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Article
Composition Design Modeling and Experimental Verification of (Co Ni Al) Shape Memory Alloys

Author: M.N. Arbilei
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 84-88
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The most important concepts to apply a shape memory alloy in manyindustrial applications is the composition design that controls thetransformation temperatures. In this paper, two mathematical models werecreated to predict the transformation temperatures for poly-crystalline (Co-Ni-Al) alloys. The data that was depend on to find the relation between chemicalcomposition and transformation temperatures were concluded from previouswork and approved by preparing samples in investigation practically. Fourdifferent alloys were prepared to verify this relation. It was indicated that thebest criteria that present the chemical composition is the (e/a) and make thealloy applicable for different applications. These suggested chemicalcompounds could be controlled and adjusted according to heat treatment time.


Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF CD34, SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN AND TYPE IV COLLAGEN IN BREAST CARCINOMA. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

Authors: Ban J Qasim بان جمعة قاسم --- Alaa G Hussein علاءغني حسين --- Rasha F Salih رشا فوزي صالح
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 148 -153
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Tumoral angiogenesis is essential for the growth and spread of breast cancer cells.Objective: To evaluate angiogenesis by measuring microvessel density (MVD) with CD34 and its maturity with smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry and to study invasion of basement membrane by tumor cells using type IV collagen.Methods: In the present study microvascular quantification was undertaken on 52 cases of breast carcinoma and 5 cases of benign breast lesions after immunohistochemical staining of tumor vessel, using CD34 antibody and SMA antibody. Microvessel quantification was performed at x400 magnification in the three most vascular areas of the tumors (hot spots).Results: The difference in MVD between benign and malignant cases is significant (P= 0.001). MVD is significantly correlated with L.N. involvement (P=0.004) and lymphovascular permeation (P=0.001), no statistical significant correlation between MVD and age of patient (P=0.656), tumor size (P=0.052), tumor grade (P=0.324).Conclusion: Measurements of angiogenesis may have clinical utility in the evaluation of breast cancer, particularly for estimation of metastatic risk. A high MVD may be a poor prognostic marker of breast carcinoma and a target for antiangiogenic therapy.Key words: Angiogenesis, CD34, SMA, Collagen IV, breast carcinoma.

Keywords

Angiogenesis --- CD34 --- SMA --- Collagen IV --- breast carcinoma


Article
Effect of Additives Types and Contents on the Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures
تأثیر أنواع المضافات والمحتوى على خصائصمزیج الإسفلت ذو الصنف الفجوي

Authors: Qais S. Kareem --- Ahmed I. Ahmed --- Noor M. Asmael
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 21 Pages: 6414-6426
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. SMA does not application in Iraq; in order for adopt the use of SMA mixtures particularly on high volume roads such as highways and urban intersections in Iraq. So, the new methodology has to be evaluated using Iraq materials and conventional laboratory methods to insure good performance in the Iraq's highway. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of additives type and content on the performance of stone matrix asphalt mixtures. A detailedlaboratory study is carried out by preparing asphalt mixtures specimens using aggregate from Al-Nibaay, (40-50) grade asphalt from dourah refinery and two types of fiber (carbon fiber and polypropylene fiber) with percentages (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%) by weight of total mix and two types of polymer (phenol and polyethylene) with percentages (7.5, 10, 12.5, 15%) by weight of total mix were tested in the laboratory. Compacted mixtures were tested to evaluate the effects on SMA bulk specific gravity, maximum specific gravity, void content, MarshallStability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) and permanent deformation. Three different tests temperatures (20, 40,60C°) were employed in the creep test and two temperatures (5, 25 C°) were used in indirect tensile test to investigate the susceptibility of these mixes to change in temperature. The results clearly indicate the importance of using the proper type of stabilizing additive. According to the study results, polymers additives were found to be more effective than fibersadditives. SMA Mix modified with phenol additives can be used in cold and normal temperature area, whereas SMA Mix modified with polyethylene additive can be used in high temperature area.


Article
Immunohistochemical evaluation of actin expression in basal cell carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Abstract

Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are generally slow-growing tumours. They have been classified as aggressive (A-BCC) and non-aggressive (NA-BCC).Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity worldwide, this is due to the characteristics of invasion. The microenviroment or stroma of neoplastic tissues plays an active role in tumour progression. Trans-differentiation of fibroblast to myofibroblast is a crucial and early event in tumourigensis. Alterations of contractile tension generated by the actin–myosin complex are of central importance in the development of the phenotype of morphologically transformed neoplastic cells with invasive behavior. Actin is the predominant component of contractile microfillament and it may be associated with increase contractility and invasiveness of tumour cells.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the presence of myofibroblasts in the stroma of basal cell carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, evaluated by the immunohistochemical expression of actin.Materials and methods: Twenty four formalin –fixed, paraffin -embedded tissue blocks (14 cases basal cell carcinoma, 10 cases oral squamous cell carcinoma) were included in this study. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti alpha - smooth muscle actin (α- SMA) monoclonal antibody.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF STONE MASTIC ASPHALT MODIFIED BY DOMESTIC WASTE BIO-ASPHALT

Authors: Sady Abd Tayh --- Ratnasamy Muniandy --- Salihudin Hassim --- Fauzan Mohd
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-3) Pages: 139-149
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study based, upon evaluating the fatigue characteristics of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) Mixtures using different percent of bio-oil produced from pyrolysis process of house hold waste. The indirect tensile fatigue (ITFT) test was used to study fatigue behavior. The fatigue tests were performed at three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C) using one asphalt binder, 80/100 penetration asphalt. The outcomes demonstrated that the addition of DWBO has slightly lowered the resilient modulus, and reduced the fatigue performance of the SMA Mixtures. For the effect of the temperature on fatigue life of 80/100 bio-binders, it is reasonable to use DWBO in asphalt mixture as an additive in cold to moderate temperature regions. The study shows that the DWBO can be used with petroleum binders in the pavement industry with a percent not exceeding 3% by weight of the base binder.


Article
I NVESTIGATION OF THE ADDITIVES FOR CHANGING ON PHASES AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
دراسة تاثير الاضافات لتغير الاطوار ومقاومة التاكل لسبائك الذاكرة

Author: Mohammed Ali Tariq محمد علي طارق
Journal: Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد ISSN: 20761819 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 458-465
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

ABSTRACTNickel-Titanium shape memory alloy (Nitinol or NiTi) is a fascinating materialfor dental applications. In this work the alloy has been prepared by powdertechnology and the effect of Mg and Zn additives has been studied on the corrosionrate, in artificial saliva. Samples (without additives) were prepared using powdermixture of 55 wt.% Ni and 45 wt.% Ti by blending in a ball mill for two hours, thencompacted at 800 Mpa, and then sintered at 950 oC for 9 hours under controlledatmosphere (argon). The same approach was made for the samples with 0.1, 0.2 and0.3 wt% of Mg and Zn additions. XRD test shows that the sintered samples areconsisting of two phase's martensite and austenite at room temperatures.From theresults; it was found Zn additives increase the corrosion rate while Mg additivesdecrease the corrosion rate.

RMS ن. BLMDN ت ا BMPECQI: ا RMS TUVWIXMY: ة ا =ZBXM: اد ا HMY: ا U =CI]J م) HEFBIEJ - 78EF ( 789: ة ا => ذا @ABCD^M_` @MFa: م وا HEXMELcY: ت ا BSBMd ا =EefMJ TMD درا hMJ و iEZBXMY: ا BMEj رH:BIEU TMPk=Ql @ABCXM: ج ا BMIF ا hMJ noC: ا ا p ھvXMLl iEZBXMY: ا wM_Wl B ھ=ExMoJ hMJ ت) BSBd ون ا Vl س ( BDN ذج ا BYL: .ا R`BLs: ب ا B]_: ل ا H_oU RS 7>BI: ل ا V]U800 wcxl wE_W: ا {C> hJ he EI`BD ة VY: ات =8: ا TFHZB ط TQD اHl 45 ) wt% Ti) ، (55 wt% Ni )TEF وزز BM€ TQMD اHl ME_` =QEXMU HMl و ο ارة 950 م =MZ TMj رVl ت و B`BMD ة 9 VMY: VMEC_I: ا TME_Y` اء =Mj ا B ھVM]l و Mpa@MFa: ا MU 0.1 و 0.2 و 0.3 TMEF وز vXMLl ت BSBMdN ا ‚MU ذج BMYL: ا =ExMoI: ƒUVWIMD ا TMPk=Q: ا {M„F ن. HM> رN اƒkBXMLJ رBY: ا BMY ھ k رHM ط ^M_` ي HMIoJ ة VMC_Y: ذج ا BMYL: ن ا BMl †Md او TELEXM: ا T]M‡N د ا HMEZ ر BMCIˆ م. ا HEXMELcY: واTSBMd ا BMYLEl 7M>BI: ل ا V]U U VkaJ @Fa: ا TSBd ان ا Vj و ‰ABIL: ل ا Šˆ U . TS=c: ارة ا =Z Tj در RS ƒkBLID وN وا. RABEYE8: ا 7>BI: ل ا V]U 7_PJ م HEXELcY: ا


Article
Effect of Cooling Rate on the Phase Transformations Behavior and Hardness of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Hiba Adil --- Abeer Sami --- Moqdad Juber --- Nawal Mohammed Dawood
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 363-371
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

NiTi alloy is well- known shape memory alloys and has been widely used for bio-medical, mechanical and electrical applications. In this study, a Ni - rich porous NiTi alloys are produced by powder metallurgy technique. Three samples of these alloys were cooled in three media: furnace, water, and ice bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used in the study as characterization techniques, hardness measurement and shape memory effect (SME) properties were carried out to investigate the effect of cooling rate on phases and mechanical properties. XRD test shows that the sintered samples consist of three phases at room temperature (NiTi monoclinic phase, NiTi cubic phase and Ni3Ti hexagonal phase) .The results show the correlation between cooling rate and properties of the alloy

تعرف سبيكة NiTi بانها من السبائك ذاكرة الشكل وتستخدم بشكل واسع في التطبيقات الاحيائية الطبية والميكانيكية والكهربائية. في هده الدراسة حضرت سبيكة NiTi المسامية الغنية بالنيكل بتقنية ميتالورجيا المساحيق. بردت ثلاثة عينات من هده السبائك في ثلاثة أوساط: الفرن، الماء، الثلج. استخدمت تقنية حيود الاشعة السينية (XRD) لوصف الاطوار المتكونة. كما أجري اختبار فيكرز للصلادة وتأثير استعادة الشكل (SME) لمعرفة تأثير معدل التبريد على الاطوار والخواص الميكانيكية. أظهرت اختبارات XRD تكون العينات الملبدة من ثلاثة اطوار في درجة حرارة الغرفة (احادي الميل NiTi، الطور المكعب، NiTiالطور السداسي Ni3Ti. أظهرت النتائج وجود علاقة بين معدل التبريد وخواص السبيكة.


Article
Vibration Analysis of Uniform and Tapered Composite Beams with Embedded Shape MemoryAlloy

Authors: Qasim Abbas Atiyah --- Ammar Saleem Hameed --- Baqer Jabbar Assi
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2019 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 82-93
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this study, laminated composite materials were hybridized with E-glass fiber and Nitinol (Nickel-Titanium) wires. Hand lay-up technique was used to prepare the samples, epoxy resin type (Sikadur 52 N) was used as matrix reinforced by one fiber from E-glass fiber woven roving with embedded nitinol wires with a diameter 0.5 mm for samples and number of wires such as 0, 1, 3, 5 and 9 to find the effect of the number of wires on the natural frequency. The samples were fixed as a cantilever beam. The effects of increasing the number of nitinol wires, the diameter of nitinol wires, the length of thecantilever beam and the thickness of beam on the natural frequencies of the beam were studied.Also, the effects of the tapered in width side and thickness side on the natural frequencies of cantilever beam were studied. The results showed that the increasing in the number of nitinol wires and the diameter of nitinol wires lead to decrease the natural frequency in martensite phase and increase the natural frequency in austenite phase. Also, the increasing in thickness of beamandwidth ratio of the beam lead to increase the natural frequency. As well as, the increasing in the thickness ratio leads to increase the first natural frequency and decrease the second and third ones. In addition, the increasing in the length of the beam decreases the natural frequency.

في هذا البحث تم تهجين مواد مركبة باستخدام اسلاك النتنول (نيكل-تيتانيوم). تم تصنيع العينات بتقنية القولبة اليدوية، وتم استخدام راتنج الايبوكسي نوع (Sikadur 52 N)وطبقة من ليف الزجاج ذات الحصيرة المنتظمة، وتم استخدام اسلاك النتنول لتدعيم العينات وبقطر (٠.٥ملم) وبعدد (٠،١،٣ ،٥ و٩) سلك لايجاد تاثير عدد الاسلاك على التردد الطبيعي. العينات تكون على شكل عتبة كابولية مثبتة من طرف وحرة من الطرف الاخر. تمت دراسة تاثير زيادة كل من عدد اسلاك النتنول وقطراسلاك النتنول وطولوسمك العتبة الكابولية على الترددات الطبيعية للعتبة.وكذلك تمت دراسة تاثير ميلان عرض وسمك العتبة الكابولية على التردد الطبيعي.وضحت النتائج زيادة كل منعدد اسلاك النتنول وقطر اسلاك النتنول يؤديان لتقليل التردد الطبيعي في طور المارتنسايت ويؤديان الى زيادة التردد الطبيعي في طور الاوستنايت.كذلك اوضحت النتائج ان زيادة سمك العينة وزيادة نسبة العرض العرض يؤدي الى زيادة التردد الطبيعي. وكذلك زيادة نسبة السمك للعينة يؤدي الى زيادة التردد الطبيعي الاول وتقليل التردد الطبيعي الثاني والثالث. وكذلك زيادة طول العينة يقلل من التردد الطبيعي.


Article
The Effect of Plastomers Polymer Type and Concentration on Asphalt and Moisture Damage of SMA Mixtures
تأثير نوع وتركيز اللدائن البلاستوميرية على الإسفلت وتأثيرات الماء للخلطات الإسفلتية نوع SMA

Authors: Tan Yi-qiu2 وتان اي جيو2 --- Al-Hadidy AI1 عبد الرحيم إبراهيم الحديدي
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2011 Volume: 19 Issue: 5 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn this investigation, two plastomers polymer types namely: polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were used to modify asphalt cement. Nine different blends including conventional mixture were subjected to binder testing such as rheological tests before and after aging, as well as to some other tests related to the uniformity of the system. Marshall stability, Marshall Quotient, static tensile strength, tensile strength ratio, static compressive strength and index of retained strength were carried out on the stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Research results indicate that the addition of these polymers enhance the unaged and aged rheological properties of base binder. The results also indicated that the modified binders are complying with the ASTM D491 specifications for asphalt used in waterproofing applications. As well as, the SMA mixtures containing such binders can satisfy the performance requirement of high-temperature and much rain zone.

الخلاصةفي هذه الدراسة, تم استخدام نوعين من اللدائن البلاستوميرية وهما البولي أثلين و البولي بروبلين لتطوير الإسفلت. تم مزج تسعة نسب من هذه اللدائن بضمنها الإسفلت غير المطور في تحضير النماذج الإسفلتية الجديدة.أجريت بعد ذلك الفحوصات الريولوجية قبل وبعد إجراء فحص التقادم إضافة إلى إجراء فحص التجانس. كما أجريت فحوصات المارشال, صلادة المارشال, مقاومة الشد غير المباشر, نسبة الفقدان في مقاومة الشد, مقاومة الانضغاط ودليل الرجوع في مقاومة الانضغاط على الخلطات الاسقلتية المطورة. أوضحت النتائج بأن إضافة مثل هذه اللدائن يحسن من الخصائص الريولوجية للإسفلت المطور قبل وبعد إجراء فحص التقادم. كما عكست النتائج بأن النماذج الاسقلتية المطورة تطابق المواصفة الأمريكية D-491 والخاصة بالإسفلت المستخدم لأغراض قطع النضوح وأعمال التسطيح, إضافة إلى ذلك أبدت الخلطات الإسفلتية المطورة بهذه اللدائن مقاومتها لتأثيرات الحرارة العالية والرطوبة.

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