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Article
The Prevalence of Microorganisms in H1N1 Patients Compared to Seasonal Influenza in a Sample of Iraqi Patients

Authors: Kadhim A. Kadhim --- Yasir A. Atahia --- Thana M. Zayer --- Saba S. Khazaal --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2011 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 81-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study provides valuable information on secondary microbial infections in H1N1 patients compared to Seasonal Influenza in Iraqi Patients. Nasopharynx swabs were collected from (12 ) patients infected with Seasonal influenza (11 from Baghdad and 1 Patient from south of Iraq) ,and ( 22 ) samples from patients with 2009 H1N1 ( 20 from Baghdad and 2 from south of Iraq). The results show that the patients infected with 2009 H1N1 Virus were younger than healthy subjects and those infected with seasonal influenza. And the difference reached to the level of significance (p< 0.01) compared with healthy subjects.Two cases infected with 2009 H1N1 virus (9.1%) were from south of the Iraq and remaining 20 cases were from Baghdad . Polymicrobial isolates from nasopharynx swab were observed in patients infected with 2009 H1N1 virus. Polybacterial infections (2-7 microorganisms) and fungal infection were reported in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) and 5 out of 22 (22.7 %) respectively.The predominant isolated microorganisms were Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were found in 95.2 % , 95.2 % and 90.5 % respectively .The results also show that seven microorganisms were isolated from 10 (47.6 %) patients infected with 2009 H1N1 , no microorganism was isolated from patients infected with seasonal influenza or healthy persons.

(H1N ھدفت الدراسة الحالیة الى معرفة المسببات المایكروبیة الثانویة عند المصابین بفایرس أنفلونزا الخنازیر (فایرس 1عند المرضى العراقیین ، أذ تم جمع نماذج من (Seasonal Influenza) ومقارنتھا بتلك المعزولة من المصابین بالأنفلونزا الموسمیةالأنف والحنجرة من 12 مصاب بالأنفلونزا الموسمیة ( 11 من بغداد و مصاب واحد من جنوب العراق) ، و 22 مصاب بفایرسھم من الفئات العمریة الأقل مقارنة H1N 20 من بغداد و 2 من جنوب العراق). أظھرت النتائج ان المصابین بفایرس 1 ) H1N1تصل الى أكثر من H1N بالمصابین بالأنفلونزا الموسمیة والأصحاء ، وان ھناك أصابات مایكروبیة متعددة عند المصابین بفایرس 1و Streptococcus pyogenes نوع مایكروبي واحد ( بكتیري وفطري) ، وان الأنواع البكتیریة السائدة ھيبنسبة عزل 90,5 % .كذلك أظھرت Streptococcus pneumoniae بنسبة عزل 95,2 % و Staphylococcus aureusبینما لم تعزل من المصابین بالأنفلونزا الموسمیة والأصحاء. H1N النتائج عزل 7 أنواع بكتیریة من عشر مرضى مصابین بفایرس 1


Article
Molecular Detection ofPandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus in SARI Patient inSouthIraqGovernorates using Real-Time PCR

Author: Nadira S. Mohamed1, Sabah M. Abd Al Aema2, Mohammad J. Al-Jassani3,FaisalG.Nasser 4, Eman M.Aufi4
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-20
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract:Human influenza virus surveillance has a pronounced seasonal cycle.Rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza viruses is important to enhance our influenza reasserting in Iraq. A total of 869 samples were collected fromhospitalizedpatientswith Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI)fromsix south Iraq governorates( Najaf, Qadisiyah, Maysan, Muthanna, DhiQarand Basrah ) during the year 2013. Approximately 29.34%of the cases were belong to the Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 which predominant on the seasonal flue20.71% of all suspected SARI patients.Male patients showed higher percentage than female patients 153(59.99%)and102(39.99% respectively).The highest peak of H1N1 infection was recorded in age group > 40 years old69 (27.05%)fallowed by age group 14-19 years old which represented 52 (20.39%)in male patients. In female patient the pattern was different the highest peak was observed in age group 19-40 years old41(16.07%) fallowed by age group > 40 years old32(12.54%).Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 activity in Iraq start increasing in winter season, particularly in January,and toward the end of February in some governorates and my extend to March in others.


Article
Medical Staff Knowledge about Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Karbala Hospitals - Iraq

Authors: Muntassir K Saod --- Jamal M Alkhudhairi
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 152-157
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Seasonal influenza is an acute highly infectious viral infection. Its short incubation period, and efficient person-to-person transmission, makes it hazardous to patients and staff in health care facilities. Doctors are often exposed to influenza during their work, acting as vectors, passing infection to patients. Influenza vaccines can be either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, or Live attenuated influenza vaccine. Seasonal influenza vaccines are valid for one year only, because of the need to adapt (update) the vaccine strain to the changing circulating field virus. Vaccine efficacy for healthy adults and most children ranges (80-100%). Seasonal influenza control plan in Iraq targets those with chronic disease, pilgrims, & all health care workers. Aim of the study: As this vaccine is new in Iraq, this research aims to determine medical staff knowledge level for using the vaccine in preventive programs.Subjects & methods: A cross sectional study conducted in conveniently selected 7 health institutes in Karbala / Iraq, from 1st Feb through May 2012. From the 321 available medical staff, 281 participated after verbal consent (Response rate 88%). Apart from socio-demographics, the questionnaire enquired about Influenza prevention, vaccine (specification, contraindication, and immunity, schedule, & risk groups). Knowledge items were scored and then summed up to get total score. The 50th & 75th centiles were taken as cut-offs for poor/fair, and fair/good knowledge respectively. SPSS V.16 was used for data analysis, with P value of ≤ 0.05 denoting significance.Results: Only 27% of medical staff studied in Karbala received influenza vaccine while 43% had miss-believe of vaccine unavailability in health institutes, and 33% untrusted the vaccine. Poor influenza vaccine knowledge among medical providers was high (72%). Knowledge was not associated with gender, medical occupation type, and education, but significantly associated with doctors-field of medical practice, and vaccination status.Conclusion: Medical staff Knowledge about influenza vaccine is low. MOH Policy makers need to update Medical staff about influenza vaccine via continuing medical education.


Article
Medical Staff Knowledge about Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Karbala Hospitals - Iraq
معارف الكوادر الطبية للقاح الانفلونزا الموسمية في مستشفيات كربلاء المقدسة – العراق

Authors: Muntassir K Saod منتصر خضر سعود --- Jamal M Alkhudhairi جمال محمود الخضيري
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 5-10
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Seasonal influenza is an acute highly infectious viral infection. Its short incubation period, and efficient person to person transmission, makes it hazardous to patients and staff in health care facilities. Doctors are often exposed to influenza during their work, acting as vectors, passing infection to patients. Influenza vaccines can be either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, or Live attenuated influenza vaccine. Seasonal influenza vaccines are valid for one year only, because of the need to adapt (update) the vaccine strain to the changing circulating field virus. Vaccine efficacy for healthy adults and most children ranges (80-100) %. Seasonal influenza control plan in Iraq targets those with chronic disease, pilgrims, & all health care workers. Aim of the study: As this vaccine is new in Iraq, this research aims to determine medical staff knowlegde level for using the vaccine in preventive programs.Subjects & methods: A cross sectional study conducted in conveniently selected 7 health institutes in Karbala / Iraq, from 1st Feb through May 2012. From the 321 available medical staff, 281 participated after verbal consent (Response rate 88%). Apart from socio-demographics, the questionnaire enquired about Influenza prevention, vaccine (specification, contraindication, immunity, schedule, & risk groups). Knowledge items were scored, and then summed up to get total score. The 50th & 75th centiles were taken as cut-offs for poor/fair, and fair/good knowledge respectively. SPSS V.16 was used for data analysis, with P value of ≤ 0.05 denoting significance.Results: Only 27% of medical staff studied in Karbala received influenza vaccine, and 43% had miss-believe of vaccine unavailability in health institutes, and 33% untrusted the vaccine. Poor influenza vaccine knowledge among medical providers was high (72%). Knowledge was not associated with gender, medical occupation type, and education, but significantly associated with Drs field of medical practice, and vaccination status.Conclusion: Medical staff Knowledge about influenza vaccine is low. MOH Policy makers need to update Medical staff about influenza vaccine via continuing medical education.

الخلفية: الانفلونزا الموسمية مرض فيروسي حاد شديد العدوى. ان قصر فترة حضانة المرض وكفاءة انتقاله من شخص لأخر يجعله ذا خطورة للمرضى والكوادر العاملة في المؤسسات الصحية. غالبا ما يتعرض الاطباء للأنفلونزا خلال عملهم فيصبحون ناقلين للمرض لمرضاهم. لقاح الانفلونزا اما ثلاثي غير حي او حي مضعف، ويكون لقاح الانفلونزا الموسمية صالح لسنة واحدة، لحاجته للتحديث حسب الفيروس المتواجد في البيئة. تتراوح فاعلية اللقاح بين 80-100%. تستهدف خطة السيطرة على الانفلونزا الموسمية في العراق مرضى الامراض المزمنة والحجاج وجميع الكوادر الصحية.هدف الدراسة: لما كان اللقاح جديد على البرنامج العراقي، برزت الحاجة لتحديد مدى معرفة الكوادر ا لطبية لاستخدام اللقاح في البرامج الوقائية.الاشخاص العمل: اجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية في 7 مؤسسات صحية اختيرت بصورة مناسبة في كربلاء / العراق، للفترة من الاول من شباط لغاية ايار 2012. شارك 281 من الكوادر الطبية من أصل 321 متواجدين اثناء البحث (نسبة استجابة 88%). شمل استبيان البحث اضافة الى المتغيرات الاجتماعية السكانية، اسئلة عن الوقاية من الانفلونزا وخصائص اللقاح وموانع التلقيح وجدول التلقيح والفئات المعرضة للخطورة. اعطيت درجات لأسئلة المعرفة لمعرفة الوزن النهائي. اتخذ المئين الخمسيني والخمس وسبعيني كحد فاصل بين المعرفة الضعيفة/المتوسطة والمعرفة المتوسطة/الجيدة بالتعاقب. استخدم برنامج الحزمة الاحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية الاصدار 16 للتحليل الاحصائي على اساس احتمالية ≤ 0.05 للدلالة على الاعتداد الاحصائي.النتائج: فقط 27% من الكوادر الطبية المشمولة بالدراسة في كربلاء كانوا ملقحين بلقاح الانفلونزا. وان 43% من الكوادر كانوا يجهلون توفر اللقاح في المؤسسات الصحية، وان 33% لم تكن لديهم الثقة باستخدام اللقاح. ان 72% من الكوادر الطبية كانوا ضعيفي المعرفة باللقاح. لم ترتبط درجة المعرفة بالجندر والمهنة والتحصيل الدراسي، ولكنها ارتبطت معنويا بنوع الممارسة الطبية للأطباء وحالة التلقيح للشخص.الاستنتاج: وجود ضعف معرفي كبير في إدراك الكوادر الطبية حول لقاح الانفلونزا الموسمية يحتم على راسمي السياسات الصحية في وزارة الصحة تعريف الكوادر الطبية حول اللقاح من خلال برامج التعليم الطبي المستمر.

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