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Article
down -regulation of progesterone hormone in recurrent pregnancy loss

Authors: Amal Hussain Salman*3 (PhD Microbiology) --- Asmaa’ Baqer Al-Obaidi*2 --- Alaa Gani Hussain*1 (FICMS) (MSc Microbiology)
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Progesterone hormone is important in the preparation for and in maintaining of pregnancythrough different mechanisms but mainly by shifting the balance from Th1 to Th2 mediatedimmunity to avoid rejection of the fetus; in this study we tried to find out whether there is arelation between the level of the expression of progesterone and its stimulant HCG hormone andrecurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).Patients and Methods:Immunohistochemistry technique was performed to detect and determine the expression ofprogesterone and HCG hormones using paraffin embedded sections of curate samples obtainedfrom 40 women, who where divided into three groups: 24 women with RPL, 10 women withabortion for the first time, and 6 women with induced abortion.Fac Med Baghdad200Results:The levels of the expression of both progesterone and HCG hormones were found to besignificantly down-regulated in the first group as compared with the second group (p=0.00), andthe third group (p=0.00), with a highly significant positive correlation between these twoparameters (r=0.866, p<0.01).Conclusion:Low expression of progesterone in women with RPL could raise the possibility ofunderlying immuno-endocrine pathology responsible for this recurrent loss due to the importantrole of progesterone as an immunosuppressive hormone help in maintaining pregnancy.Key wards: Progesterone, HCG, RPL

Keywords

Progesterone --- HCG --- RPL.


Article
High Expression of P53 protein in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Could Play a Role in the Pathology!!

Authors: Thanaa Rasheed ثناء رشيد --- Asmaa’ B. Al-Obaidi اسماء العبيدي --- Nidhal Abdul-Mohaymen نضال عبد المهيمن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 194-197
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Recent data provide evidence that p53 plays a critical role in mediating pregnancy by regulating steroid hormone activation
Objective: localization of semi quantitation tof por protein at the materno-fetal interface, in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of p53 protein using paraffin embedded sections of curate samples obtained from 40 women, who where divided into three groups: 24 women with RPL, 10 women with abortion for the first time, and 6 women with induced abortion.
Results: The mean value of the expression of p53 protein in the RPL group was (65.8±2.16), which is significantly higher than that of the second group (48.0±2.81), and the third group (50.0±4.66), (p=0.000).
Conclusion: High expression of p53 protein in women with RPL may have a role in accelerating placental apoptosis leading to failure of pregnancy.


Article
INCREASED EXPRESSION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS AT THE MATERNO-FETAL INTERFACE IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT PREGNENCY LOSS
ارتفاع نسبة التعبير الموضعي لمتلقيات الايستروجين في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر

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Abstract

Background: Estrogen hormone has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different genital tract pathologies and in counteracting the progress of normal pregnancy.Objective: Localization and semi-quantization of estrogen receptors at the materno-fetal interface in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of estrogen receptors using paraffin embedded sections of curate samples obtained from 40 women, who where divided into three groups: 24 women with RPL, 10 women with abortion for the first time, and 6 women with induced abortion.Results: The mean value of the expression of estrogen receptors was (71.2 ± 2.3), which is significantly higher than that of the second group (52.2 ± 3.2), and the third group (43.7 ± 4.2), (p=0.001).Conclusion: High expression of estrogen receptors in women with RPL may give a clue to its prominent role in the pathology of pregnancy loss. Key wards: Estrogen receptor, RPL.

خلفية الدراسة: اوجدت الدراسات علاقة اعتراضية لهرمون الايستروجين واستمرارية الحمل بصورة طبيعية.هدف الدراسة: التحديد الموضعي وتقييم متلقيات الايستروجين في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر.المرضى وطريقة الدراسة: استخدمت تقنية التصبيغ الكميائي النسيجي المناعي لمتلقيات الايستروجين في عينات الجرف الرحمي والتي تم الحصول عليها من 40 امراة تم تقسيمهن الى ثلاثة مجاميع: 24 امراة حصل لها فقدان حمل متكرر، 10 نساء حصل لهن اجهاض تلقائي للمرة الأولى، و ستة نساء أجري لهن عملية انهاء حمل علاجي.النتائــج: كانت مستويات التعبير الموضعي لمتلقيات الايستروجين في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر ذات زيادة ملحوظة مقارنة مع المجموعتين الثانية والثالثة (p=0.001) .الاستنتاج: ان ارتفاع نسبة التعبير الموضعي لمتلقيات الايستروجين في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر قد يدل على دورها المهم والفعال في مرضية فقدان الحمل.مفتاح الكلمات: متلقيات الايستروجين, الاجهاض المتكرر


Article
THE POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF BCL-2 IN RECURRENT ABORTION
الدور المحتمل لبروتين (BCL-2) في الحماية من الإجهاض المتكرر

Author: Haider Sabah Kadhim حيدر صباح كاظم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2010 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 49-54
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Recurrent abortion is a worldwide problem, with undefined causes. Apoptosis could play a major role in the process.Objective: Detect the expression of Bcl-2 protein at the materno-fetal interface in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of Bcl-2 protein using paraffin embedded sections of curate samples obtained from 40 women divided into three groups: 24 women with recurrent abortion, 10 women with abortion for the first time, and 6 women with induced abortion.Results: The mean value of the expression of Bcl-2 protein was (57.9± 1.4), which is significantly higher than that of the second group (39± 1.9), and the third group (47.5± 2.4).Conclusion: High expression of Bcl-2 protein in women with recurrent abortion may have a protective role in preventing placental apoptosis that leads to failure of pregnancy. Keywords: Bcl-2, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

خلفية الدراسة: الإجهاض المتكرر عند النساء الحوامل يعتبر معضلة طبية في كل إنحاء العالم. هدف الدراسة: التحديد الموضعي وتقييم بروتين (BCL-2) في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر.المرضى وطريقة الدراسة: استخدمت تقنية التصبيغ الكيميائي النسيجي المناعي لبروتين Bcl-2 في عينات الجرف الرحمي والتي تم الحصول عليها من 40 امرأة تم تقسيمهن إلى ثلاث مجاميع:المجموعة A وتشمل 24 امرأة حصل لها فقدان حمل متكرر،المجموعة B وتشمل 10 نساء حصل لهن إجهاض تلقائي للمرة الأولى، والمجموعة C وتشمل ستة نساء أجري لهن عملية إنهاء حمل علاجي.النتائج: أظهرت النتائج إن مستويات التعبير الموضعي بروتين (BCL-2) في حالات فقدان الحمل المتكرر ذات زيادة ملحوظة مقارنة مع المجموعتين الثانية والثالثة.الاستنتاج: إن ارتفاع نسبة التعبير الموضعي لبروتين (BCL-2) قد يلعب دور مهم في الحماية من موت الخلايا المبرمج في الرحم مما يؤدي إلى فشل الحمل.مفتاح الكلمات: بروتين BCL-2, الإجهاض المتكرر


Article
Routing with Energy Threshold for WSN-IoT Based on RPL Protocol

Authors: Abdulkareem Abdulrahman Kadhim --- Sarah Ammar Rafea
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2019 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-81
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) enables things to have connectivity throughthe internet. The number of things is growing fast and has to be uniquelyidentified through the Internet to communicate with other things. In WirelessSensor Networks (WSNs) each node can be considered as a thing. WSN noderesources are very limited due to the need to communicate using low power andusually through unreliable links. Such limitations need an energy efficientrouting protocol. WSN is considered as a type of Low power and LossyNetwork (LLN). The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL)is being adopted for LLN and has been standardized to enable connectivity ofWSN over IoT. RPL constricted a topology similar to tree topology. Nodes inRPL optimized its path using an objective function (OF). OF depends ondifferent node/link metrics in the optimization process. In this paper, an EnergyThreshold RPL (ETRPL) protocol is proposed. ETRPL depends on a newobjective function to enhance energy consumption of RPL protocol by takinginto account the remaining energy of the preferred parent node. ETRPL isimplemented using Cooja simulator. The results show that ETRPL provides anincrease in the remaining energy of at least 87.4% for a small area with highnumber of nodes. ETRPL also performed better with regards to Time Delay,Packet Reception Ratio, and the number of dead nodes in a small area. For alarge area, the performance is not encouraging. Thus the proposed ETRPLprotocol is useful for IoT networks with relatively small areas.

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