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Article
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Two New Analogues of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)D-alanine8 and D-alanine10

Author: Kawkab Y. Saour كوكب ساعور
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2009 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

So far synthesis of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogues reported in the literature has clarified some aspects of structural activity of the naturally released GnRH. As a part of continuing efforts for further understanding of this relationship, the present investigation was undertaken which involved synthesis and biological evaluation of two GnRH analogues, firstly, by replacement of the amino acid L-Argenine in the 8th position at the backbone structure of the natural hormone by the amino acid D-Alanine; and secondly, by replacement of the amino acid L-Glycine in the 10th position by D-Alanine also at the backbone structure of the nature hormone, to obtain the following analogues respectively:
PGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-DAla-Pro-Gly-NH2 (Analogue I: D-Alanine8 GnRH),
PGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-DAla-NH2 (Analogue II: D-Alanine10 GnRH), which were synthesized by applying conventional solution method. Peptides were purified by several recrystallization using appropriate solvent and proved to be homogenous. Conformity of the synthetic procedure was achieved by applying different physico-chemical analyses including Melting Point (mp), Thin Layer Chromatography (Tlc.), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Elemental Analysis (CHN), Amino Acid Analysis (AAA), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H1NMR).Preliminary biological activity of the two analogues was determined by testing their effects of parenteral administration on ascorbic acid depletion from the ovary of pseudopregnant mice and compared with that of natural GnRH hormone. Analogue II showed significant ascorbic acid depletion as compared to the native hormone while the percentage in ascorbic acid depletion after administration of analogue I were not significant as compared to the native hormone.

المنشورة في الأدبيات العالمية (GnRH) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone لقد كشفت مماثلات هورمون بعضا من جوانب العلاقة للفعالية الحيوية والبنية الجزيئية للهورمون الطبيعية، وكجزء من مساعينا بهذا الاتجاه والرامية الى الاستزادة من التفهم الأعمق والأشمل لهده العلاقة فقد تم تناول هذه الدراسة والتي تشمل تحضير مماثلين للهورمون الطبيعي وذلك عن طريق:- L-Arginine بدلاً من الحامض الأميني 8 في الموقع D-Alanine 1- احلال الحامض الأميني L-Glycine بدلا من الحاض الأميني10في الموقع D-Alanine2- احلال الحامض الأميني على التوالي وكما يلي:-pGlu His Trp Ser Tyr Gly Leu Dala Pro Gly-NH2 (Analogue I: D-Alanine8 GnRH)pGlu His Trp Ser Tyr Gly Leu LArg Pro DAla-NH2 (Analogue II: D-Alanine10 GnRH)والتي خلقت باستخدام طرق المحلول المعهودة وتم تنقية المماثلات المحضرة عن طريق اعادة البلورة باستخدام مذيبات ملائمة. أما التقنيات الفيزياوية والكيمياوية التي الستخدمت بهدف التوصل للخواص المميزة للمماثلات المحضرة فقد كانت كروماتوكرافيا الطبقة الرقيقة، قياس درجة الانصار، مطياف الأشعة تحت الحمراء، الاستدارة البصرية تحليل العناصر ومن ثم تحليل الحوامض الأمينية ومطياف الرنين النووي المغناطيسي. تم اجراء التقييم البايولوجي البدائي حيث استند على تقدير تأثير الهورمون المصنع على معدل انخفاض تركيز حامض الاسكوربيك في مبايض الفئران كاذبة الحمل. لقد أدى حقن المماثلين المحضرين الى حصول انخفاض معنوي للمماثل (II) في معدل تركيز حامض الأسكوربيك بينما أظهر المماثل الأول انخفاض في معدل تركيز حامض الأسكوربيك في المبايض نسبة للفعالية البايويولوجية القياسية للهورمون الطبيعي.


Article
Synthesis of Biocompatible Polymer Blend for Drug Delivery in Biomedical Applications

Authors: Shemaa Abdul Sattar Saood --- Ghassan M. Sulaiman
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 6 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 842-851
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Chrysin (CH) and Caffeic acid (CA) loaded polymer films are designed as antibacterial polymer films with the advantages of a sustained release. Polymer blend film was prepared by solution casting method of (polyvinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend with Poly (vinylpyrrolidone) PVP and glycerine (GL) as plasticizer in addition to glutaraldehydeas cross linker. The surface characteristics of film were assessed by scanning electron microscopy .Furthermore, the swelling behavior was followed in DSMO and PBS. PVA/PVP films were loaded with 1, 10 and 50% for either CH or CA. Release kinetics was followed for 24 hr in PBS at 37◦C. The cumulative amount released from the polymeric PVA/PVP film loaded with 1, 10 and 50% of CH over the entire period 24 h was found to be 0.087, 0.127 and 0.146 gm, respectively .While the cumulative amount of CA released in same condition was found to be 0.875, 0.766 and 1.13 gm respectively. Antibacterial activity for both CH and CA released from the film was tested against two type of bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureuas and Escherichia coli.


Article
Shear bond strength of fluoride release core materials to dentine

Authors: Munther N KAZANJI --- Ammar KH AL-NOORI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-60
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aims of this study were to determine the mean shear bond strength of fast setting fluoride releasing core materials (vitremer core build up restorative system,compoglass F resin modified glass ionomer,Tetricceram composite and Definite composite) to dentin and the effect of one hour, 24 hour, and one week storage on mean shear bond strength. One hundred thirty molar teeth Were mounted in a plastic cylinder using self-curing resin, then the teeth were prepared to expose flat superficial dentinal surfaces. Each material was mixed according to the manufacturer ' s instruction ' s. A prefabricated nylon mold was applied to the exposed denton, filled with the core material, then light cured and stored in distilled water at 37°C for one hour, 24 hours and one week.The 24 hours and one week storage groups were thermocycled(5°C to 55°C) for 100 cycles before shearing, The specimen were tested with universal compression machine and the mode of failure was observed. The result showed that Vitrether core build up exhibited the greatest bond strength followed by compoglass F and then Tetrie Composite, Definite showed the lowest for all storage time.The differences among time groups were not statistically significant except for vitremer core build up and compoglass F which showed an improvement after 24 hour storage.The adhesive mode of failure revealed a combination of cohesive adhesive failure and failure for vitremer core build up and compoglass F and adhesive failure for Tetricceram and Definite composite resin


Article
Investigation the polymorphism of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in Iraq sheep
التحري عن تغايرات الوراثية لمستقبلات جين هرمون المحفز غدد القند للاغنام العراقية

Author: Hayder Abdul-Kareem Hasan AL-Mutar حيدر عبد الكريم حسن المطر
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2017 Volume: 41 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-144
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, the investigation includes the estrus activity after synchronization of estrus by using 20 mg impregnated sponges with Medroxy Progesterone Acetate for 12 days with 400 IU I/M injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin 24 hrs. before sponges withdrawal. All 30 Iraqi sheep's showed (100%) estrus after sponge withdrawal. Twin percentage 40% while single percentage 60%. The polymorphisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene were analyzed as a genetic marker in 30 Iraqi sheep's. Two noticed genotypes (GA and GT), and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the exon2 region of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene as genetic marker and correlated with high litter size after hormonal super ovulation response in sheep. The frequencies of alleles G,A and G,T in Iraqi ovine breeds were 0.50 and 0.50, respectively the outcomes revealed that GA, GT genotype was related with better litter-size in Iraqi ovine breeds. Therefore, these outcomes recommend that gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene is a powerful candidate gene that impacts litter-size in sheep.

تضمنت الدراسة أستحداث الشبق باستعمال الإسفنجات المشبعة بـ 20 ملغم من (ميدروكسي بروجسترون اسيتيت) لمدة 11 يوماً مع حقن (500 وحدة دولية) في العضل من هرمون المشيمة للفرس الحامل. أظهرت جميع الاغنام (30) الشبق (100٪) بعد سحب الاسفنجات. وكانت نسبة ولادة التوائم 40% والولادة المفردة 60%. تم تحليل الأشكال من مستقبلات هرمون المحفز لغدد القند كعلامة وراثية في 30 من الأغنام العراقية ولحظ اثنين من التراكيب الوراثية GA) و (GT، القواعد النيتروجينية المنفردة في المنطقة المعبرة الثانية من جين مستقبل هرمون المحفزللغدد التناسلية وأستعمال هذا الجين كعلامة وراثية وربطه بعدد المواليد مقارنة مع مستوى الاستجابة لفرط الاباضة باستعمال العلاجات الهرمونية في الاغنام العراقية. كانت تغايرات الأليلات G,A وG,T في سلالات الأغنام العراقية 0.50 و 0.50 على التوالي. وبينت النتائج الوراثية أن GAوGT لهما علاقة مع نسبة الولادات في سلالات الأغنام العراقية. وبالتالي، فان هذه النتائج بينت إن جينات مستقبل هرمون المحفز للغدد التناسلية هي مرشحة في نسبة ولادات الأغنام.

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