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Article
Study of in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging activity for radioprotection of cerium oxide nanoparticles
دراسة فعالية كسح الجذور الحرة مختبريا والحماية الاشعاعية لجسيمات اوكسيد السيريوم النانوية

Authors: Asia H. Al-Mashhadani اسيا حميد حمد --- Rana M. Yas رنا محي ياس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 35 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Nanoceria have shown numerous unique characteristics, such as biocompatibility and are excellent agents for biological applications. The aim of this study is to investigate cerium oxide nanoparticles for 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and their ability to offer protection against ionizing radiation. In vitro antioxidant activity study of nanoceria particles has shown good free radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical assayed within a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.05 g/l, at higher concentrations of nanoparticles showed reverse trend in absorbance and inhibition indicating this finite rang of concentration is suitable for scavenging free radicals, also nanoparticles were found to have significant antioxidant capacity and thus can be used as potential radical scavenger against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals. The results of histopathological examination showed effectiveness of CeO2 nanoparticles in radioprotection of skin cells in animal models during radiation exposure.

قد أظهرت جسيمات اوكسيد السيريوم النانوية (CeO2 NPs) العديد من الخصائص الفريدة، مثل التوافق البايولوجي وعوامل ممتازة للتطبيقات البيولوجية. والهدف من هذه الدراسة هو اختبارفعالية جزيئات أكسيد السيريوم لكسح الجذور الحرة2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) وقدرتها على توفير الحماية ضد الإشعاع المؤين. أظهرت الدراسة فعالية مضادات الأكسدة في المختبر ان الجسيمات nanoceria لها نشاط كسح جيد للجذور الحرةDPPH ضمن مدى التركيز 0.01 الى 0.05 غم/لترالذي كان مناسبا بينما في التراكيز الاعلى للجسيمات النانوية أظهرت التأثير العكسي في الامتصاصية والتثبيط. وكذلك وجد أن الجسيمات النانوية لديها القدرة الهامة في مضادات للأكسدة، وبالتالي يمكن استخدامها بوصفها كاسحات للجذور الحرة التي سببت الأضرار الوخيمة. وأظهرت نتائج فحص الأنسجة (histopathological) فعالية النانوية CeO2 في الحماية الاشعاعية لخلايا الجلد في النماذج الحيوانية خلال التعرض للإشعاع.


Article
Assessment of entrance skin doses and radiation protection for pediatric X-ray examination
تقييم جرعات الجلد المدخل والحماية من الإشعاع لفحص الأشعة السينية للأطفال

Authors: Runak Tahir Ali --- Rozhan Ahmad Hamad Saeed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1878-1883
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Entrance skin dose is the value of the radiation absorbed dose by the skin where the X-ray beam enters the patients. Assessment of entrance skin doses, specifically for pediatric radiology, is very crucial as the children are dividing cells rapidly and are more sensitive to radiation than adults. Their cells can be easily damaged by excessive radiation dose. This study is considered as an attempt to evaluate the effects of diagnostic X-ray on pediatric patients throughout measuring the entrance skin doses and hematological parameters for pediatric patients. Ways of protecting themselves from X-ray hazards is also included.Methods: A case-control study was used to collecting the data for 70 pediatric patients from October 2015 to August 2016 at Radiology Departments of five governmental hospitals throughout Hawler city the capital of Kurdistan Region- Iraq. Pediatric patients aged between (1 day - 6 years) they were divided into case and control group by which 40 of them had got diagnostic X-ray examination as (case group) and 30 of them had not had past history of taking X-rays as (control group). Entrance skin dose was measured indirectly via parameters such as a focus on skin distance, tube voltage (KV) and tube current (mAs) in an arithmetical equation.Results: High level of entrance skin doses were received by pediatric patients in this study. Also, it was found that diagnostic X-ray has effects on pediatrics white blood cells and platelets with the significant difference between case and control group and p-values (< 0.001 and 0.006) respectively.Conclusion: Entrance skin doses levels received by pediatric patients in this study was higher than other studies level and then pediatric patients will be at risk if they are exposed to unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. It is important to focus on improving pediatric radiography for reducing the hazards of X-ray radiation on pediatric patients.


Article
Radiation protection evaluation from radio diagnostic departments in Erbil hospitals
تقييم الحماية من الإشعاع من أقسام التشخيص الشعاعي في مستشفيات أربيل

Authors: Sameeah Abdulrahman Rashid --- Runak Taher Ali --- Saeed Nadhim Younis
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 625-631
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Radiation is used in some aspects of medicine, researches and in industries. These radiation applications are useful to society. However radiation can also have detrimental effects. It was important to establish rules and resolutions governing these uses to balance the positive against the negative effects. Dose limits have been established for groups who use radiation in their work as well as for population at large. The rules used in most countries have been worked out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation protective measures in different diagnostic radiological departments in Erbil hospitals.Methods: Data on the number of diagnostic procedures using x-ray examinations in five hospitals were collected. The palm RAD 907 Nuclear Radiation Meter and Contamination Monitor CoMo 170 were used to measure radiation leakage. Questionnaire was also used to elicit information from the most senior personnel of the hospital.Results: The finding showed that the facilities for safety were grossly inadequate and the dose rates of 16.4μSv/hr and 20μSv/hr were recorded at places for paramedics and technician room respectively. Dose rate in front of window of the monitor room was 113μSv/hr and in the reception was 20μSv/hr indicating higher health risk to the paramedic, visitors and personnel at the hospital.Conclusion: Radiation protection facilities in the radiological departments of Erbil hospitals are in general poor including both public & private sectors indicating high health risk to the paramedics, visitors and personnel at the hospitals.


Article
Evaluation of Ionizing Radiation Protection among Radiation Workers in X-ray departments in Erbil City
دراسة الوقاية من الاشعاعات المؤينة بين العاملين في اقسام الاشعة السينية في مستشفيات اربيل – العراق

Authors: Runak T.Ali روناك طارق علي --- Safa M. Hameed د. صفاء مصطفى حامد --- Qasim A. Ali د.قاسم احمد علي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2016 Volume: 58 Issue: 3 Pages: 208--212
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Ionizing radiations are hazardous agents in the workplace, since all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injury that is incurable. Therefore, protection against ionizing radiation exposure can play an important role in the health of workers.Objectives: is to evaluate the application of radiation protection among radiation workers at X-ray department in Erbil hospitals.Patients and methods: Six hospitals (General and Private) were visited. Samples of 110 were randomly selected among 135 radiation workers, 47 (42.3%) female and 63 (57.3%) male Data was collected through structured questionnaires. The surveyed data was coded and analyzed by using MS Excel software, and SPSS 18 for analysis. Analysis was performed by means of frequency distributions and cross tabulations.Results: The results showed that there are majority of the workers 51 (46.4%) aged between 21 - 30 years, and Diploma holders 68 (61.8%). Only 49 (44.5%) undergone primary examination while 47 (42.7%) never done periodical examination. According to international commotion of radiation protection regulation of radiation protection, it is mandatory for radiation workers to wear personal detective devices during work. But a large numbers 89 (80.9%) have not supplied with such devices. The study also revealed that the majority of workers were engaged in work beyond 40 hours per week. Calibration of the X-rays machine and radiation survey of the work place have not been regularly done. Only 30 of the sample have no awareness and knowledge about the ionizing radiation, while 95 (86.4%) have no healthy advice.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the level of workers education must be increased and short courses be implemented such as dosimetery and radiation protection performance.Keywords: Radiation workers, Radiographers, Radiation protection.

المقدمة: يعتبر العمل في جميع مجالات واشكال الإشعاعات المؤينة من العوامل الخطرة التي قد تسبب نوع من التاثيرات والإصابات التي تكون غير قابلة للشفاء لذلك فان تطبيق الوقاية من التعرض للإشعاع المؤين يمكن أن يلعب دورا هاما في صحة العمال . فالهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم تطبيق الوقاية من الإشعاع المؤين بين العاملين في قسم الأشعة السينية في مستشفيات أربيل .طريقة العمل: تمت زيارة ست مستشفيات ( عامة و خاصة ) ووزعت اوراق الاستبيان عشوائيا على العاملين في اقسام الاشعة حيث تم جمع 110 عينة (عامل) من بين 135 عامل . بعد جمع البيانات جرى ترميز البيانات التي شملتها الدراسة ، وادخلت البيانات في برنامج مايكروسوفت إكسل . وتم تحليلها بواسطة برنامج التوزيع والعرض ألجدولي (ٍSPSS).النتائج: أظهرت النتائج مايلي:- هناك 47 ( 42.3 ٪ ) من الإناث و 63 ( 57.3 ٪ ) من الذكور . و الذين تتراوح أعمارهم غالبيتهم بين 21 - 30 عاما 51 ( 46.4 ٪ )، و حاملي الدبلوم 68 ( 61.8 ٪ ) . وقد خضع 49 ( 44.5 ٪ ) فقط للفحص الأولي - هناك 47 ( 42.7 ٪ ) منهم لم يجر الفحص الدوري . وهذا منافي لتعليمات اللجنة الدولية للوقاية من الاشعاع والتي تلزم العاملين في مجال الإشعاع على ارتداء الأجهزة الشخصية لقياس مستوى التعرض للاشعاع أثناء العمل ولكن الغالبية العظمى 89 ( 80.9 ٪ ) لم يتم توفير هذه الأجهزة لهم. - كشفت الدراسة أيضا أن الغالبية العظمى من العاملين في المجال الإشعاعي منخرطون في العمل اكثر من ( 40) ساعة في الأسبوع ، وان مكان العمل لم يتم فيه معايرة اجهزة الأشعة السينية والمسح الاشعاعي لمكان العمل بشكل منتظم . - كشفت الدراسة ان (30 %) من العينة ليس لديهم وعي و معرفة حول الإشعاعات المؤينة بينما 95 ( 86.4 ٪ ) يقولون ليس لديهم مسؤول فيزيائي صحي.التوصيات: يقترح الباحثون زيادة مستوى الثقافة الاشعاعية للعمال مع تنفيذ دورات قصيرة عن الجرعات الاشعاعية والوقاية من الاشعاع.مفتاح الكلمات: التأين الاشعاعى للمصورو المصورالشعاعى و الوقاية من الاشعاع.

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