإناث.التوصيات: تحسين دور الممرضين في القيام بأدوارهم نحو توجيه المريض حول الحالة المرضية الخاصة به, وكيفية التعامل مع مرضه للوصول الى حياة ذات جودة عالية وكذلك المتابعة المستمرة لجميع مرضى السل الرئوي خاصة أولئك الذين يعيشون في المناطق الحضرية لانهم اكثر عرضة للإصابة بالمرض.


Article
Allelic Distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Baghdad City

Author: Falah Salim Manhal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 253-258
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Host genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and non-HLA genes that are associated with the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) will serve as genetic markers to predispose or predetermine the development of the disease.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to analyze the association between particular HLA-typing class I and the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Baghdad city.PATIENTS & METHODS:Blood samples were collected from one hundred patients; 50 samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis referred to the Chest and Respiratory Diseases Institute in Baghdad city and 50 samples from apparently healthy individuals. All samples were submitted to the lymphocytotoxicity test (NIH) and examined in Major Histocompatibility Laboratory in AL- Karama Hospital in Baghdad city.RESULT:It was found that HLA (15) expression was significantly higher in recently infected patients with tuberculosis than in the controls (p<0.01) and HLA-A (33) was significantly lower in those patients than the controls (p<0.05). HLA-A (1) was high significantly lower in historical TB patients than the controls (p<0.01). HLA-B (17) was significantly higher in recently infected patients with TB than the controls (p<0.05), HLA-B(35) was high significantly lower in historical TB patients than the controls (P<0.01). This study concluded that frequencies of HLA-A (15), HLA-B (17), in recently diagnosed pulmonary TB patients were significantly increased compared with those in the control group.CONCLUSION:The development of pulmonary tuberculosis infection is partly controlled by genetic factors. Sophisticated techniques such as (PCR) are needed for more assurance to verify this association. Further studies are required to investigate a possible relation between HLA-typing class II and the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iraq.


Article
Studying the Factors Associated With Relapse Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Baghdad
دراســة العــوامـل المــتعلـقـة بالتـدرن الـــرئوي الناكس فــــي العــــــراق

Author: Adnan M. AL-Jubouri * MRCP,(UK), FRCP (EDIN) د. عدنان الجبوري
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2012 Volume: 54 Issue: 4 Pages: 269-272
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Relapse is defined as recurrent tuberculosis at any time after completion of treatment and apparent cure Recurrence of tuberculosis may occur as a result of relapsed infection due to the same Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, or due to exogenous reinfection with a new strain.Objective: To study the factors associated with relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods:. Across sectional study had been done in the chest and respiratory diseases teaching specialized center in Baghdad during the period from the 1st of January 2010 to the 30th of July 2011. A total of 58 patients with relapsed pulmonary tuberculosis were included in this study. For each patient.the fallowing variables were collected age, gender, marital status, regularity of treatment, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol intake and prisonment have been studied.Results: Mean age for all relapsed cases was 47.4years.A 53patients(91.4%) of relapse cases were married. There was only 30 patients(51.7%)of relapse cases regular on treatment. It was 15 patients (25.9%) contribute to about one forth (25.9%) of relapsed cases was diabetic. There was 28 patients (48.3%)of relapsed cases was smokers. A17 patients (29.3)% of them was prisons.Finaly 13 patients(22.4%) of relapsed cases had history of alcoholic intake.Conclusions: Recurrence of tuberculosis was more common in male, married, diabetic, prisoners, and history of alcohol patients and patients presenting at least one of the risk factor can benefit from the implementation of a post-treatment surveillance system for early detection of recurrence.Keywords: PTB : Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

دراســة العــوامـل المــتعلـقـة بالتـدرن الـــرئوي الناكس فــــي العــــــراقالاستاذ الدكتور : عدنان محمد الجبوري.المدرس الدكتور : محمد وهيب العبيدي.الدكتور : حمزه عبدالله الصباح.الدكتور : سليمان دخيل عودهالخلاصةالتدرن الرئوي الناكس هو عودة الاصابة بالتدرن الرئوي بعد اكمال العلاج وتحسن الحالة المرضية.الهدف من الدراسة :لوصف خصائص المرضى المصابين بالتدرن الرئوي الناكس في العراق.مكان الدراسة :اجريت هذه الدراسة في مركز الامراض الصدرية والتنفسية التعليمي ( المركز الوطني لمكافحة التدرن ) بغداد – العراقفي الفترة الواقعة بين الاول من شهر كانون الثاني /2010 والثلاثين من شهر تموز / 2010.تصميم الدراسة : دراسة مسح مقطعي.طريقة العمل :اشتملت هذه الدراسة على (58 حالة ناكسة ) مثبتة سريريا ومختبريا وشعاعيا ودراسة عدة عوامل مساعدة لانتكاسة التدرن الرئوي وهي :العمر,الجنس .الحالة الزوجية داء السكري الكحول دخول المعتقلات ( السجون) التدخين والانتظام بتناول العلاجالنتائج : بينت الدراسة1.ان معدل اعمار الناكسين كانت (47,4) 2.الغالبية العظمى من الناكسين متزوجون 3.هناك نسبة مميزة من المرضى لديهم داء السكري4.المدخنون منهم لا يشكلون نسبة مميزةمفتاح الكلمات: التدرن الرئوي


Article
Prevalence of Drug Resistance among New Cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Zaid Mohammed Ali Hamandi --- Adnan M.Aljubouri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 499-503
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that has affected humankind throughout recorded history and before.Presently, the number of deaths caused by TB worldwide exceeds that caused by any other organism. Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a man-made problem. Poor management can lead to the selection of M. tuberculosis with mutations conferring resistance to antituberculous drugs.Drug resistance is divided into two types: primary (resistance in persons who have never received anti-tuberculosis drugs for more than 1 month. These patients are initially infected with drug-resistant strains) and secondary, acquired, (resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, which arises during treatment due to poor compliance or improper management.)OBJECTIVE:To identify the prevalence of drug resistance among new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iraq.METHODS: A cross sectional studywhich includes, 106 patients fulfilled the criteria of inclusion throughout the duration of the study, and sputum samples were taken from all of them for direct microscopical examination and culture and drug sensitivity. RESULTS:Fifty patients (47.2%) had positive results for mycobacterial culture, none of them showed resistance to any anti- tuberculous drug that had been examined for, i.e. : all the 50 samples were sensitive to tested anti-tuberculous drugsCONCLUSION:standard first line treatment for pulmonary T.B. is recommended for all new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iraq.


Article
A Statistical Radiological Analysis in Patients with Sputum Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Waleed Latif Hussein --- Basil Fawzi Jameel --- Muhammed .W.AL.Obaidy --- Adnan M. AL,Jubouri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-157
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACK GROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) a multi-systemic disease with various presentations and manifestations; is due to infection with the acid fast bacillus mycobacterium. Disease occurs in only (10%) of infected individuals, it is associated with overcrowding and immune-compromised statesOBJECTIVE:To identity the main findings in plain chest X-ray and CT-scan of the chest of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with sputum smear positive in relation to certain factors and clinical conditions including : gender, age , smoking , alcohol- consumption , co-morbid diseases e.g. diabetes mellitus and steroid medication for more than 4 weeks .PATIENT AND METHOD:Across sectional study of randomly collected (100) patients all were new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis disease with sputum smear positive, A plain chest radiography was done to all of them , and a randomly chosen (30) patients (out of the same sample of the study) were examined also by ( high resolution CT-scan ) of the chest to compare the radiological findings.The sample of patients collected consisted of (68)males and (32) females , aged between (12 -82) years.The study was done in the specialized chest and respiratory diseases center in Baghdad during the period from first of March 2012 ,to the end of August 2012.RESULTS:100patients with sputum smear positive – pulmonary tuberculosis disease were collected, 68 patients (68%) were males and 32 patients (32%) females. From our study97 patients(97%)of total number presented with positive radiological findings whether by plain chest X-ray and /or CT-scan of chest, And 3 patients(3%) of the sample studied were with normal both plain chest X-ray and CT-scan of chest.The radiological findings of all of the patients studied were as :Infiltrative lesion48 patients( 48% )Cavitary lesion(: 37%)Consolidation ( 32%)Pleural effusion (17%)Miliary shadowing( 1%)Clear radiological was found that 28 patients (28%) had radiological abnormalities in the right side of the chest and 25 patients were with left sided radiographic abnormality, while bilateral chest radiological finding had been shown in44 patients (44%).CONCLUSION:The CT- scan of chest is more sensitive than plain chest X-ray for evaluation of abnormal or obscured radiological findings. There is no specific pattern for radiological finding in the chestthe direct sputum examination is remained the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.


Article
Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Author: Gassan Y. Hamed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 290-295
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of saliva as a sample for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis(T.B.) by looking for acid fast bacilli in a direct smear and comparing it with sputum and to determine whether the isolation of M. tuberculosis is from the lung or disseminated through blood. Material and Methods : The study sample consisted of 25 patients of both sexes. Age range was (17 - 65) years . Approximately 2 ml of unstimulated mixed saliva from each subject and parotid saliva were collected for direct smear for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and storenbrink media .Results: About 60% of unstimulated mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. The five samples of saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink media showed positive culture. To our knowledge, we did not find any study performed on saliva as a sample for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis to compare our finding with these studies, so the comparison was made between the sensitivity of saliva and the sensitivity of sputum . In this study, the sensitivity of direct smear of saliva for A.F.B was equal to 60% of the sensitivity of sputum. The sensitivity of direct smear of sputum for A.F.B. ranged from (2280%). There were no clinical manifestations like gummas; granulomas; ulcer; alveolar abscess and osteitis. CONCLUSION: This clinical and laboratory study revealed that M Tuberculosis which was present in the mixed saliva resulted from contact of oral tissue with infected sputum; Mixed saliva was less efficient than sputum in diagnosis of T.B. disease . Saliva can be inoculated on different media and that newly diagnosed patients with T.B disease don't have any clinical manifestations in the oral cavity


Article
Community Knowledge and Attitudes towards Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Kirkuk

Authors: Mohammed Ali Khalaf --- Dilshad Sabir Mohammed --- Mohammad Mustafa
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 2351-2356
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Tuberculosis is one of the primary public health problems in developing countries. Knowledge about the disease has been known to increase the risk of spreading the bacteria and the risk of developing the disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of Tuberculosis knowledge, attitudes among population in Kirkuk city.Subjects and Method: A community based cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire, 400 respondents were asked questions regarding cause, symptoms, method of transmission of pulmonary TB and their attitude to person infected with pulmonary Tuberculosis.Results: Most of respondents had heard of pulmonary Tuberculosis with males having better (though not significant) knowledge than females. Although attitude toward TB did not influence caring for sick relatives or friends, it impeded social interactions and marriage prospects with infected persons within the communityConclusion: Knowledge and attitude toward pulmonary Tuberculosis was generally good in this community. Efforts should be intensified by health authorities in the local government to raise awareness and knowledge of the disease, so as to improve social perception and early recognition of infection.


Article
Nutritional and Epidemiological Characteristics of Iraqi TB Patients
المميزات التغذوية والوبائية لمرضى التدرن الرئوي العراقيين

Author: Tawfeeq F. R. AL-Auqbi توفيق فاخر العقبي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 383-387
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Introduction: There is good evidence, both at the population and the clinical level, for the effect of primary malnutrition on tuberculosis, both to increase frequency of occurrence and to exacerbate clinical manifestations.Objectives: To study the nutritional and socio-epidemiological characteristics that may affects the Iraqi TB patients.Patients And Method: Prospective observational designed study for one year were conducted in Al-Rasheed Teaching Military Hospital / Department of Medicine – TB and pulmonology clinic. A 206 patients of pulmonary TB visiting the clinic monthly were included in the study. At the interview patients asked about medical history (including the social habits, smoking, family history of TB and history of prison); examined physically and assessed nutritionally (BMI, triceps Skin fold thickness and waist to hip ratio) then send for laboratory investigation ( Hb%, sputum for AFB, liver function test) at each monthly visit.Results: mean age of patients were 26.12 ± 6.46 years and BMI 20.09 ± 3.37 kg/m2; while the prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) was 23.52% of studied patients. Mean duration of complaint 37.82±26.91 days before seeking medical consultation. Prisoners form 61.28% of all patients. Prevalence of smoking was 61.76% among studied patients. Prevalence of previous TB history was 19.60% of patients. Prevalence of positive TB family history was 7.38% of patients.Conclusions: Nutritional status, Prison, smoking, previous TB history and family history of TB were possible TB risk factors which compound the nutritional effects on TB patients.

الملخص :- مقدمة: هناك شواهد على مستوى السكان والمستوى السريري تدعم تأثير سوء التغذية على الأصابة بالتدرن الرئوي فيما يخص زيادة حدوث المرض واشتداد اعراضة. هدف الدراسة: أثبات تأثير سوء التغذية والعوامل الأجتماعية و الوبائية على مرضى التدرن الرئوي العراقيين. طريقة البحث: تم تصميم الدراسة لمراقبة ومتابعة المرضى لمدة سنة في مستشفى الرشيد العسكري التعليمي / شعبة الباطنية/ قسم الأمراض الصدرية والتدرن. تم شمول 206 مريض بالدراسة وتمت مقابلتهم و فحصهم سريريا ومختبريا كل شهر. النتائج: كان معدل العمر 26.12 ± 6.46 سنة ومعدل معامل كتلة الجسم 20.09 ± 3.37 كغم/متر مربع و نسبة الأصابة بسوء التغذية (اقل من 18.5 كغم/متر مربع ) 23.52% من المرضى. معدل فترة الشكوى من المرض قبل الفحص 37.82±26.91 يوم؛ شكل السجناء نسبة 61.28% من المرضى والمدخنين 61.76% والذين لديهم اصابة تدرنية سابقة 19.60% والذين لديهم تاريخ مرضي عائلي للتدرن .7.38% الأستنتاجات: ان سوء التغذية والعوامل المساعدة الأخرى كالتدخين والسجن والتاريخ المرضي السابق والعائلي تعتبر عوامل متضافرة لتعقيد تأثير التدرن الرئوي على المرضى.


Article
Association between life-style factors and pulmonary tuberculosis in Erbil
العلاقة بين عوامل نمط الحياة والسل الرئوي في أربيل

Authors: Namir G. Al. Tawil --- Badia M. Najib --- Ibrahim H. Mustafa
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objectives: The majority of individuals in a population do not develop tuberculosis, due either to lack of exposure or due to individual characteristics that limit development of the disease after exposure. Evidences suggested that there is an association between lifestyle variables and tuberculosis. The main objective of this study was to study the association between lifestyle characteristics and pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Erbil city during the period May 10, to December 28, 2009. A convenient sample of 150 cases of TB attending the Consultation Clinic for Chest and Respiratory Diseases was included in the study. A sex and age matched, 150 patients were included in the study as a control group. The control group was taken from patient of the Medical Wards of both Rizgary and Hawler Teaching Hospitals who were free from chest infections and lung cancer. Cases and controls were interviewed using a questionnaire designed by the researchers.Results: Around one quarter (24%) of the cases were smokers compared with 14.7 % among the controls. Significant difference of nutritional status between both groups was detected. Controls eat more food and of better quality than cases. No significant association between alcohol drinking, practicing of sports/ exercise and TB was detected.Conclusion: TB was found to be associated with low nutritional status and smoking.


Article
Treatment Outcomes of Inmates with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Baquba Penitentiary:Afollow_up study
نتائج معاملة السجناء مع السل الرئوي في السجون بعقوبة: دراسة Afollow_up

Authors: Abidalrazaq Ali عبد الرزاق علي --- Abidalrazaq shafeeq عبد الرزاق شفيق
Journal: Journal of Research Diyala humanity مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية ISSN: 1998104x Year: 2005 Issue: 20 Pages: 10-16
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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