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Article
Analysis and Optimization of Resistance Spot Welding Parameter of Dissimilar Metals Mild Steel and Aluminum Using Design of Experiment Method
تحليل وأمثلة متغيرات لحام المقاومة النقطي للمعادن المختلفة حديد المطاوع والألمنيومباستخدام طريقة تصميم التجارب

Author: Sabah Khammass Hussein
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1999-1011
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research aims to study the effect of parameters of the resistance spot welding (RSW) on the shear strength of the spot weld for different metals {AA 6061-T6and AISI 1010}using (0.5 and 0.7 mm) thickness.Three values for each welding parameters (welding current, electrode force, squeeze time and welding time) are to be used. The effect of those parameters have been analyzed by Minitab program by design of experiments (DOE) in order to determine and reduce the number of specimens required to achieve the tests. The design of experiment method which used was Taguchi methodThe experimental tests that had been done are shear, Microhardness and microstructure tests.It was found that the maximum shear force in welding of dissimilar metals(AA 6061-T6 with AISI 1010)is (F = 1.14 KN for t = 0.7 mm ).This value has been optimized to reach (F =1.24KN) using DOE. The minimum shear force was(F = 0.25 KN in t = 0.5 mm).In general, increasing the welding current and sample thickness gave an increase in the shear force, but at the same time the reduction in shear force have occurred during the increasing in electrode force, squeeze time and welding time.From Microhardness tests, the maximum value of hardness is found at the center of nugget zone (NZ) and it reduces slightly until reaching constant values away from NZ.

هذا البحث يهدف لدراسة تأثير متغيرات لحام المقاومة النقطي على مقاومة القص لنقطة اللحام لمواد مختلفة{AA 6061-T6and AISI 1010 } باستخدام سمك (0.5 , 0.7) ملم.استخدمت ثلاث قيم من متغيرات اللحام ( تيار اللحام , قوة القطب , زمن الضغط وزمن اللحام ).تم تحليل تأثير هذه المتغيرات باستخدام برنامج (Minitab) بطريقة تصميم التجارب (DOE) لغرض حساب وتقليل عدد العينات اللازمة في الاختبارات.طريقة تصميم التجربة التي استخدمت هي طريقة تاكوشيالتجارب العملية المنجزة هي (اختبار الشد القصي , الصلادة الدقيقة وفحص البنية المجهرية ).وجد ان أقصى قوة قص في لحام المواد المختلفة {AA 6061-T6 and AISI 1010 }هي ( F = 1.14 KN بسمك t = 0.7 mm ). تم تحسين هذه القيمة الى ( F = 1.24 KN) باستخدام طريقة تصميم التجارب (DOE). اقل قيمة قوة قص كانت (F = 0.25 KN بسمك t = 0.5 mm).بصورة عامة , زيادة تيار الحام وسمك المعدن اعطى زيادة في قوة القص , ولكن بنفس الوقت النقصان في قوة القص حصل خلال زيادة قوة القطب وزمن الضغط وزمن اللحام.من خلال تجربة الصلادة (المجهرية) أقصى قيمة للصلادة لوحظت في مركز المنطقة الصلبة وتقل تدريجيا حتى تصل قيمة ثابتة بعيدا عن هذه المنطقة.


Article
Optimization the Resistance Spot Welding Parameters of Austenitic Stainless Steel and Aluminum Alloy Using Design of Experiment Method

Authors: Sabah Khammass Hussein --- Osamah Sabah Barrak
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 7 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1383-1401
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research aims to study the effect of RSW parameters on the sheerforce of the spot weldedfor two materials {AISI 304L and AA 6061-T6}with (0.5 and 0.7 mm) thickness. Three values for each welding parameters (welding current, electrode force, squeeze time and welding time) are to be used. The effect of those parameters has been analyzed by using design of experiments (DOE) in order to determine and reduce the number of the tested specimens.The experimental tests have been donethat are;shear, micro hardness tests and microstructure examination. It was found that the maximum shear force in welding of similar material AISI 304L is (F = 4.78 KN for t = 0.7 mm), while in the joint of dissimilar material (AA 6061-T6 with AISI 304L), the maximum shear force is (F = 1.42 KN for t = 0.7 mm). These values have been optimized to reach (F =5.13 KN & F =1.54 KN) respectively by using DOE. The minimum shear force was (F = 0.07 KN in t = 0.5 mm).It was found that, increasing the welding current and sheet thickness gave an increase in the shear force, but at the same time the reduction in shear force has occurred during the increasing in electrode force, squeeze time and welding time. From micro hardness tests, it was found that the maximum value of hardness was at the center of nugget zone (NZ) and it reduces slightly until reaching constant values away from nugget zone.


Article
OPTIMIZING THE PROCESS OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING FOR 2014 – O ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEET
الاختيار الأفضل لمتغيرات لحام المقاومة النقطي لالواح سبيكة الالمنيوم 2014-O

Author: Latfe Y. Zedan لطفي يوسف زيدان
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2008 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-55
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

There is a strong interest in the use of aluminum alloy sheet for vehicle applications, particularly the body, where resistance spot welding is the principle joining method. The resistance spot welding (R.S.W) quality has a great effected by the process variable such as, welding current, welding time, and electrode pressure beside other variable such as material thickness and type and electrode diameter. In this work the effect of process variable on welding quality was investigated. Trials were conducted on 1.2 mm thick 2014 – O aluminum alloy sheet. The tensile shear strength was used as primary index of welds quality. Experimental investigation show that the best current is 45 KA, best time is 10 cycle, and electrode pressure of 3 KN .

هناك رغبة قوية في استخدام صفائح سبائك الالمنيوم في تطبيقات السيارات وخصوصا البدن حيث ان طريقة الربط الرئيسية هي طريقة اللحام النقطي .إن لحام المقاومة النقطي يتاثر بشكل كبير بمتغيرات عملية اللحام مثل التيار , زمن اللحام وضغط القطب بالاضافة الى متغيرات اخرى مثل سمك المعدن ونوعه وقطر القطب .في هذا العمل تم دراسة تاثير متغيرات اللحام النقطي على جودة اللحام .تم استخدام سبيكة الالمنيوم 2014-O وبسمك 1.2 ملم .استخدمت مقاومة القص كمؤشر على جودة اللحام . نتائج الدراسة العملية اظهرت ان افضل تيار لحام هو ( 45 ) كيلو امبير , وزمن لحام ( 10 ) دورة وضغط قطب ( 3 ) كيلو نيوتن .


Article
The Effect of Tool Geometry for Resistance Spot Welds on Crack Growthin Specimens of Mild Steel
تأثیر شكل العدة لعملیة اللحام النقطي المقاوم على نمو الشق لوصلة من الفولاذ

Author: Nadhim M.Faleh
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2242-2250
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A mechanism of crack growth was investigated in resistance spot welds of mildsteel. The experiments in this study were designed to investigate the effects of theelectrode cap geometrieson fatigue life of the resistance spot weld specimens. Twotypes of electrode cap geometries were used. These types are 4.8 mm and 6.3 mmnose,used with the same shank in welding operations of 2mm mild steel plate. Toobtain the goal, operating factors were precisely controlled, especially the electrodeforce and welding current of spot welds, to keep the same operating conditions whilechangingthe electrode geometries. The life test results showed an improvement in thefatigue life of resistance spot welds. The increment was 30% in heavy loads and 10%in low loads based on tool geometry. The improvement in the fatigue life wasproduced by reducing the diameter of the nose in the geometry of the tool.


Article
Improvement of the Strength of Spot Welding Joint for Aluminum Plates Using Powders as Additive
تحسین مقاومة وصلات اللحام النقطي لصفائح الألمنیوم باستخدام المساحیق كمضاف

Authors: Moneer H. Al-Saadi --- Sabah Khammass Hussein
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2448-2461
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research is interest in increasing the strength of spot welding joint for thincommercial Aluminum by adding casting component to the welding zone in the form ofpowder. Those components are copper, manganese and magnesium which are added in adifferent percentages it appear that the strength of the spot welding has been improvedby (14.5%) when adding(0.4 grams of magnesium),(0.1 grams of manganese ) and (0.4gram of copper).The powder is added in the welding zone boundary after made a single hole with adepth of (0.375mm) and a diameter of (1mm) in the center of spot welding point.To increase the welding strength, five holes have been made with the same abovedimensions through the welding zone boundary. The percentages of additive used afterreparation the reduction of Aluminum powder.The value of shearing strength increase with a percentage of (27.3%) as comparingwith those without additive.Also, heat treatment has been done, which gave a redaction in the strength of spotwelding. It has been observed that the increase in the temperature of heat treatmentresult in decreasing in the spot strength. Welding and cooling environment have aneffect on the strength of welded specimen. Hence, air welding environment gives a goodwelding strength.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR LOW CARBON STEEL SHEET

Author: Kamal Abdulkareem Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 14-22
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most efficient fusion welding processes which known as a thermo – electric process used in joining metal by a combination of adjustable parameters (heat, pressure and time), it is high speed, flexible and highly productive process. It is extensively used for many industrial purposes in particular in the automotive industry. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of welding nugget area on the tensile strength of the resistance spot welded joints, the present discussion deals with effect of the parameters of resistance spot welding process (current, time, electrode force) on nugget formation and on failure load of the spot weld joints (the relation between nugget size and strength with input parameters). The test material of the specimens which used in this study is low carbon steel. The mechanical performance (peak load, failure mode) of the welded joints was determined by tensile testing, the testing results were analyzed which were obvious the effectiveness and the necessaries of the suitable or proper welding parameters for the strength of the spot weld joints.

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