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Article
Influence of chemical and thermal treatment on the purity of silica extracted from rice husk
تأثير المعالجة الكيميائية والحرارية على نقاء السيليكا المستخرجة من قشور الرز

Authors: Bahaa F. Shihab بهاء فخري شهاب --- Wesam A. A. Twej وسام عبد علي تويج
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 39 Pages: 117-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this work, chemical and thermal treatment were used to enhance silica extract on the purity of rice husk and to reduce the impurities associated with the extraction of silica. The thermal degradation of rice husk was studied. The characteristics and thermal degradation behavior of rice husk which investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Hydrochloric acid was used to soak the rice husk and the study of leaching influence is followed by XRF tests for samples before and after the combustion process. Acid treatment and combustion method seem to have a clear effect on silica purity. The pyrolysis processes were carried out at Laboratory temperature up to 650 oC in the presence of nitrogen gas flowing at 150 ml/min. The effect of high combustion levels on the structure was also investigated through XRD testing.

في هذا العمل، تمت محاولة استخدام المعالجة الكيميائية والحرارية لتعزيز استخلص السليكا على النقاء من قشر الأرز ولتقليل الشوائب المرتبطة باستخراج السليكا. تم استخدام حمض الهيدروكلوريك لنقع قشر الأرز ودراسة تأثير النقع متبوعة باختبارات XRF للعينات قبل وبعد عملية الاحتراق. يبدو أن طريقة المعالجة الحوامض والاحتراق لها تأثير واضح على نقاء السليكا. تمت دراسة التحلل الحراري لقشر الأرز لدراسة خصائص وسلوك التدهور الحراري لقشر الأرز التي تم تحليلها باستخدام محلل الثقل الحراري.(TGA) كما أجريت عمليات الانحلال الحراري عند درجة حرارة الغرفة حتى 650 درجة مئوية في وجود غاز النيتروجين المتدفق عند 150 مل /دقيقة. كما تم فحص تأثير مستويات الاحتراق العالية على البنية الهيكلية للسليكا من خلال اختبار.XRD

Keywords

Rice husk --- silica --- treatment.


Article
Investigation on using rice–husk as low cost adsorbent for dye removal from industrial wastewater

Authors: Dakhil Nasir Taha --- Luma Ahmed Mohammed --- Isra'a Sadi Samaka
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الاول للتربية للعلوم الصرفة Pages: 139-153
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

This study investigated the use of activated rice- husk as adsorbent for the removal of Janus Green B dye from industrial wastewater. Adsorption studies were carried out in a batch process with adsorbent dose , contact time , pH , initial dye concentration and adsorbents’ particle size at ambient temperature . The well Known Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied for the equilibrium adsorption data and the various isotherm parameters were evaluated . The results indicate that activated rice – husk could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes .

Janus Green B تتحرى هذه الدراسة استخدام قشور الرز المنشطة كمادة مازة لإزالة صبغة من مياه الفضلات الصناعية. تم إجراء تجارب دفعية( batch ) لدراسات الإمتزاز لدراسة تأثير جرعة المادة المازة , زمن التلامس , pH , التركيز الأولي للصبغة , وحجم الحبيبة للمادة المازة في درجة حرارة المحيط . تم تطبيق نموذجي لانكمير وفراندلش لوصف علاقات التوازن للإمتزاز . بينت النتائج إن قشور الرز المنشطة يمكن استخدامها كمادة رخيصة وبديلة عن الكاربون المنشط التجاري في معالجة مياه الفضلات لإزالة اللون والأصباغ


Article
1 Batch adsorption technique for the removal of Reactive Black 5 dye from industrial waste water by using rice husks as adsorbent

Author: Luma Ahmed Mohammed
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 20 Pages: 132-147
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The aim of this work is to absorb the Reactive Black 5 of dye with a low cost adsorbent . dye which comes in the effluents of textile industries during dyeing and rinsing processes. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for colour removal, its wide spread use is restricted due to high cost. Currently, the study of activated rice husks carbon as a low cost sorbent for removing dye has drawn attention of various researchers working in this field. In the present work, rice husks carbon (RHC) in the form of powder was investigated for removing dyes taking Reactive Black 5 as a model system. The adsorbent was made from pistachio shells procured from Central Iraq and was investigated under variable system parameters such as dose of adsorbent, pH , initial dye concentration , particle size and agitation time. An amount of 1.5 g/l of (RHC) could remove 95.48 % of the dye from an aqueous solution of 50 ppm with the agitation time 80 min and pH of the solution was one . The well Known Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied for the equilibrium adsorption data and the various isotherm parameters were evaluated .The results indicate that activated rice husks could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of color and dyes .


Article
Synthesis and characterization of Nanoporous Material via Rice husk
تحضير وتشخيص مادة مسامية نانوية عن طريق قشور الرز

Authors: Hayder Hamied Mihsen --- Thana Jaafar Al-Hasani1 --- Kasim Mohammed hello
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2017 Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الخامس لكلية العلوم Pages: 147-156
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The idea of this research depended on the preparation of nanoporous material via rice husk based on the silica material. The silica material is prepared from the rice husks in appropriate chemical method. Where it is known that the rice husks are produced by the production of rice plants that are too large quantities and cause high pollution in environment. Instead, the husks is embedded or burn in the exposed atmosphere in urban and rural areas could benefit from it by the suitable chemical treatment and burning it in controlled conditions, it produces pure silica labeled as RHA (Rice Husk Ash) can be entered in chemical reactions for the production of Nanoporous Material labeled as RHAC-Pd(DTO)2 .This Nanoporous Material is inorganic-organic hybrid. According to analysis of CHNS and FT-IR spectra can be conclude that the bis- dithiooxamidepalladium(II) chloride [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2 has successful incorporation on RHACCl . X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the amorphous formula of [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2, while the Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used to confirm its nanostructure of compounds. The surface area measurements indicated that [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2 had a specific surface area of 70.83 m2g1- and a narrow average pore diameter of 3.25 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA) of RHAC-Pd(DTO)2 indication that the physical adsorb water was lost between 30-160 °C which means it is weakly bonded in the silica matrix, while the residual parts of material decomposed up to 300 °C.

تعتمد فكرة البحث على تحضير مادة مسامية نانوية, المادة الاساس في تحضيرها هي السليكا التي يتم استخلاصها من قشور الرز بطريقة كيميائية مناسبة. حيث انه من المعروف ان قشور الرز التي تنتجها معامل انتاج الرز تكون بكميات كبيرة جدا مسببة تلوث عالي للبيئة, فبدلا ان تطمر تلك القشور او تحرق بالأجواء المكشوفة بالمدن والارياف يمكن الاستفادة منها بمعاملة كيميائية مناسبة وحرقها بظروف مسيطر عليها لتنتج سليكا نقية (ناصعة البياض) يرمز لها ب RHA مختصر Rice husk ash يمكن ادخالها في سلسلة تفاعلات كيميائية لتحضير مادة مسامية نانوية يرمز لها RHAC-Pd(DTO)2 وهي هجين من مادة لاعضوية-عضوية. تم الاعتماد على نتائج كل من CHNS ودراسة اطياف الأشعة تحت الحمراء FT-IR باستنتاج الاندماج الناجح للمادة ثنائي- ثنائي ثايو اوكسمايد بلاديوم(II) كلورايد على المادة RHACCl , كما تم التعرف على الطبيعة غير المتبلورة له من خلال تقنية حيود الأشعة السينية X-ray , بينما أثبتت تقنية المجهر الالكتروني النافذ(TEM) أنه يمتلك طبيعة نانوية .في حين ان قياسات المساحة السطحية بينت ان المركب يمتلك مساحة سطحية تقدر ب 70.83 m2g1- وبمعدل قطر مسامي يقدر ب 3.25 nm, كما اوضحت التحاليل الحرارية بتقنية TGA-DTA ان الماء الممتز فيزيائيا يتفكك من المركب بين30-160 م° بينما الاجزاء الاخرى العضوية واللاعضوية تتفكك فوق 300 °C .


Article
The removal of Zinc, Chromium and Nickel from industrial waste water using Rice husk
أزالة ألزنك وألكروم وألنيكل من مياه ألفضلة ألصناعية بأستخدام قشور ألرز[ألسبوس]

Authors: Majid R. Majeed ماجد رشيد مجيد --- Ali S. Muhammed علي صادق محمد --- Khalid A. Rasheed خالد عباس رشيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 2 Pages: 411-418
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to use low cost adsorbents, which consists of plant wastes in treatment of Industrial waste water by fixed bed column technique and study the effect of to two variables (pH value and contact time) on adsorption process. The sample of plant waste (Rice husk) was tested to determine its activity which gives the best performance in heavy metals removal and other pollutants (TSS, TDS and COD). Adsorption tests showed all tested plant adsorbents had significant heavy metal removal efficiency. The best removal efficiency 96.56% of Cr was occurred at pH 6.5 and 5hrs. Higher removal efficiency 99.02% of Ni was occurred at pH 6.5 and 0.15hr. While, lower removal efficiency 94% for Zn obtained at pH 5 and 2.83hrs. Removal efficiency for TDS, TSS and COD were 58.6%, 98.8% and 86.6% respectively.

أن ألهدف من هذه ألدراسة هو أستخدام ألممتزات واطئة ألكلفة وألتي تشمل قشور ألرز كمخلفات نباتية ممتزة في معالجة مياه ألفضلة ألصناعية بواسطة تقنية ألاعمدة ثابتة ألحشوة ودراسة تأثير متغيرين وهما قيمة ألاس ألهايدروجيني وزمن ألتلامس .أختبر نموذج ألمخلفات ألنباتية )قشور ألرز( لتحديد فعاليتها وألتي أعطت أفضل أداء في أزالة ألمعادن ألثقيلة وألملوثات ألاخرى )المواد ألصلبة الذائبة الكلية والمواد الصلبة ألعالقة الكلية وطلب ألاوكسجين ألكيميائي(.أظهرت اختبارات الامتزاز بان جميع الممتزات النباتية تملك كفاءة ازالة معنوية للمعادن الثقيلة, حصلت افضل ازالة وبكفاءة 96.56% للكروم عند pH 6.5 وزمن تلامس 5 ساعات, في حين أفضل أزالة وبكفاءة99.09% كانت للنيكل عند pH 6.5 وبعد 0.15 ساعة, وأقل أزالة بلغت 94% كانت مع الزنك عند pH 5 وبعد 2.38 ساعة من ألتماس, بينما كانت كفاءة الازالة للمواد ألصلبة الذائبة الكلية والمواد الصلبة ألعالقة الكلية ومتطلب ألاوكسجين ألكيميائي %58.6 و 98.8% و 86.6% على التوالي.


Article
Characterization of Nano Silica prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk and its Application in Oil Well’s Cement

Authors: Zakia. A. Yousif --- Amer. A.Abdulrahman --- Najat. J. Saleh
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 272 Issue: 13 Pages: 236-257
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Iraqi Rice husk (IRH) was used to produce nanosilica by precipitation method. The prepared silica nanoparticles samples were characterized using different analytical techniques, these included FTIR, XRD, SEM ,AFM and and,TEM. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for the quantitative determination of chemical composition of rice husk which revel that it contains 94.22% silica, after acid leaching it gave 99.04% silica. at 700 oC. FTIR showed bending and stretching absorption bands Si-O-Si at (797) cm-1, (1078) cm−1. X-Ray diffraction shows a strong broad characteristic peak of nano pure silica at ≈ 22°. Electron microscope image characterize particles size of~ (60) nm in spherical shape and agglomerated form. The observation by Atomic Force Microscope shows that the average diameter of particles 88.87 nm.The prepared nanosilica from rice husk has a surface area of(194m2/g) and pore volume of (0.275 cm3/g).Nanosilica pozzolanic material was used as cement admixture in oil field cement to improve compressive strength. The nanosilica cement admixture compressive strength was increase 8%, 9% and 4% at 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% nanosilica percentage adding respectively by weight of cement at 38 oC and 0.1%, 9%, 7% compressive strength percent increase at 60 oC.


Article
UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK IN THE SORPTION OF EUTROPHICATION NITROGEN AND PRODUCING A USEFUL ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR PLANT PRODUCTION
إستخدام قشور الرز في إمتصاص النيتروجين المسبب للإثراء الغذائي وإنتاج سماد عضوي مفيد للإنتاج النباتي

Author: Dr. Ghazi Maleh Mutter
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-76
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

: In the present research, the optimum exploitation procedure of the agricultural waste was conducted reaching to zero residue level (ZRL). This aim was fulfilled via two steps. The first one was the removing of nitrogen from simulated synthetic aqueous solutions (SSAS) by using an agricultural waste (which is Iraqi rice husk, IRH)) as a bio sorbent material in a fixed bed continuous mode and under many multi operating conditions; which were concentration, pH, flow rate, contact time, temperature and height of adsorbent material in the fixed bed. The second step was the utilization of the adsorption residue, which is affluent with adsorbed loaded nitrogen, by mixing it with agriculture soil as a low cost compost for tomato harvest. The results show that the removal efficiency of nitrogen was decreased with increasing N concentration, pH and flowrate but increased with increasing the contact time, temperature and height of adsorbent material in the fixed bed. The maximum percentage adsorption efficiency was 96.74%. The adsorption residue exhibited a good behavior when used as manure and the weight of tomatoes was increased by 18.25%, compared with the same harvest produced without using this fertilizer. Thus it can be profiting from the agricultural waste by a simple, economic and eco-friendly method accessing to ZRL.


Article
STUDY THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF HEAT CURE POLY (METHYL METHACRYLATE) REINFORCED BY BAMBOO AND RICE HUSK POWDERS FOR DENTURE APPLICATIONS

Authors: Jawad K. Oleiwi --- Qahtan Adnan Hamad --- Hadil Jabbar Abdul Rahman
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 417-425
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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The present research, studies the effect of adding two different types of reinforcing powders, which included: Bamboo (Ba) and Rice Husk (RH), that added with different weight fractions (2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %), and with the selected size particles of (25µm and 75µm) on thermal behavior of heat Cure Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) such as thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity in addition to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and these tests were accomplished at temperature of laboratory. The poly Methyl Methacrylate properties which reinforced by (Bamboo and Rice Husk) powders are mainly influenced by the interfacial adhesion strength between the powders and the matrix, and in order to get better correlation between the natural powder and PMMA matrix, so the powders were treated with alkali (sodium hydroxide NaoH) solution prior to use as reinforcement materials. The results showed that the values of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity increased with increasing of the weight fraction for both particle sizes (25 µm and 75 µm) of natural powders.


Article
Effects of Rice Husk Ash–Magnesium Oxide Addition on Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composites
تأثير إضافة رماد قشور الرز – اوكسيد المغنسيوم على سلوك البلى لمواد متراكبة هجينة ذات أساس من األلمنيوم

Authors: Abbas Y. Awad --- Mohammed N. Ibrahim --- Mohamed K. Hussein
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 16-23
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A336.0 aluminum alloy used to fabricate hybrid composites using rice husk ash (RHA) and MgO particles as reinforcement. The influence of the particles on the wear behavior of A336.0 aluminum alloy as a matrix that reinforced with MgO and RHA was investigated. Firstly, the rice husk burned at 700°C and then heat treated at 1100°C for 2 hrs. The ash characterized by X-ray florescence and X-ray diffraction. Less than 53 and 125 micron are the particle sizes of MgO and RHA respectively. The hybrid composites manufactured using stir casting method in two steps. A336.0 aluminum alloy reinforced with 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3 and 0:4 of RHA: MgO with 10 wt% total reinforcement phase. Optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the prepared hybrid composites. Dry slidingwear, hardness, apparent density, percentage of porosity and coefficient of friction were examined. Results indicated that porosity, apparent density and hardness enhanced with increasing MgO, while increasing wt% of RHA decreased the apparent density. Results indicated that with inceasing the applied load the wearrate of the composites was enhanced. Coefficient of friction varies inversely with applied load and wt% of RHA. Hardness increased with increasing RHA while the friction coefficient and the wear rate decreased. The minimum wear rates were at 10% RHA and Al-alloy-(RHA-MgO) [3:1] composites, while the minimum friction coefficients were at 10% RHA composites.

تم استخدام سبيكة ألمنيوم نوع 0.A336 لتحضير مادة متراكبة باستخدام رماد قشور الرز )RHA )مع اوكسيد المغنسيوم )MgO )كمواد تقوية. اجريت دراسة تأثير الدقائق المضافة على سلوك البلى للمادة المتراكبة الناتجة. تم تحضير الرماد بحرق قشور الرز عند 700 مئوي ثم اجراء معاملة حرارية للرماد المتكون عند 1100مئوي ولمدة ساعتين بعدها اجريت فحوصات للرماد لتحديد كمية االكاسيد باستخدام االصدار الفلوري لالشعة السينية )XRF )وكذلك استخدام حيود االشعة السينية )XRD )لتحديد االطوار المتكونة. حجم دقائق المسحوق لكل من اوكسيد المغنسيوم والرماد كانت اقل من 53 و125 مايكرون على التوالي. عملية االنتاج كانت باستخدام طريقة الدوامة على مرحلتين لخلط :RHA (MgO )مع منصهر سبيكة االلمنيوم وبنسب وزنية )0:4 ,1:3 ,2:2 ,3:1 ,4:0 )لنسبة خلط كلية 10 .%تم اختبار كل من الصالدة، معدل البلى، معامل االحتكاك، النسبة المئوية للمسامية والكثافة الظاهرية باإلضافة الى اجراء اختبار حيود االشعة السينية والفحص المجهري لعينات المتراكبات الناتجة. اظهرت النتائج ان زيادة نسبة اوكسيدالمغنسيوم يزيد من نسبة المسامات والكثافة الظاهرية باإلضافة الى رفع صالدة المركبات الناتجة، حيث عند 10 %من اوكسيد المغنسيوم ستزداد المسامات ألعلى مستوى وتقل الكثافة. كما تبين ان الصالدة تزداد مع زيادة نسبة الرماد بينما يقل معدل البلى ومعامل االحتكاك. لوحظ ايضا ان معامل االحتكاك يتناسب عكسيا مع ازدياد نسبة الرماد والحمل المسلط. اقل معدل بلى كان عند العينة 10%RHA والعينة ]1:3( ]MgO: RHA ،)بينما اقل معامل احتكاك كان عند العينة 10%RHA.


Article
RICE HUSK ASH AS A NANO-FILLER TO SYNTHESIZE THERMOSETTING POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES AND EVALUATION OF ITS TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR

Authors: Salsabeel K. Burhan --- Meethaq M. Abed --- Moslih A. Salih
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-91
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This paper deals with synthesizing of nanocomposites of unsaturated polyester (UP) filled with nano silica and investigation the effect of silica content on the tribological behavior of UP and nanocomposites . Silica nanoparticles were prepared by burning rice husk ash (RHA) as an agricultural waste material. Three different percentages as 2%, 6% and 10% of nano silica were added to the unsaturated polyester and dispersed by using ultrasonic waves method. As a result of agglomeration and sedimentation of nano RHA particles, dispersing by ultrasonic waves was very effective to terminate these challenges. X-Rays diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technics were used for characterization of materials. RHA-UP nanocomposites were tested for their tribo-performance by pin-on-disc machine. XRD demonstrated that white rice husk ash consists of amorphous silica. SEM demonstrated that silica particles were distributed uniformly and well embedded within the polyester matrix. Results showed an improvement in wear resistance with relatively stable friction coefficient with the addition of 10% nano silica. Adding 2 wt% nano RHA negatively affected the wear resistance of RHA-UP nanocomposite .The best tribological performance of 10% RHA-UP nanocomposites achieved at load 10N. Incorporation of RHA with unsaturated polyester has advantages of reducing pollution, making the pollutant RHA as a valuable material to produce low cost and lightweight products with modified properties. Silica enriched RHA could prove to be cheaper anti-wear additives for producing high performance unsaturated polyester composites such as brake pads.

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