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Article
Environmental assessment of heavy metals in surface and groundwater at Samarra City, Central Iraq

Authors: Mahmood Fadhil Abed --- Balsam Salim Al-Tawash --- Shatha Amer Ibrahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1277-1484
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Urban Samarra City is characterized by high population density and wide variation in land use, has led to many environmental problems, for this purpose the environmental assessment became an urgent need for surface and ground water at study area. Three water samples from Tigris River and six groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co ,Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al, Li, Be, Se, V, U, Sr. Most heavy metal concentrations have shown higher level than standards, such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al ,Li ,Be, Se, V, that might be due to anthropogenic activities such as agricultural and the heavy use of fertilizers, besides other activities among them industrial . All water samples have higher concentration level of Uranium except (SW1, SW2, SW3, GW1) might be due to military activity. On the other hand all samples were polluted in Co except SW2, GW4, high value of Co may be caused by industrial processes and oil product spills. Physical and chemical properties values which have obtained in this study are pH, EC, TDS, TSS, DO, BOD,COD and turbidity. Water analyses reveal unacceptable values for physical and chemical parameters according to WHO standard and IQS2009 limits for drinking water, BOD, EC have shown high values in all surface and groundwater samples. Whereas, high values of TDS, COD and turbidity only in ground water samples. The water is not drinkable according to Water Quality Index (WQI) all values are above 100 and, in the sequence (GW1>GW5>GW4>GW3>GW6>GW2), the water quality index of surface water (SW3>SW2>SW1). Mixing of the shallow groundwater and Tigris River water show various patterns affected by other factors such as the aquifer recharge and evaporation, especially at the shallowest parts.


Article
The Effect of Religious Monuments in the Plan of the ArabianIslamic city Samarra City – Case Study
أﺜر اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺴﺎﻤراء – ﺤﺎﻟﺔ دراﺴﯿﺔ

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Abstract

Religious monument is considered as one of the most distinguished elements which form one of the components of architectural structure, religious monument’s importance stands out from the religious affiliation of the city’s people (Spiritual affiliation). Also considered one of the distinguished architectural elements and recognized architectural identity, which have drawn the mental image for the formation of religious cities in people’s memory. The research depends on studying the plans of the religious cities specifically the Arabian Islamic cities; for its religious importance and the clearness of the religious factor’s impact in its creation and planning, and from reviewing the previous studies those dealt with analyzing the Arabian Islamic city the research problem had been determined in “There is a knowledge gap about the role of religious monuments in planning of the Arabic Islamic cities”,the research hypothesis have been formulated as The religious monument has a regulatory role in planning the Arabian Islamic city, in its impact on axial connection on both local stage and global level. The research has defined the religious monuments as landmarks or architectural elements of the city’s plan which differentiate in attendant appearance in people’s memory, which is generally showing in worship places, from all that the research’s target has been determined as: Clarifying religious monuments' role in Planning of Arab Islamic cities according to the impact that it have played as a regulatory element for the urban fabric. Samarra have been chosen for the required practical study, considering it’s one of the most important Arab Islamic cities, for what it has of religious monuments, which perform as regulatory power for the local and global connection, research confirms from experience research’s letter using (GIS: ArcView 3.3) computer software for the chosen urban formation that: the impact of the religious factor reflects on the components of the urban fabric of the Arabian Islamic city from both of the form and the space in its planning and regulation, which shows on the group of planning elements for the city, also the religious monuments have an effect on the orientation of spatial connection, and creating public areas in the city, and preparing complete spaces which have a high permeability around its locations, As well as its effect on the most complete distribution type in other parts of the system.

ﯿﻌد اﻟﻤﻌﻠم اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ أﺤد أﻫم اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻤﻛوﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ وﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻛل اﺤد ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت اﻟﻬﯿﻛل اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﻲ، إذ ﺘﺒرز اﻫﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻠم اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﻤن ﺨﻼل اﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎء اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ )اﻟروﺤﻲ( ﻟﺸﺎﻏﻠﻲ اﻟﻤدن، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺘﻌد ﻤن اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﯿزة واﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻬوﯿﺔ اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ، واﻟﺘﻲ رﺴﻤت اﻟﺼورة اﻟذﻫﻨﯿﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ذاﻛرة اﻟﻨﺎس اﻟﺠﻤﻌﯿﺔ. إذ اﻋﺘﻤد اﻟﺒﺤث دراﺴﺔ اﻟﻤﺨطط ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤدن اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ وﺘﺤدﯿداً اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ؛ ﻷﻫﻤﯿﺘﻬﺎ اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ووﻀوح أﺜر اﻟﻌﺎﻤل اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺸﺄﺘﻬﺎ وﺘﺨطﯿطﻬﺎ، وﻤن ﺨﻼل اﺴﺘﻌراض اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎوﻟت ﺘﺤﻠﯿل اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﺤددت اﻟﻤﺸﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺜﯿﺔ: "ﺒوﺠود ﻗﺼور ﻤﻌرﻓﻲ ﺤول اﻟدور اﻟﺘﻨظﯿﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ"، وﻋﻠﯿﻪ ﺼﯿﻐت ﻓرﻀﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث: ﺒﺎن ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ دوراً ﺘﻨظﯿﻤﯿﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ، ﺒﺄﺜرﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻤﺤورﯿﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘوﯿﯿن اﻟﺸﻤوﻟﻲ واﻟﻤوﻀﻌﻲ. ﻋرف اﻟﺒﺤث اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ: اﻟﺸواﺨص أو اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻌﻤراﻨﯿﺔ ﻀﻤن ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺘﺎز ﺒﻬﯿﺌﺔ ﺸﻛﻠﯿﺔ ﺤﺎﻀرة ﻓﻲ ذاﻛرة اﻟﻨﺎس اﻟﺠﻤﻌﯿﺔ، واﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒدور اﻟﻌﺒﺎدة ﺒﺸﻛل ﻋﺎم، وﻋﻠﯿﻪ ﻓﺄن ﻫدف اﻟﺒﺤث ﺘﺤدد ﻓﻲ: ﺘوﻀﯿﺢ دور اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨظﯿم ﻤﺨطط اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ وﻓق اﻷﺜر اﻟذي ﺘﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﻛﻌﻨﺼر ﻤﻨظم ﻟﻠﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري. ﺘم اﻨﺘﺨﺎب ﻤدﯿﻨﺔ ﺴﺎﻤراء ﻟﻠدراﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ؛ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ واﺤدة ﻤن أﻫم اﻟﻤدن اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻤﯿز ﺒﻪ ﻤن ﻤﻌﺎﻟم دﯿﻨﯿﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻛﻘوة ﻤﻨظﻤﺔ ﻟﻼرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻤوﻀﻌﯿﺔ واﻟﺸﻤوﻟﯿﺔ، وﻤن اﺨﺘﺒﺎر ﻓرﻀﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤث ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺒراﻤﺞ )GIS: ArcView 3.3( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﺤﻀرﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺨﺒﺔ ﺘوﺼل اﻟﻰ ان: اﺜر اﻟﻌﺎﻤل اﻟدﯿﻨﻲ ﯿﻨﻌﻛس ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت اﻟﻨﺴﯿﺞ اﻟﺤﻀري ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﯿﺔ اﻻﺴﻼﻤﯿﺔ ﻤن ﻛﺘﻠﺔ وﻓﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨطﯿطﻬﺎ وﺘﻨظﯿﻤﻬﺎ، وﯿﺒرز ذﻟك اﻟﺘﺄﺜﯿر ﻤن ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﺘﺨطﯿطﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤدﯿﻨﺔ، ﻛﻤﺎ ان ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟم اﻟدﯿﻨﯿﺔ أﺜر ﻓﻲ ﺘوﺠﯿﻪ اﻻرﺘﺒﺎطﺎت اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺌﯿﺔ، وﺨﻠق اﻟﻤﻨﺎطق اﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤدﯿﻨﺔ وﺘﻬﯿﺌﺔ ﻓﻀﺎءات ﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ ذات ﻨﻔﺎذﯿﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺤول ﻤواﻀﻌﻬﺎ، ﻓﻀﻼً ﻋن أﺜرﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ طﺒﯿﻌﺔ ﺘوزﯿﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﺎور اﻻﻛﺜر ﺘﻛﺎﻤﻼ ﻓﻲ اﺠزاء اﻟﻨظﺎم اﻻﺨرى


Article
Survey Study of Most Important Diseases Which Infected the Broiler Farms in Samarra City
دراسة مسحية لاهم الامراض التي تصيب حقول دجاج اللحم في مدينة سامراء

Author: A. Ul-Jabbar M. H. Aljoburi عبدالجبار محمد حسين الجبوري
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18131646 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 4 Pages: 131-138
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This study is designed to diagnose the most important diseases affecting the chicken flocks of in the city Samarra, which included (2073) a pathological cases obtained from the flocks scattered in the city during the period from( 9/11/2015 to 15/3/2017), These cases were diagnosed in the poultry laboratory located in the veterinary clinic in Samarra city of the veterinary hospital in Salah al-Din, the results of the study showed the diagnosis of the following cases: Occupied of the Newcastle disease was the highest infection by (819) the cases of ratio (39.5%). There were also the cases of Gumboro reached (209) cases of infection (10.1%) were recorded. the case of Salmonellosis was the number (350) were registered by percentage (16.9%), as well as diagnosed cases of Air sacculitis (248) the cases of the ratio (12%). With regard to the internal parasites, the number of pathological cases was (237) the case of ratio (11.4%) The number of cases of the Nematodes ( Ascaridia galli) (66), (Heterakis gallinarum) (39),the incidence of the Protozoal parasites Eimeria spp (83), and Cestoda (Raillietina Tetragona) have reached (49). In addition to what has been mentioned, the study has recorded cases of external parasites, the number of such cases (210) and the proportion of (10.1%),represented the Lice (Cucltogaster heterograbhus) (68), (Menopon gallinae ) (55)the Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) (39), and the Soft tick, Argas Persicus (48) , cases from the total diagnosed of the pathological cases. The study concluded that the incidence of viral diseases had the highest ratio of infection, followed by Salmonellosis and Air sacculitis, was also the cases of internal and external parasites infection had been recorded.

صممت هذه الدراسة لآجل تشخيص اهم الامراض التي تصيب حقول دجاج اللحم في مدينة سامراء حيث شمل (2073) حالة مرضية تم الحصول عليها من الحقول المنتشرة في المدينة خلال الفترة من 9/ 11 / 2015 ولغاية 15 / 3 / 2017 حيث تم تشخيص تلك الحالات في المختبر الخاص بالدواجن الموجود في المستوصف البيطري في مدينة سامراء التابع للمستشفى البيطري في صلاح الدين , اذ اظهرت نتائج الدراسة تشخيص الحالات الاتية: احتلت الاصابة بمرض النيوكاسل اعلى اصابة اذ بلغت (819) حالة وبنسبة (39.5%), كما سجلت حالات اصابة بمرض الكمبورو بلغت (209) حالة بنسبة اصابة (10.1%) , كما تم تسجيل حالات اصابة بمرض السالمونيلا كانت بعدد (350 (حالة بنسبة (16.9%) ,كذلك شخصت حالات مرضية للإصابة بالتهاب الاكياس الهوائية (248) حالة وبنسبة (12%) اما فيما يخص الاصابة بالطفيليات الداخلية فقد بلغت عدد الحالات المرضية (237) حالة وبنسبة (11.4%) اذ بلغ عدد حالة الاصابة بالديدان الخيطيةAscaridia galli (66) حالة, Heterakis gallinarum (39), الاصابة بطفيليات الاوالي Eimeria spp, (83), والديدان الشريطية (Raillietina tetragona ) بلغت (49) .بالاضافة الى ما تم ذكره فان الدراسة قد سجلت وجود حالات اصابة بالطفيليات الخارجية بلغ عدد تلك الحالات (210) وبنسبة اصابة (10.1%) متمثلةً بالقمل(Cucltogaster heterograbhus), (68) Menopon) (gallinae (55) والحلم (Dermanyssus gallinae) (39) والقراد اللين (Argas persicus) (48), حالة من مجموع الحالات المرضية المشخصة. استنتج من هذه الدراسة بان الاصابة بالأمراض الفيروسية كانت اعلى نسبة اصابة وتليها الاصابة بالسالمونيلا والتهاب الاكياس الهوائية كما تم تسجيل حالات مرضية للإصابة بالطفيليات الداخلية والخارجية .


Article
Analysis of Spatial and Functional Efficiency of Health Services in Samarra City, 2017
تحليل الكفاءة المكانية والوظيفية للخدمات الصحية في مدينة سامراء لعام 2017

Authors: Nuaman Hussien Attia نعمان حسين عطية --- Ali Latif Mahmoud علي لطيف محمود
Journal: Journal Of Al-Frahedis Arts مجلة آداب الفراهيدي ISSN: 20749554 / 26638118 Year: 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 02 | Part I Pages: 304-334
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The study aims to identify the reality of the health services in Samarra for the year 2017 according to the specific spatial and health criteria and indicators and to apply them based on the techniques of spatial analysis within the GIS environment and the approved planning standards to show their degree of efficiency and efficiency in the city. The study area suffers from poor distribution and inadequate, which causes pressure on the service provided and negatively affects the health level of the population. The study concluded with a set of conclusions and recommendations that are hoped to be adopted to modify gaps in the service system As a basis for measuring the development and progress of communities and improving the quality of urban life in the city in general.

تهدف الدراسة التعرف على واقع الخدمات الصحية في مدينة سامراء لعام 2017 وفق المعايير والمؤشرات المكانية والصحية المحددة لها وتطبيقها بالاعتماد على تقنيات التحليل المكاني ضمن بيئة نظم المعلومات الجغرافية (GIS) والمعايير التخطيطية المعتمدة لبيان درجة كفايتها وكفاءتها في المدينة وقد اظهر نتائج التحليل ان الخدمات الصحية في منطقة الدراسة تعاني من سوء التوزيع وعدم كفايتها مما يسبب ضغط على الخدمة المقدمة ويؤثر سلباً على المستوى الصحي للسكان وقد خلصت الدراسة بجملة من الاستنتاجات والتوصيات من المؤمل الأخذ بها لتعديل الثغرات التي تنتاب منظومة الخدمة الصحية باعتبارها أساساً لقياس تطور وتقدم المجتمعات وتحسين نوعية الحياة الحضرية في المدينة بشكل عام.

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