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Article
A Stego-analysis Techniques by SOD Using Statistical Measurements Based on FPGA

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Abstract

Abstract – Steganalysis is the technique of analyzing a stego-image to determine whether it has embedded data or not. More deliberately steganalysis, it can be achieved by coding a program that examines the stego-image structure and measures its statistical properties. This paper presents a novel steganalysis algorithm by detecting the sequence occurrence distribution (SOD) of cover/setgo-image using three types of statistical randomness properties tests: Frequency, Serial and Poker. Where hidden a 2.4Х10-7% distortion of covering image in multiple-LSB (MLSB), the difference achieved detection between cover-stage images as; frequency is 0.91362828; serial is 3.45887 and poker is 160.6455. Also, this proposed algorithm can point to the occurrences of the sequence which is affected by the embedded message, then implemented it by using 8-bit pair code and made by Xilinx-spartan-3A XC3S700AFPGA, with 50 MHz internal clock.


Article
Determination of Enzymatic Antioxidant in Iraqi Patients with Chronic Gastritis

Authors: Noah A. Mahmood --- Shalal M. Hussein --- Wasan A. Bakir
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2008 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 26-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Infection of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors include a variety of proteins that are involved in its pathogenesis, such as VacA and CagA. Another group of virulence factors is clearly important for colonization of H.pylori in the gastric mucosa. These include urease, motility factors (flagellin), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Because of this organism's microaerophilic nature and the increased levels of reactive oxygen in the infected host, we expect that other factors involved in the response to oxidative stress are likely to be required for virulence. Superoxide dismutase is a nearly ubiquitous enzyme among organisms that are exposed to toxic environments. In this study, we measured the SOD in serum of 80 patients complain from chronic gastritis and infected with H.pylori. 37 patients infected with H.pylori have the CagA gene, and 13 patients are not and also measured the SOD in 30 control groups that not infected with H.pylori. Serum level of SOD was significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients with chronic gastritis compared to controls. Also significantly higher (p<0.001) in patients with chronic gastritis infected with H.pylori positive CagA than patients infected with H.pylori negative CagA.

إصابة الغشاء المخاطي للمعدة ببكتريا الHelicobacter pylori تترافق مع التهاب المعدة المزمن والقرحة المعدية وسرطان المعدة. عوامل الضراوة الخاصة بهذه البكتريا تتضمن أنواع من البروتينات التي تشارك في أحداث في المراضية وهي ال CagA و VagA . مجموعة أخرى من عوامل الضراوة تكون مهمة في تكوين المستعمرات في الغشاء المخاطي المعدي منها اليوريز و عامل الحركة وأنزيم ال (SOD) Superoxide dismutase الذي يتواجد في الكائنات التي تتعرض إلى وسط سام. في هذه الدراسة تم قياس مستوى الـ SOD في مصل 80 مريض كانوا يعانون من التهاب المعدة المزمن ومصابين ببكتريا ال H.pylori منهم 37 مريض مصابين ال H.pylori الحاملة لل CagA و13 مريض مريض مصابين ال H.pylori لكن غير حاملة لهذا الجين . وكانت مجموعة السيطرة تتكون من 30 شخص بحالة صحية سليمة وغير مصابين بالبكتريا. وجد أن مستوى الـ SODيزداد معنوياً (p<0.001) في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المعدة المزمن مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة ويزداد معنويا في مرضى التهاب المعدة المزمن المصابين ببكتريا ال H.pylori والحاملة للـ CagA (p<0.05) مقارنة بمرضى التهاب المعدة المزمن المصابين بالبكتريا ولكن غير حاملة للـ CagA.


Article
ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN THALASSEMIC PATIENTS
العوامل المضادة لاكسدة الكريات في مرضى الثلاسيميا

Authors: Najat AL-Duliami نجاة عبد الرزاق --- Raad J. Musa رعد جابر موسى --- Subuh S. AL-Mudalal صبح سالم المدلل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2005 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-44
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: increased membrane lipid peroxidation in patients with thalassemia has been reported suggesting that superoxide radicals generated in excess following auto-oxidation of isolated hemoglobin chains is an important contributor to the hemolytic process.Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of patients with beta-thalassemia in comparison to healthy people.Methods: Red cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and red cell catalase activity were measured in the biochemistry department for the period from January 2003 to October 2003, 76 patients with beta-thalassemia, 14 patients with beta-thalassemia minor and 19 healthy controls were studied.Results: Erythrocytes of patients with beta-thalassemia major had significantly higher SOD than control (p<0.0004). Red cell catalase activity of thalassemia minor patients was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). In thalassemic patients, the more anemic patients have significantly higher SOD activity, but this correlation was not present between anaemic patients & catalase activity.Conclusion: Red cell superoxide dismutase activity was greatly increased in homozygous beta-thalassemia, and inversely correlated with severity of anaemia.Keyword: SOD, Catalase, Thalassemia

خلفية الدراسة: ان زيادة اكسدة شحوم غشاء الكرية الحمراء في مرضى الثلاسيميا يؤدي الى انتاج ايونات السوبر اوكسايد بكميات كبيرة و هذا هو سبب تحلل كريات الدم الحمراء في مرضى الثلاسيميا.هدف الدراسة: اجريت هذة الدراسة لمغرفة حالة اكسدة شحوم غشاء الكرية الحمراء في مرضى الثلاسيميا و كذلك قياس العوامل المضادة لاكسدة الخلية.طريقة العمل: اجري فحص انزيمات السوبر اوكسايد و الكتاليز لستة و سبعون مريضا للثلاسيميا الثقيلة و اربعة عشر مريضا للثلاسيميا الخفيفة و تسعة عشر اصحاء. النتائج : وجد بان مرضى الثلاسيميا الثقيلة لديهم انزيم السوبر اوكسايد نسبة اعلى (و مهم من ناحية احصائية) من الاصحاء، بينما المرضى المصابين بالثلاسيميا الخفيفة لديهم انزيم الكتاليز نسبة اعلى (و مهم من ناحية احصائية) من الاصحاء و كذلك اضهرت النتائج بانه كلما قلت نسبة الهيموغلوبين عند مرضى الثلاسيميا الثقيلة كلما ازدادت نسبة انزيم السوبر اوكسايد.الاستنتاج: انزيم السوبر اوكسايد يكون اكثر في مرضى الثلاسيميا الثقيلة و تتناسب كميته بشكل عكسي كلما قلت نسبة الهيموغلوبين.مفتاح الكلمات: ثلاسيميا، سوبر اوكسايد، كتاليز


Article
Zinc, Copper, and Superoxide Dismutase in Spermatozoa of Patients with Asethenospermia

Authors: Dr.Mahmoud H. Hadwan --- Ferdous A. Jabir --- Aqeel H. Tarish --- Jabir A. Jabir
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2009 Volume: 2 no.6, 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 420-428
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

objective:To determine the level of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Zinc and Copper inthe seminal and spermatozoal of patients with asthenospermia.Setting: All semen samples were collected in the infertility unit of the laboratory (inAmel clinic for detection and treatment of infertility/Iraq. Hilla city) after a 3-5 day period ofsexual abstinence, then incubated at 37°C and analyzed within 1 h.Methods:The study was conducted on 30 patients and compared to 20 controls. Statisticalanalysis between group 1 (controls) and group 2 (patients) was performed by the student's t -test. Zinc and copper content was assayed by atomically spectrophotography,SOD enzyme wasmeasured by biochemical assay. This work was undertaken to assess oxidative stress andantioxidant.Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in seminal and spermatozoalsuperoxide dismutase activity and copper content. While Zinc were significantly decreased.Conclusions :The results of this study suggest higher oxygen-free radicalproduction, evidenced by increased superoxide dismutase activities, support to theoxidative stress in asthenospermia. The increased activities of antioxidant enzyme may be acompensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress.Keywords:Zinc,Copper,Superoxide dismutase(SOD),Human sperm

Keywords

Zinc --- Copper --- Superoxide dismutase --- SOD --- Human sperm


Article
Clinical and Biochemical Study in urinary stone patients in Babylon Province

Authors: Emad Hassan AL-Jaff --- Maha Fathel Smaism --- Safa Aimer Ali
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 836-842
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background:Evaluate the oxidative stress in patient with different types of urinary stone by measuring the total antioxidant capacity, study the oxidative stress in cystinuria patients, study the changes in superoxide dismutase activity and Cu, Zn level in sera of different types of urinary stone patient.Patient and method: 0ne hundred patients (67males and 33 females) in the age group ranging from 5-75 years old,and forty apparently healthy individual(20 male and 20 female) in the age group ranging from (6-70). admitted to Al-Hila Teaching Hospital, Urology Department from the 1st of January 2013 till 30th of June 2013. All patients underwent full history and physical examination including: age, gender, family history of urolithiasis, past history of recurrent stone and any current medical diseases. the antioxidant determination by add 100 μl Cu2+ working solution to all standard and sample wells and cover the plate and incubate at room temperature for 1.5 hours, Read the absorbance at 570 nm using the plate reader.the superoxide dismutase determination by take 50 ml of serum and 1 ml of tris base, 1 ml of pyrogallole . After the addition of pyrogallol ,immediately read the absorbance spectrophotometriclly at 420 nm against blank .Results :Serum concentration of Total antioxidant capacity(SOD) was decrease significantly in patients with urinary stone when compared with control group (p<0.001) in uric acid stone, (p<0.05) in calcium oxalate stone,(p<0.05) in calcium phosphate stone, The concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase (SOD) was decrease significantly in patient with urinary stone compere to control group, The result between male and female of the patients show significant decrease when compare with the male and female of the control.Conclusion:The study show lowerlevel Superoxide dismutase activity ,Increased levels of Total antioxidant indicate to absorption uric acid and the activation of antioxidant enzymes as an adaptation to the oxidative stress,The antioxidant strength is further decreased by lower activity of SOD.


Article
Cytotoxicity of 1, 2-Dihydroxybenzene Towards Hep-2 and AMGM5 Cancer Cell Lines in Presence of SuperOxidase Dismutase and Peroxidase .

Author: Marwa I. Salman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 74-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The cytotoxic effect of 1,2-Dihydroxybenzene(catechol) was studied in human cancer cell lines, Epidermoid larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) and Cerebral glioblastoma multiforme (AMGM5), catechol undergo autoxidizes in physiological buffer to quinones. The results showed that catechol has a fatal effect to these cells after 72h of exposure .This toxicity was connected to the creation of quinones. There was a noticeable defeat of cell viability in a dose reliant manner in both cell type. Cytotoxicity was vetoed by the adding of 100ul SOD, while the addion of 500 ul POD or SOD combined with POD did not upturn the inhibition encouraged by SOD alone in both cells type.

Keywords

AMGM5 --- Hep-2 --- SOD --- 1 --- 2-dihydroxybenzen.


Article
Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride
التأثير الوقائي للمستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول في عملية تكوين النطف ومستوى مضادات الاكسدة في الجرذان البالغة المعرضة لرباعي كلوريد الكربون

Author: M.A. Ahmed ميسر عبدالله احمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894/20711255 Year: 2019 Volume: 33 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. Groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1 ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3 ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

هدفت الدراسة إلى التقصي عن كفاءة المستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول Alhagi maurorum ضد الإجهاد التأكسدي المحدث بوساطة رباعي كلوريد الكربون (CCl4) في عملية تكوين النطف وحالة مضادات الأكسدة في ذكور الجرذان البالغة. جففت اوراق النبات ومن ثم تمت عملية الاستخلاص. تضمنت التجربة 24 جرذاً من الذكور قسمت إلى 4 مجموعات 6 عينات في كل مجموعة. تم معاملة المجموعات لمدة 30 يوما على النحو الاتي: الأولى كانت مجموعة السيطرة التي أعطيت 1 مل المحلول الفسلجي 0,9% والمجموعة الثانية أعطيت CCl4 3 مل/كغم من وزن الجسم لمرة واحدة، المجموعة الثالثة والرابعة أعطيت المستخلص المائي لوحده 300 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم والمستخلص المائي سوية مع CCl4 على التوالي. أدت المعاملة بمركب CCl4 انخفاضاً معنوياً في عد النطف، النطف الحية، النطف الطبيعية، مستوى الكلوتاثايون والسوبر اوكسايد ديسميوتيز، وزيادة معنوية في نسبة النطف الميتة، المشوهة ومستوى المالوندايالديهايد MDA بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. بينما لم تظهر المعاملة بالمستخلص المائي لوحده فروقا معنوية للمتغيرات المدروسة بالمقارنة مع السيطرة. وأدت المعاملة بالمستخلص المائي للعاقول سوية مع CCl4 لزيادة معنوية في عد النطف، النطف الحية والطبيعية ومستوى GSH وانخفاضا معنويا في نسبة النطف الميتة والمشوهة ومستوى MDA بالمقارنة مع مجموعة CCl4. نستنتج من ذلك أن للمستخلص المائي لنبات العاقول تأثيراً إيجابياً في عملية التكاثر ومستوى مضادات الاكسدة في الجرذان المعرضة للإجهاد التأكسدي.

Keywords

Alhagi maurorum --- CCl4 --- spermatogenesis --- GSH --- SOD --- MDA


Article
Evaluation of Serum Malondialdehyde, Glutathione peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, and Catalase levels in Hormonal Contraceptives in Tikrit City

Authors: Entedhar R.Sarhat --- Siham A. Wadi --- Mutaz S. Ahmeid --- Shaima N.Mustafa --- et al.
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-20
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Background: Oxidative stress is associated with the development of several disorders including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among conditions known to influence oxidative stress, the use of oral contraception (OC) in women has been a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of the study report to evaluate the impact of oral contraceptive formulation containing 30 mg oestrogen (ethyloestradiol) and 1 mg progestin (norethisterone acetate) on lipid peroxidation, GPx, SOD, and catalase levels. Patients & Methods: The present study was conducted in Family planning in Salahalddin Teaching Hospital in Tikrit province during the period from Feb 2016 until March 2017, Serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and , malondialdehyde (MDA), Super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels were estimated in 50 women who were using oral contraceptives for at least 1 year. Fifty- contraceptive users participated in the study as a control group. They were drawn from the same population and matched for age with the contraceptive-users group. Results: The serum level of MDA, and GPx was significantly higher in women were using oral contraceptive than control group(11.872 ± 1.13 μM vs. 9.148 ± 1.179 μM respectively, 45.140 U/g Hb ±2.265 vs. 29.86 U/g Hb ±2.31 ) respectively . On the other hand the serum SOD, catalase values in women using oral contraceptives were significantly lower than control group.( 2.72 U/L ± 0.479 vs. 3.5599 U/L ± 0.496 , 22.452 K/ml ± 2.045 vs. 26.370 K/ml ± 1.523 ) respectively. Conclusion: Oral contraceptive pills showed a significant decreasing effect on the antioxidant status of its users .Routine monitoring of the antioxidant status of women on oral contraceptive is recommended.

Keywords

Oral contraception --- MDA --- GPx --- SOD --- Oxidative stress.


Article
Oxidative stress status in hypertensive patients on amlodipine treatment

Authors: Bahaa Noor Madhloom --- Ameena Ryhan Diajil
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2020 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress may contribute to the etiology of hypertension in humans. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms, causing damage to biological macromolecules and dysregulation of normal metabolism and physiology. Amlodipine as an antihypertensive agent is a long-acting calcium channel blocker that dilates blood vessels and improves blood flow.The aim of this study was to assess the oxidative stress in hypertensive patients on Amlodipine treatment through the assessment of salivary Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a marker of oxidative stress. Material and method: 60 individuals were included in this study, divided into two groups; the first group composed of 30 hypertensive patients on Amlodipine antihypertensive agent. The second group, the control group, composed of 30 healthy subjects without any systemic disease and with almost healthy oral hygiene. Intraoral examination was done for each individual and salivary samples were collected with the salivary flow rate (F/R) which was calculated in ml per minute and pH was measured by pH meter. Salivary MDA and SOD were analyzed by using ELISA kit based on the principle of competitive enzyme immunoassay technique; the concentrations of markers were measured by spectrophotometer at 450nm in a microplate reader. Results: Salivary MDA was significantly higher in hypertensive patients compared to control, while salivary SOD was significantly lower in patients than control group. Salivary flow rate and pH was significantly lower in patients as compared to the control group.Conclusions: There is a relation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Salivary MDA and SOD can be used as potential marker for monitoring patients with Hypertension.


Article
Association of Oxidative Stress Markers with Cholelithiasis
مصاحبة عوامل الاجهاد التأكسدي مع حصوة المرارة

Authors: Omer S.Sadiem عمرصلاح صديم --- Mohamed A. Taher --- Seenaa S. Amin
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2014 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 57-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Oxidative stress markers are of important diagnostic parameters for many disorders including cholelithiasis. This present study has aimed to assess the state of oxidative stress in symptomatic radiographically confirmed (Cholelithiasis) patients by measuring two parameters used as oxidative stress parameters which are serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study was carried out on 100 patient diagnosed as (Cholelithiasis) patients with 30 age and sex matched healthy controls by measuring serum (MPO) and (SOD) by ELIZA technique .Results showed significantly decrease in antioxidant enzyme(SOD) and increase in serum level of (MPO) comparing with controls.

عوامل الاجهاد التاكسدي هي مؤشرات قوية للعديد من الحالات المرضية بما في ذلك (حصوة المرارة). البيانات الموجودة على العلاقة بين حصوة المرارة وعلامات الاجهاد التاكسدي محفزة ولكن محدودة . لذلك هدفت الدراسة الحالية الى تقييم حالة الاجهاد التاكسدي لدى مرضى حضوة المرارة المشخصين بالاشعة السينية من خلال عاملين من عوامل الاجهاد التاكسدي MPO & SOD) (. شملت الدراسة 100 مريض مشخصين بحصوة المرارة مع 30 من الاصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة مطابقة لمجموعة المرضى في العمر والجنس , واظهرت النتائج انخفاض معنوي بمستوى انزيم SOD مع ارتفاع معنوي بمستوى MPO بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة.

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