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Article
Renin – angiotensin system (RAS) and hypertensive disease"From the link in pathophysiology to the outcomes of inhibition"

Author: Aasem M. AL-Chalabi عاصم الجلبي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2009 Volume: 35 Issue: 1 Pages: 73-86
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

SUMMARY
The renin – angiotensin system is a major contributor to both hypertension and associated pathophysiologic changes in the heart and cardiovascular wall (The target organ). Major basic and clinical trials have shown that ACE inhibitor and ARB are the main renin- angiotensin system blockers in use assist in controlling hypertension and reducing target organ damage, thus they should be used as a first-line treatment for hypertension. Moreover, ARBs specifically reduces the frequency of atrial fibrillation and stroke, thus it has emerged as a new preventive and therapeutic strategy for these conditions.
In theory, combining ACE inhibitor and ARBs maximizes benefits because it offers more complete RAS blockage but this expectation was not confirmed by most recent clinical trials and was not translated into real patients benefits. Renin inhibition was introduced as a better step for reducing angiotensin II, because it offer complete blockage of the whole system. Early studies confirmed that renin inhibitors reduced blood pressure better than ACE inhibitors but further large clinical trials have been started and therefore in the near future, further clinical evidences will be available to confirm the antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of renin inhibitor.
List of abbreviations: RAS (renin – angiotensin system), ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme), ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker), AT1 (angiotensin II receptor type 1), AT2 (angiotensin II receptor type 2), AT4 (angiotensin II receptor type 4), LVH (Left ventricular hypertrophy), AF (atrial fibrillation), CCF (Congestive heart failure).

الخلاصة نظام الرنين انجيوتنسين هو عامل رئيس لكل من فرط ضغط الدم والتغيرات المرضية في القلب وجدار الأوعية الدموية (العضو المستهدف). لقد بينت الكثير من الأبحاث الأساسية والسريرية ان موانع أنزيمات محولات الانجيوتنسين ومحصر مستقبلات الانجيوتنسين هما أهم موانع نظام الرنين انجيوتنسين المستعملة حاليا تساعد للسيطرة على فرط ضغط الدم وتقليل تلف العضو المستهدف وعليه يجب استعمالهما كخط أول لعلاج فرط ضغط الدم. اضافة الى ذلك فان محصر مستقبلات الانجيوتنسين خاصة تقلل تكرار حدوث ارتجاف الأذينين والسكتة الدماغية وعليه فقد برزت كطريقة وقائية وعلاجية جديدة لهذه الأمراض. نظرياً، الجمع بين موانع أنزيمات محولات الانجيوتنسين ومحصر مستقبلات الانجيوتنسين يزيد الفائدة لأنها تعمل على منع النظام منعاً تاماً، ولكن هذا التوقع لم يؤكد بأكثر الأبحاث السريرية حداثة ولم ينعكس كفوائد حقيقية للمرضى. موانع الرنين قدمت كخطوة أفضل لتقليل الانجيوتنسين (2) لأنه يعمل على المنع الكلي للنظام بأكمله. الأبحاث الأولية أثبتت ان موانع الرنين خفضت فرط ضغط الدم أفضل من موانع أنزيمات محولات الانجيوتنسين ولكن الأبحاث السريرية الموسعة التي بدأت ستطلعنا في المستقبل القريب عن تأكيد نتائج تأثيرها على فرط ضغط الدم ومضادات الالتهابات وتصلب الأوعية الدموية.

Keywords

RAS --- hypertensive


Article
ANALYSIS OF N-RAS GENE MUTATIONS AND P21N-RAS PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH IN AML

Authors: Nahidh K. Alwan ناهض كامل علوان --- Raad J. Musa رعد جابر موسى --- Ban A. Abdul-Majeed بان عباس عبد المجيد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 329-339
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:N-RAS mutations are the most commonly detected molecular abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, especially in those of myeloid origin.Objective:Current study aimed to determine the frequency of N-RAS mutation and its correlation with P21N-RAS protein expression in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Iraq.Methods:Peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate and biopsy samples were taken from 58 newly diagnosed AML patients (57 de novo and 1 therapy related AML) and 30 individuals with reactive bone marrow conditions were selected as a control group. Samples screened for N-RAS gene mutations using nested PCR followed by mutation sensitive digestion analysis (MSDA), and immunohistochemical analysis of P21N-RAS protein expression by using anti N-RAS monoclonal antibody.Results:N-RAS mutations at the time of diagnosis were found in 10/58 (17.24%) and P21N-RAS expression found in 5/58 (8.62%) patients with AML. There was a significant difference (P = 0.001) in P21N-RAS expression between mutant and wild type N-RAS patients with AML. No N-RAS mutations or P21N-RAS expression detected in the control group individuals.Conclusion:It can be suggested that there is activation of RAS-signaling cascade in AML patients, this is may support their role in molecular pathogenesis of acute leukemia. Also, there was a significant difference between N-RAS gene status and P21N-RAS protein expression in patients with AML.Keyword:AML, N-RAS Mutation, MSDA, P21N-RAS expression, Digital analysis.


Article
Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis with 940nm Diode Laser

Authors: Muhamed I. Hazeem --- Muthenna Sh. Rajab --- Raed A. Badeia
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2014 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-82
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Background & objectives: Ulcers in the mouth (recurrent aphthous stomatitis) are very common and may vary in size from very small to very large. The exact cause of mouth ulcers isn’t known but acidic foods and stress are thought to be factors, as well as local traumatic damage such as that caused vigorous toothbrushing. Although uncomfortable, small ulcers are tolerable, but large ulcers can last for up to 2 weeks and greatly affect the ability to eat, drink and even talk. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis by application of 940 nm diode laser irradiation & its effect on the duration and pain sensation. Materials and methods: A total number of 32 patients having at least 2 ulcers for each. Those patients were enrolled in this study using a split mouth design. The study included two groups, The experimental (study group) consisted of thirty two ulcers ( in the 32 patients ) were subjected to 940 nm laser irradiation & control group comprised of thirty two ulcers ( in the same 32 patients ) left without laser irradiation. Pain scores were recorded before and after laser treatment. The patient subjected to follow-up visits until complete healing of the ulcers occurred. Results: There were immediate changes in the pain scores of the experimental group just after diode laser application. The duration of the control group lesions ranged between (7-14) days, while the lesion in the experimental group subsided with a range between (4-12) days. Conclusion:1. Single session of diode laser irradiation can be used to produce immediate, dramatic and sustained analgesic effect on RAS lesion.2. The lesion duration was significantly reduced to about 40% from that of control lesion

Keywords

diode laser --- aphtous --- ulcer --- RAS


Article
Study of HLA Class I and Class II by (PCR-SSP) and the role of salivary TNF-α in Iraqi patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Mustafa M. Salah مصطفى صلاح --- Batool H. Al-Ghurabei بتول الغرابي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 151-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Until today, the etiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis remains unknown, although hints of its etiologicbasis lay on genetic susceptibility, infectious agents and alterations in immune mechanics. Current study wasestablished to shed light on the possible association of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles with recurrentaphthous stomatitis, and to investigate the possible alterations in salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patientsand its relation with clinical types of disease.Subjects and Methods: The study included 55 subjects: 30 recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and 25 apparentlyhealthy subjects as control. Polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers assay was conducted to assesshuman leukocyte antigen-typing whereas salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level was estimated by enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay.Results: The present study showed a significant association of HLA-Cw*12:02:01-and DQB1*02:01:01- alleles withrecurrent aphthous stomatitis as compared with healthy control, and there was significant low frequency ofDQB1*05:01:01- allele in patients when compared with healthy control. Furthermore, high frequency ofDQB1*02:01:01- alleles was observed among patients with minor type of recurrent aphthous stomatitis whencompared with healthy control. Another interesting finding in this study was the significant elevation of salivary tumornecrosis factor-alpha level in patients than in healthy controls, as well as strong association of high salivary tumornecrosis factor-alpha level among patients who expressed DQB1*02:01:0-allell was observed.Conclusion: Cw*12:02:01- and DQB1*02:01:01-alleles may played a role in the etiology of the disease, whereasDQB1*05:01:01-05 may confer protective effects against recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Moreover; salivary tumornecrosis factor-alpha may play an important role in pathogenesis of disease, and may also have an important role inthe search of new treatments for disease

Keywords

RAS --- HLA allele --- PCR --- Salivary TNF-á


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF N-RAS GENE MUTATIONS ON THE RESPONSE TO INDUCTION THERAPY IN AML IRAQI PATIENTS

Authors: Nahidh K. Alwan ناهض كامل علوان --- Raad J. Musa رعد جابر موسى --- Ban A. Abdul-Majeed بان عباس عبد المجيد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 230-237
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:N-RAS mutations are the most commonly detected molecular abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, especially in those of myeloid origin.Objective:Current study aimed to determine the frequency of N-RAS mutation; and its influence on response to induction therapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Iraq.Methods:Peripheral blood and bone marrow samples were taken from 58 newly diagnosed AML patients and 30 individuals with reactive bone marrow were selected as a control group. Samples screened for N-RAS gene mutations using nested PCR were followed by mutation sensitive digestion analysis (MSDA).Results:N-RAS mutations at the time of diagnosis were found in 10/58 (17.24%) patients with AML and no mutation in control individuals. Patients with mutant N-RAS showed lower complete remission (CR) than wild type, the difference was not significant (60% vs. 72.92%, P = 0.414).Conclusion:The current results provide clues for activation of RAS-signaling cascade in AML patients, supporting their role in molecular pathogenesis of leukemia. N-RAS mutations show no influence on CR rate in AML patients. Further studies on larger scale to define the prognostic significance of N-RAS mutations are recommended.Keyword:AML, N-RAS mutation, MSDA, complete remission.

Keywords

AML --- N-RAS mutation --- MSDA --- complete remission


Article
Evaluation of p53 and K-ras Gene Mutations Frequency in Iraqi Women with Ovarian Carcinoma
تقييم تردد الطفرات للجينين p53 و K-ras في النساء العراقيات المصابات بسرطان المبيض

Author: Maisaa Gazi Jumaa
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2-2 Pages: 193-206
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Ovarian cancer represents the fourth most frequent type of cancer among females and is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the western world. More recently, ovarian tumors have been broadly classified into two distinct groups with unique histological, clinical and molecular profiles. Type I tumors in which BRAF and K-ras somatic mutations are relatively common, and type II tumors which display high levels of genomic instability with few common mutations, other than TP53, which is altered in over 90% of the cases. In the present study 58 samples with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were analyzed for detecting the frequency of p53 and K-ras gene mutations in Iraqi ovarian cancer patients, as well as 15 samples of apparently healthy women used as a control group. The analysis was based on conventional PCR amplification of exons 5 and 7 of the p53 gene and codon 12 of K-ras. For both p53 and K-ras genes, none of healthy control exhibited mutation in those genes. p53 mutations detected in 13(22.4%) of ovarian cancer samples, which was significantly higher in compare with healthy controls (p<0.05). The results showed that out of thirteen mutant ovarian cancer samples, exon-5 mutation was the most frequent and detected in 10 (76.9 %), followed by exon-7 that detected only in 3(23.07%) of cases. Statistically there were no significant differences in mutational rates of p53 gene in patients with age, menopausal state, tumor histological subtypes, and different FIGO stages. K-ras mutation detected in only 3(5.17%) of ovarian cancer samples. There were no significant difference in mutational rates of K-ras gene in patients with age, menopausal state, tumor histological subtypes, and different FIGO stages, but all these three mutant samples with stage I. Out of 58 samples only one patient 1(1.7%) have been identified with mutations in both genes. In conclusion, the present study results show that mutations of the p53 gene are not rare events, and K-ras mutations status is not a prognostic factor in ovarian carcinomas.

يمثل سرطان المبيض رابع نوع من بين السرطانات الأكثر شيوعا التي تصيب الإناث، والسبب الرئيسي للوفاة في العالم تم في الآونة الأخيرة تصنيف أورام المبيض على نطاق واسع إلى مجموعتين متميزتين من النواحي النسيجية والسريرية والجزيئية .النوع الأول الأورام التي تكون فيها الطفرات الجسدية للجينات BRAF وK-ras هي الاكثر شيوعا، والتي قد تكون لها آثار علاجية مهمة. النوع الثاني الأورام التي تظهر مستويات عالية من عدم الاستقرار الجيني مع قليل من الطفرات الشائعة، بالاضافة الى P53، الذي يظهر تغاير في أكثر من 90٪ من الحالات. في هذه الدراسة تم تحليل 58 من سرطان المبيض المشخصة حديثا وذلك للكشف عن البروتين وتواتر الطفرات الجينية للجيني p53 وK-ras في مرضى سرطان المبيض، بالاضافة الى15 عينة من النساء الأصحاء تم استخدامها كمجموعة سيطرة. واستند التحليل على التضخيم باستخدام تقنية تفاعلات السلسلة البوليمريةPCR للاكسونات 5 و 7 من الجين P53 وكودون 12 من K-ras . لم تظهر أيا من عينات السيطرة طفرة في تلك الجينات في حين تم الكشف عن الطفرة في جين p53 في 13(22.4%) من عينات سرطان المبيض، الذي اظهر فروقات معنوية مقارنة مع الاصحاء) p<0.05)). أظهرت النتائج أنه من أصل ثلاثة عشر عينة طافرة، كانت الطفرة في اكسون5 هي الاكثر شيوعا الأكثر شيوعا 10(76.9 %) ثم يليها اكسون7- في 3(23.07%) من الحالات. إحصائيا لا توجد فروقات معنوية عالية في معدلات الطفرة للجين p53 مع عمر المرضى، حالة انقطاع الطمث، انواع الورم النسيجية، ومراحل الورم المختلفة، تم الكشف عن الطفرة في جين K-ras في3(5.17%) من عينات سرطان المبيض، إحصائيا لا توجد فروقات معنوية عالية في معدلات الطفرة للجين K-ras مع عمر المرضى، حالة انقطاع الطمث، انواع الورم النسيجية، والمراحل المختلفة للورم، ولكن كانت العينات الثلاثة الطافرة جميعها ضمن المرحلة الأولى للمرض.من أصل 58 عينة اظهرت عينة واحده فقط طفرة في كلا الجينين. تظهر نتائج الدراسة الحالية أن الطفرات في جينP53 ليست من الأحداث النادرة في أورام المبيض، كما وان الطفرة في جينK-ras قد لا يمكن اعتبارها عاملا في التنبوء والتشخيص لسرطان المبيض.

Keywords

Ovarian tumor --- p53 --- K-ras --- mutations


Article
Design and implementation of a recirculating aquaculture system for research purposes in Marine science center, university of Basrah- IRAQ
تصميم وإنشاء نظام تدوير للاستزراع المائي لأغراض البحث في مركز علوم البحار- جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The design and implementation a recirculating aquaculture system was discussed, which is considered to be the first of its kind at Iraqi universities and research centers that specialize in aquaculture. The system was designed based on standard specifications and built from materials available in local markets. The system consists of 16 fiberglass tanks (each measuring approximately 75×75×45 cm with a capacity of roughly 250 L). We showed that the new system maintained appropriate environmental conditions for aquatic organisms during the trial period. Moreover, this type of rearing system aids in water conservation and keep on controlled experiment condition.

تم تصميم وإنشاء نظام مغلق لتربية الأحياء المائية في مركز علوم البحار- جامعة البصرة- العراق- لأغراض البحث العلمي وهو الأول من نوعه على مستوى الجامعات العراقية والمراكز البحثية المتخصصة في مجال تربية وتكثير الأحياء المائية، لغرض القيام بالدراسات العلمية المرتبطة بالاستزراع المائي بمختلف جوانبها. صمم النظام حسب مواصفات معتمدة عالمياً وباستخدام مواد متوفرة في الأسواق المحلية. يتكون النظام من 16 حوض مصنع من مادة الالياف الزجاجية (الفايبركلاس) بأبعاد 75×75×45 سم وبسعة 250 لتر تقريباً للحوض الواحد. يتميز النظام بقدرته على إدامة الظروف البيئية الملائمة لنمو الأحياء المائية خلال فترة التجربة فضلاً عن تدوير وإعادة إستخدام المياه بعد ترشيحها وتحسين نوعيتها وبذلك يعمل على ترشيد إستهلاك المياه.


Article
Estimation of Manning’s Roughness Coefficient for Tigris River by Using HEC-RAS model
تقدير معامل الخشونة مانينغ لنهر دجلة بأستخدام نموذج هيك-راس

Authors: Mohammed Siwan shamkhi محمد صيوان شمخي --- Zainab Shakir Attab زينب شاكر عطا
Journal: Wasit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة واسط للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 23056932 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 90-97
Publisher: Wassit University جامعة واسط

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Abstract

Tigris River (downstream of the kut barrage reach) there is no study conducted on it to estimate its Manning n value. HEC-RAS was used to analysis study reach and calibrate n value of the study reach .filed data were collected during 2016-2017 (duration of study), eights data sets were observed included stage and discharge measurements. The discharge is controlled by Kut Barrage Operation. The range of water surface elevation is (+10.300 to +12.511) and flow discharge range is (202.7 - 355.280) m3/sec. The range of n value for study reach is (0.021-0.034). The calibration results provided suitable Manning n of 0.026 for downstream of Kut Barrage reach which represent mean value of results.

نهر دجلة (مؤخر سدة الكوت ) لا توجد دراسة أجريت عليه لتقدير قيمة معامل الخشونةmanning n )). وقد تم استخدام نموذج هيك-راس لتحليل مجرى النهر ومعايرة قيمة n لبيانات الدراسة التي قد تم جمعها من القياسات الحقلية خلال 2016-2017 (مدة الدراسة)، قد لوحظت البيانات في ثماني مجموعات. يتم التحكم في التصريف من قبل ادارة سدة الكوت . مدى منسوب الماء هو (+10.300 إلى +12.511) وتصريف الماء هو (202.7 - 355.280)) m3/sec.. مدى قيمة n للدراسة هو (0.021-0.034).. والقيمة السائدة((0,026 الكلمات الدالة :نهر دجلة , مؤخر سدة الكوت , نموذج هيك –راس


Article
prediction Capacity of Euphrates River at Assamawa City
أستيعابية نهر الفرات في مدينة السماوة

Authors: Hussein Shanan. A. AL-Zaidy حسين شنان عبد الحسين الزيدي --- Hayder Abdulameer. K. AL- Thamiry حيدر عبد الامير خضير الثامري
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2020 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 111-122
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The reduction in the rivers capacity is one the most important issue to give the decision maker an idea during the flood season. The study area included the rivers of the Al Atshan, Al Sabeel and Euphrates, which are surveyed with a length of 21, 5 and 20 km respectively. The Euphrates , the Atshan and Al Sabeel rivers were simulated by using HEC-RAS 5.0.3 software to study the real condition within the city of Assamawa. As well as the simulation was implemented by modifying the cross sections of the Euphrates and Al Sabeel rivers to increase their capacity to 1300 and 1200 m3/s respectively which are a flood discharges100 year return periods. The results showed that the maximum discharge capacity under real conditions of Euphrates River is 750 m³/s and both Al Atshan and Al Sabeel arms are 500 m3/s.

أن دراسة استيعابية المجاري المائية او الانهار تعطي تصورا لمتخذ القرار وتمكنه من ادارة الفيضان . وشملت منطقة الدراسة أنهار العطشان والسبيل والفرات التي تم مسحها بمسافة 21 ,5 و20 كم على التوالي. وقد تم محاكاة انهار الفرات والعطشان والسبيل وباستخدام برنامج HEC-RAS بالاصدار 5.0.3 لدراسة الاستيعابية الحالية داخل مدينه السماوه. كذلك تم تنفيذ محاكاة عن طريق توسيع المقاطع العرضية لانهار الفرات والسبيل لزيادة قدرتها الى 1300 و 1200 متر مكعب/ثانيه علي التوالي ، وهي فيضانات لفترات عودة 100 سنه عوده. وأظهرت النتائج ان الاستيعابية القصوى للتصريف في ظل الظروف السائدة في نهر الفرات هو 750 متر مكعب/ثانيه وان كلا من ذراعيه العطشان والسبيل يبلغ 500 متر مكعب/ثانيه.


Article
Detection of Codon 12/13 g.6262G>A Mutation of H-ras Gene in Iraqi Bladder Carcinoma Patients

Author: Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal 1, Amer M. Kraidi 2 and Ahmed A. Suleiman 3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-52
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract: DNA was extracted from blood and urine samples from 45 patients with bladder carcinoma (age 20-87 years) in addition to samples from 25 apparently healthy persons as controls. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to determine genotypes of the H-ras codons12,13 using Msp1 enzyme. The healthy results showed that two fragments (165 bp and 55 bp) were produce from the digestion with the enzyme for H-ras codon 12/13. These results indicated that the PCR amplified region of the codon 12/13 has one restriction site for the enzyme Msp1. The molecular analysis of the patient samples revealed that among 45 patients included in this study, 28 patients (62.2%) were with normal pattern (165 bp and 55 bp) and 17 patients (37.8%) were homozygous mutants (g.6262G>A). The frequency of g.6262 C>G mutation in patients was significantly higher than in apparently healthy subjects (37.3% versus 0%, OR= 0.033; X2=0.966*, P<0.01).

Keywords

Bladder carcinoma --- H-ras --- MSP1 --- RFLP --- g.6262G>A

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