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The Excess of Letters with Ibin – Saedaho in the Book of The Meanings of Qur'an : The Excess of Al-Alaph and Al-Noon - Specimen -
زيادة الحروف عند ابن سيده في كتابه (المحكم والمحيط الأعظم) الألف والنون – إنموذجاً –

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Abstract

Knowing the excess letters in Arabic language is considered the main branch of the morphological researches in studying the language . These letters include the letters of assets ( Al-ASwl ) which form the structure of the word . They seem as a part of it and perform a role in completing the meaning as well as the role of the other letters of assets ( Al-Aswl ) , therefore the excess of letters is accepted with the original in the case of derivation to complete the meaning and refer to it . For this precise and accurate view of the rules of the morphological subject in the excess letters in the constructing of Arabic speech and connect it with a large required significance ( the meaning ) , the study of Ibin-Saedaho is distinguished of studying this pattern of research and it mostly received his instructions for these letters and their analysis from the owners of meanings . His comments on their sayings came in agreement – mostly- and supported them with proving evidence .

إنَّ معرفة الحروف الزوائد في العربية تشكل عصب المباحث الصرفية في دراسة اللغة، وتشاكل تلك الحروف الحروف الأُصول في تشكيل بنية اللفظة، حتى تبدو كالجزء منها، وتؤدي دورًا في استيفاء المعنى دور بقية الحروف الأصول، لذا تحملوا في تبقية الزائد مع الأصل في حال الاشتقاق توفية للمعنى ودلالة عليه . ولهذه النظرة الفاحصة الدقيقة لأصول المادة الصرفية في الحروف الزوائد في بناء الكلم العربي وربطها بدلالة أكبر مطلوبة ( المعنى )، تميزت دراسة ابن سيده لهذا النمط من البحث، وهو يستمد – غالبًا – توجيهاته لتلك الحروف وتحليلها من أصحاب المعاني، فتأتي تعليقاته على أقوالهم بالموافقة – غالبًا – ودعمها بدليل يثبتها .


Article
Alcoholism among male patients attending emergency units, Baghdad, Iraq

Author: Mushtaq T. Hashism
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 416-418
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The problem of excessive alcohol consumption is a major cause of public health concern in most countries of the world today. Royal Colleges of Physicians and Psychiatrists recommended that every inpatient should be screened with a questionnaire for alcohol related problems. Therefore, this work was carried out to report on alcoholism in the emergency unit in two general hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq.
Methods: The study was carried out in Al-Sader general hospital (Al-Sader city, Baghdad) and Baghdad teaching hospital (Baghdad) for the period 1st July 2008 to 1st May 2009. Data collection was two days per week. Version of 25 items Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and semi-structured schedule based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for alcohol dependence were used. Males aged 16 – 70 years attended emergency units were included in the study.
Results: There were 11% had alcoholism. Alcoholism was significantly associated with age > 40 years, married, low educated and employed (p= 0.02, 0.002, 0.03, respectively). Alcohol dependence was significantly associated with younger age (< 40 years), single, low educated, early onset of drinking (< 30 years) and positive family history of alcoholism (p=0.006, 0.004, 0.004, 0.004, 0.005, respectively). Sensitivity and positivity of MAST were 86.7% and 60.7%, respectively.Conclusion:


Article
Fictional Dialogues Reported by BenjaminIn Faulkner's The Sound and The Fury: A Taxonomical Stylistic Study
حوارات خيالية لفوكنربنجامين الصخب والعنف :دراسة اسلوبيية تصنيفية

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Abstract

The dialogues reported by Benjaruin, the mentally-retarded narrator of the first section in Faulkner's the sound and the Fury draw attention as to their structuring patterns. Thus they are analyzed according to a repartee taxonomy proposed and elaborated on by Robert F. Long acre (1996).The taxonomy outlines many types of dialogue paragraphs including simple complex abeyance caution/stimulus-response and compound. Upon applying the taxonomy to Ben's dialogues, results crop up supporting the exactness and precision of Ben's reports. Handicapped himself and unable to speak ,Ben shows mastery over the task of the adequate reporting of dialogues he happens to overhear involuntarily. The dialogues filtered through his damaged consciousness are copied with nether modification nor distortion. The detailed analysis of the internal structure of sample dialogues displays the variety and complexity of the dialogues reported. An array of dialogue types and almost all sub-branches appear in the text. The minute analysis strikes one for the prevalence of compound dialogues where Ben could handle long stretches of speech with many speakers conversing with each other and on various topics. Ben asserts himself as the objective narrator who records machine like and furtively what is said before him without any intrusion on his part

تسترعي الحوارات والأحاديث التي ينقلها بينجامين كومبسون الراوي المتخلف عقلياً في القسم الأول من رواية وليام فولكنر "الصخب والعنف" الكثير من الاهتمام فيما يتعلق بأنماطها التركيبية. ولهذا تسعى الدراسة الحالية الى البحث في أنماط تلك الحوارات وفق أنموذجاً تحليلياً اقترحه روبرت لونغكر عام 1996. يصنف هذا النموذج الحوار بشكل رئيسي إلى بسيط ومعقد ومركب وتنفيذي وغيرها. وبعد تطبيق النموذج، جاءت النتائج لتبرهن على دقة وأمانة نقل بينجامين معاق عقلياً وهو أبكم للحوارات التي حدث أن استمع لها سواء بارادته أم بغيرها. ورغم ان بينجامين معاق عقلياً ولغوياً، فقد أظهر اتقاناً في تسجيل الحوارات التي حدث أن سمعها عرضياً إذ لم تتعرض أي منها إلى أي ضرر أو تحريف أو تعديل بعدما تمت معالجتها وحفظها في عقل معتوه مثل بينجامين. بل على العكس من ذلك، أظهر التحليل الدقيق لتلك الحوارات قدرة بينجامين على التعامل مع ومعالجة حوارات وأحاديث في غاية الطول والتعقيد. فبينجامين كراوي للجزء الأول نقل كما لو كان جهاز تسجيل مسترجعته ذاكرته التي لا تشوبها شائبة مما يدل ويؤكد على ان فولكنر قد صمم هذه الشخصية ووظفها لخدمة أغراض سردية ونصية.


Article
THIRTY TWO ALGAE NEW RECORDS REPORTED IN PONDS AT GWER SUB-DISTRICT, ERBIL -KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ
تسجيل اثنان وثلاثون نوعا جديدا" من الطحالب في برك قصبة الكوير في محافظة اربيل/ اقليم كوردستان العراق

Authors: Farhad Hasan Aziz فرهاد حسن عزيز --- Balqis Haji Rasoul بلقيس حاجي رسول
Journal: Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum مجلة متحف التاريخ الطبيعي العراقي ISSN: Print ISSN: 10178678, Online ISSN: 23119799 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One of the main types of microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems is algae including phytoplanktons which are microscopic photosynthetic organisms some of them extremely resistance to unsuitable environmental condition and widely distributed such as Cyanophyta, Algae are living as epipelic, epilithic, epiphytic and free-floating in open or surface waters, they are found in unicellular, colonial, coenobic and filamentous forms (Banyasz, 2011). In Iraqi Kurdistan Region a phycolimnological study were carried out from 1978 to 2012 a total of (1341) species were recorded in algal check list in Kurdistan ( Aziz, 2011). While the first paper was that of Maulood and Hinton (1978), and the last one more recently have done (Abdulwahid, 2012; Aziz, 2014 and Aziz et al., 2014). The aim of the present work is algal study in parallel with same physical and chemical water parameters of such water ponds to increasing the knowledge about algal distribution and abundance in Iraqi Kurdistan region.

تم اجراء هذا البحث اعتبارا من شهر التشرين الثاني التشرين الاول 2012 في ستة برك مائية صغيرة شبه مالحة من قصبة الكوير وهو اول بحث يجري في المنطقة. حيث تم تسجيل اثنان و ثلاثون (32) نوعا مع جنسين من الطحالب لاول مرة في العراق. وان اغلبية الطحالب الجديدة المسجلة تعود الى الطحالب الخضراء المزرقة واليوغلينة والكريباتية و الصفراء والخضراء. فيما يخص الدايتومات فأنها تعود الى الطحالب غير الدائرية.


Article
Management of Obstractive Jaundice Due to Common Bile Duct Stone in Baghdad Teaching Hospital
علاج اليرقان الانسدادي الناتج عن حصاة القناة الصفراوية المشتركة في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي

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Background: the most common cause of obstructive jaundice is CBD stones, and these can produce significant morbidity and mortality. The management of the obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones is in evolution; several methods of investigations and treatment have been introduced, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages.Objective: to study and evaluate the management of obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones in Baghdad teaching hospital.Patients and methods: a prospective study of 111 patients with clinical, laboratory, and imaging features suggestive of obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones who were managed in Baghdad teaching hospital over the period from January 2011 to November 2011; other 14 patients with obstructive jaundice due to other causes were excluded. . All patients were symptomatic and had abnormal liver function tests. Transabdominal US was done for all of them, MRCP for 26 patients, and EUS for 9 patients. Four patients had primary stones, 95 patients had secondary stones, 9 patients had retained stones and 3 patients had Mirizzi syndrome.Those patients were subjected to ERCP both to prove the diagnosis and extract the CBD stones. Only three patients sent directly for surgical treatment because they were diagnosed as Mirizzi syndrome. Surgical treatment also was offered for those patients in whom endoscopic management failed. Results: from the 125 patients presented with obstructive jaundice included in this study 14 patients were found to have a periampullary lesions, and they were excluded from the study, so the total number of the patients was 111; 46 males and 65 females Endoscopic management was done for 108 patients with success rate of 90%. Surgical treatment was required in 13 patients, 10 of them following failure of ERCP and the other 3 patients were those with Mirizzi syndrome. The most common complication of ERCP was acute pancreatitis and the most common cause of failure to extract the stones was the size of stone (more than 15mm) Conclusions: Endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered the orthodox treatment of CBD stones. Large and multiple CBD stones are the most common causes of failure of endoscopic extraction and indication for surgical treatment. There was higher incidence of retained CBD stones in our study than what was reported in western countries, because there is no intraoperative screening to avoid missing CBD stones in our hospital.Key wards: CBD stones, endoscopic management, surgical intervention

خلفيه الموضوع: اكثر اسباب اليرقان الانسدادي هو حصا القناه الصفراء,وهذا يمكن ان يولد مضاعفاه ووفياه مهمه.معالجه اليرقان الانسدادي الناتج من حصاه ه قناه الصفراء في تطور,عده طرق تشخيصيه وعلاجيه ادخلت في هذا الموضوع وكل منها له فوائده ومضاره.هدف الدراسه:لغرض دراسه وتقييم معالجه اليرقان الانسدادي الناتج عن حصاه القناه الصفراء في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي.المرضى والوسائط :دراسه مستقبليه مكونه من 111 مريض لديهم اعراض سريريه ونتائج مختبريه وصوريه تقترح وجود يرقان انسدادي ناتج عن حصاه القناه الصفراء عولجو في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي في الفتره من كانون الثاني 2011 الى تشرين الثاني 2011 14 مريض اخر ابعدو من الدراسه بسبب ثبوت ان سبب اليرقان الانسدادي لديهم كان باسباب اخرى.العمل المبذول لكل مريض كان اخذ تاريخ المرض والفحص السريري وفحوصات مختبريه فحص الامواج فوق الصوتيه (السونار) للبطن.نفس المرضى تعرضوا لعمليه تنظير القناه الصفراء لسببين لغرض التشخيص واستخراج حصاه قناه الصفراء .مريضين فقط ارسلوا مباشره الى العلاج الجراحي كان لديهم (متلازمه ميريزي).كذالك اجريت العمليات الجراحيه للمرضى الذين فشلت لديهم المعالجه الناظوريه.النتائج:من ال125 مريض الذين لديهم يرقان انسدادي والذين انضموا لهذه الدراسه ,14مريض لديهم اسباب غير حصاه القناه الصفراء ابعدوا من هذه الدراسه, فاصبح العدد الكلي للمرضى 111 مريض46 ذكر و65 انثى .جميع المرضى ليهم اعراض سريريه ولديهم نتائج تحاليل وظائف كبد غير طبيعيه , اجري الفحص السوناري لجميع المرضى ,وفحص الرنين المغناطيسي للقنوات الصفراء والبنكرياس اجري ل26 مريض وفحص السونار عن طريق ناظور المعده والاثني عشر ل9 مرضى ,4 مرضى كان لديهم حصاه القناه الصفراء الاوليه, 95 مريض كان لديهم حصاه القناه الصفراء الثانويه , 9 مرضى كان لديهم حصاه القناه الصفراء المحفوظه , و3 مرضى لديهم (متلازمه ميريزي ).المعالجه المنظاريه اجريت ل 108 مريض نجحت في 90% من المرضى.العلاج الجراحي اجري ل 13 مريض 10 منهم بعد فشل العلاج المنظاري و3 مرضى كان لديهم (متلازمه ميريزي) .الاستنتاجات:العلاج الناظوري لاستخراج حصاه القناه الصفراء المتبوع برفع المراره ما زال الطريقه الرشيده في علاج حصاه القناه الصفراء . حصاه القناه الصفراء الكبيره وتعددها ما زالا الاسباب الاكثر شيوعا لفشل العلاج المنظاري لاستخراج حصاه القناه الصفراء والعلاج الجراحي ,في هذه الدراسه كان هنالك نسبه حصاه محفوظه في القناه الصفراء اعلى من الدراسات المذكوره في الدول الغربيه,بسبب عدم وجود فحوصات خلال العمليه تجرى لغرض تشخيص حصاه القناه الصفراء لغرض تلافي ترك حصا في القناه الصفراء في مستشفانا مفتاح الكلمات: حصاة القناة الصفراوية المشتركة، العلاج الناظوري، التداخل الجراحي

Keywords

Background: the most common cause of obstructive jaundice is CBD stones --- and these can produce significant morbidity and mortality. The management of the obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones is in evolution --- several methods of investigations and treatment have been introduced --- and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Objective: to study and evaluate the management of obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones in Baghdad teaching hospital. Patients and methods: a prospective study of 111 patients with clinical --- laboratory --- and imaging features suggestive of obstructive jaundice due to CBD stones who were managed in Baghdad teaching hospital over the period from January 2011 to November 2011 --- other 14 patients with obstructive jaundice due to other causes were excluded. . All patients were symptomatic and had abnormal liver function tests. Transabdominal US was done for all of them --- MRCP for 26 patients --- and EUS for 9 patients. Four patients had primary stones --- 95 patients had secondary stones --- 9 patients had retained stones and 3 patients had Mirizzi syndrome.Those patients were subjected to ERCP both to prove the diagnosis and extract the CBD stones. Only three patients sent directly for surgical treatment because they were diagnosed as Mirizzi syndrome. Surgical treatment also was offered for those patients in whom endoscopic management failed. Results: from the 125 patients presented with obstructive jaundice included in this study 14 patients were found to have a periampullary lesions --- and they were excluded from the study --- so the total number of the patients was 111 --- 46 males and 65 females Endoscopic management was done for 108 patients with success rate of 90%. Surgical treatment was required in 13 patients --- 10 of them following failure of ERCP and the other 3 patients were those with Mirizzi syndrome. The most common complication of ERCP was acute pancreatitis and the most common cause of failure to extract the stones was the size of stone --- more than 15mm Conclusions: Endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered the orthodox treatment of CBD stones. Large and multiple CBD stones are the most common causes of failure of endoscopic extraction and indication for surgical treatment. There was higher incidence of retained CBD stones in our study than what was reported in western countries --- because there is no intraoperative screening to avoid missing CBD stones in our hospital. Key wards: CBD stones --- endoscopic management --- surgical intervention --- حصاة القناة الصفراوية المشتركة، العلاج الناظوري، التداخل الجراحي

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