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Article
Sex determination using linear measurements related to the mental and mandibular foramina vertical positions on digital panoramic images

Authors: Sura A. Rashid سرى رشيد --- Jamal Ali جمال علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 59-64
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Identification of gender type is a very important issue in forensic dentistry. The mental and mandibularforamina are important anatomic points in the mandibular region. The objective of this study is to predict the validityof the linear measurements related to the mental and mandibular foramina vertical positions on digital panoramicimages in sex determination.Material and method: A total of 300 Iraqi subjects, (150 male and 150 female) were examined, age distribution ofthem was ranging between (20-49) years old. Four linear vertical measurements were performed on the radiographicimage of each subject on both right and left sides of the mandible (600) sides, to evaluate the validity of the linearmeasurements related to the vertical positions of the mental and mandibular foramina in sex determination.Statistically significant differences were observed in all of the linear measurements between genders where malesalmost have higher measurements than females. Sex of the patient could be successfully identified usingmeasurements carried out in this study. Linear measurements that related to the mandibular foramen verticalposition used in this study can be used as best parameters to predict male gender differentiate it from female, whilethe measurements that related to the mental foramen vertical position ranked after in their discriminating abilities

ان تحدی د الج نس قض یة بالغ ة الاھمی ة ف ي ط ب الاس نان الع دلي وان الثق ب ال ذقني وثق ب الف ك الاس فل ھم ا علامت ان تش ریحیتان ھامت ان ف ي منطق ة الف كالاس فل. تھ دف الدراس ة الحالی ة ال ى معرف ة م دى دق ة القیاس ات الخطی ة للم وقعین العم ودیین لك ل م ن الثق ب ال ذقني وثق ب الف ك الاس فل ف ي ص ور الاش عة(49- البنورامی ة الرقمی ة ف ي تحدی د الج نس. ت م فح ص 300 م واطن عراق ي ( 150 ذك ر و 150 انث ى) كان ت الفئ ات العمری ة لھ م تت راوح ب ین ( 20( س نة ت م تحدی د ارب ع قیاس ات خطی ة راس یة عل ى ص ورة الاش عة البنورامی ة الرقمی ة لك ل ش خصوعل ى ك لا ج انبي الف ك الاس فل الایم ن والایس ر( 600جان ب لتقق یم دق ة القیاس ات الخطی ة للم وقعین العم ودیین لك ل م ن الثق ب ال ذقني وثق ب الف ك الاس فل ف ي تحدی د الج نس. وج د ان ھن اك فروق ات معنوی ة ب ینالجنس ین ف ي جمی ع القیاس ات الخطی ة وكان ت قیاس ات ال ذكور اعل ى منھ ا عن د الان اث. ان ج نس الش خصیمك ن تحدی ده بنج اح باس تخدام القیاس ات الت يطبق ت ف ي ھ ذه الدراس ة. یمك ن الاس تنتاج ب ان القیاس ات الخطی ة الرأس یة للموق ع العم ودي لثق ب الف ك الاس فل یمك ن اس تخدامھا كافض ل مؤش رات لتحدی دالج نس وتمیی ز ال ذكور ع ن الان اث، بینم ا ج اءت بع دھا القیاس ات المتعلق ة ب الموقع العم ودي للثق ب ال ذقني م ن حی ث دقتھ ا ف ي تحدی د الج نس


Article
Molecular genetic analysis role in diagnosis of primary amenorrhea patients

Author: Safaa M. Al-Taei
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 235-239
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Twenty one cases of primary amenorrhea, with poor secondary sexual characters, were studied clinically and genetically to assign SRY gene defect incidence. Different primary amenorrhea categories were diagnosed but only one case shows abnormally positive SRY gene in a 46 XX intersex patient. This case shows defected maleness internal genitalia and variable degree of external genitalia development. However this single case represent an incidence rate of (0.047(4.7%)). Molecular analysis shows accurate and applicable investigation, and recommended to enrolled as a routine investigation in diagnosis of all cases of intersexual risk.


Article
The value of lateral cephalometric image in sex identification

Authors: Aysar Razzaq Ali ايسر رزاق علي --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib لمياء حامد النقيب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 54-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Determination of sex and estimation of stature from the skeleton is vital to medicolegal investigations.Skull is composed of hard tissue and is the best preserved part of skeleton after death, hence, in many cases it is theonly available part for forensic examination. Lateral cephalogram is ideal for the skull examination as it gives detailsof various anatomical points in a single radiograph. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of digitalcephalometric system as quick, easy and reproducible supplement tool in sex determination in Iraqi samples indifferent age range using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements in predicting sex.Materials and Method The sample consisted of 113of true lateral cephalometric radiographs for adults with agerange from 22-43 years old (51 males, 62 females), using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements withthe aid of computer program “AutoCAD 2007”Results: The eleven parameters measured for males and females when compared are statistically significantlydifferent. All cranio-cephalometric measurements gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination bydiscriminant analysis (86.7%). The stepwise selection method gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determinationby discriminant analysis (85.8%). Age showed no statistical difference among the studied age range except for thedistance from Mastoid to Frankfort plane.Conclusion: The lateral cephalometric measurements of craniofacial bones are useful to support sex determinationof Iraqi population in forensic radiographic medicine


Article
Validity of 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomographic Image in Using Craniometrical Measurements of the Skull for Sex Differentiation (An Iraqi Study)

Authors: Noor M. Sadeq --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The skull offers a high resistance of adverse environmental conditions over time, resulting in the greaterstability of the dimorphic features as compared to other skeletal bony pieces. Sex determination of human skeletalconsidered an initial step in its identification. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the validity of 3Dreconstructed computed tomographic images in sex differentiation by using craniometrical measurements at variousparts of the skull.Materials and Method: 3D reconstructed computed tomographic scanning of 100 Iraqi subject, (50 males and 50females) were analyzed with their age range from20-70 years old. Craniometrical linear measurements were locatedand marked on both side of the 3D skull images.Results: For the all parameters measured for sexes the mean value for Male had significantly greater than females with(p value < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic curves was obtained for each variable to observe their overallperformance in sex determination. The area of mastoid triangle was found the best variable in sex differentiation (ROCarea =0.97 for unilateral skull measurements and 0.98 for bilateral measurements).while EU-EU was found to be the leastone.Conclusion: 3D reconstructed Computed tomography scanning is a good diagnostic method for analyzing thecraniometrical measurements of sex determination. sex differentiation for isolated part of the skull when only thefragmentary crania is available, could be achieved and the highest accuracy in sex determination can be obtainedwhether part or complete skull available


Article
Analyzing the measurements of gonial angle by panoramic radiographs for forensic estimation in Iraqi population

Author: Dr. Fatin Khudheir Abbas. B.D.S., M.Sc.* د.فاتن خضير
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 97-104
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: this study aimed to measure the size of gonial angle on digital panoramicradiography and correlate these measurements with age, gender, and dentate statusand this determination of sex and age is necessary in forensic practice andmedicolegal purposes, therefore the usefulness of gonial angle measurements ondigital panoramic images as indicators for sex and age in Iraqi population sample.Materials and Methods: this study conducted on 40 Iraqi subjects (21 male and 19female) aged from (20-80) years. Subjects were divided in to 2 study groups· Dentulous study group ( 20 subjects )· Edentulous study group ( 20 subjects )Using digital panoramic image, the gonial angle was measured on both right andleft sides for 2 study groupsResults:- According to the age: in both dentulous and edentulous study groups, there wassignificant difference in mean gonial angle (GA) between 2 age groups (youngerand older age groups) , the mean GA was significantly higher in the older agegroup , P value < 0.001- According to the gender: in dentulous study group there was non-significantdifference in mean GA between males and females , P value = 0.76 while inedentulous study group , the mean GA was significantly higher in females , Pvalue = 0.01- According to the dentate status: the edentulous study group statisticallysignificant higher mean GA compared to dentulous study group, P value < 0.001Conclusions: gonial angle does show changes with dentition status (edentulism) ,therefore dentist role in qualitative and quantitative assessment of mandibulargonial angle by using digital panoramic radiography has become an essential aidfor human identification in forensic dentistry.


Article
Review: Hormonal Disturbance in Ambiguous Patients

Author: Rand Arkan Abd-AL Kareem , Abdul Hussein Moyet Al-Faisal
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Sex development in humans is divided into two sequential steps: sex determination and sex differentiation. Sex determination refers to the expression of gene networks that direct the development of undifferentiated bipotential gonads into either testes or ovaries. Once developed, testes and ovaries secrete hormones that promote further sex differentiation of the body throughout embryonic development and adulthood. Mutations have been identified in genes that control both steps, leading to Disorders of sex development-DSD. A thorough history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic testing are needed to identify the underlying etiology. DSD are congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. DSD are chronic medical conditions collectively affecting ~1% of the population, frequently requiring life-long care by multiple specialists, and carrying a significant public health burden. Some of DSD are associated with life-threatening events, such as adrenal crises in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. DSD are also associated with increased infertility, cancer, gender dysphoria risks, psychosocial distress, and pervasive challenges to health-related quality of life for patients and families. DSD are broadly classified into three categories: sex chromosome DSD, 46, XY DSD, and 46, XX DSD and are further classified according to the type of gonad found in the patient (ovary, testis, ovotestis). Currently, known etiologies include disorders of gonadal development and disorders in androgen synthesis or action, and are considered Mendelian. Ambiguous genitalia is defined as a condition in which there is difficulty in assigning sex of an individual based on the appearance of external genitalia. Possible genital presentations are: male or female regular, males with ambiguous features and hypovirilization (micropenis, lack of scrotal fusion, incomplete testicular descent, hypospadia) or females with ambiguous features and virilization (clitoromegaly, labio-scrotal fusion).


Article
The Study of Chromosomal Structure in Mystus pelusius (Solander in Russell,1794) Fish
دراسة التركيب الكروموسومي لسمكة أبو الزمير العميق Mystus pelusius( Solander in Russell,1794)

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Abstract

The present study was done to identify the karyotype of Mystus pelusius fish , which is theonly representative of the family Bagridae in Iraq, they have been caught from Tigris river inAL-Kraat area of Baghdad city, the results show that the diploid chromosome number was2n=32 and the males chromosomal types included 2n=(6m+13sm+7st+6t)and fundamentalnumber FN=51, in females chromosomal types included 2n=(6m+12sm+8st+6t)withFN=50,also it observed that the first submetacentric pair was the largest within the biarmedchromosomes .The results revealed that the male heterogamety and the female homogamety ,accordingly it follows the sex determination system (XX / XY) , as the (X) chromosomerepresented by medium sized submetacentric (sm)chromosome and (Y)chromosome by smallsized subtelocentric (st) chromosome.

Mystus لسمكة أبو الزمير العميق Karyotype أجريت الدراسة الحالية للتعرف على الهيأة الكروموسوميةفي العراق، التي تم اصطيادها من نهر دجلة في منطقة الكريعات Bagridae التي تعد الممثل الوحيد لعائلة pelusius2 وطراز كروموسومي تضمن في الذكور n= بمحافظة بغداد ، وأظهرت النتائج أنها ذات عدد كروموسومي ثنائي 32و تضمن في الإناث FN=51 Fundamental number 2 وعدد اذرع n=( 6m+13sm+7st+6t)و لوحظ أيضاً أن الزوج التحت وسطي السنترومير ،FN= 2 وعدد اذرع 50 n=(6m+12sm+8st+6t)كما بينت النتائج أن .Biarmed الأول هو الأكبر حجماً ضمن الكروموسومات الثنائية الأذرع Submetacentric (sm)وعليه فإنها تتبع نظام تحديد الجنس ،Homogamety والانثى متماثلة الأمشاج Heterogamety الذكر متباين الأمشاجمتوسط الحجم Submetacentric (sm) بكروموسوم تحت وسطي السنترومير (X) إذ يمثل الكروموسوم ،(XX/XY)صغير الحجم. Subtelocentric (st) بكروموسوم تحت نهائي السنترومير (Y) والكروموس


Article
The Usefulness of Mandibular Ramus as an Indicator in Sex Differentiation Using 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomography

Authors: Sahar Sh. Kadhim سحر كاظم --- Ahlam Ahmed Fatah احلام احمد فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 92-98
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Determination of sex from an unknown human bone is an important role in forensic and anthropologyfield. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone, that commonly resist postmortem damage and forms animportant source of information about sexual dimorphism. Mandibular ramus can be used to differentiate betweensexes and it also expresses strong univariate sexual dimorphism. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness ofmandibular ramus as an aid in sex differentiation using CT scanning among Iraqi population.Materials and methods: 3D reconstructed computed tomography scanning of 140 Iraqi Arab subjects, (7 0 malesand 70 females) were analyzed with their age range from 20-60 years old. The linear measurements were locatedand marked on axial and sagittal sections including right and left sides of the mandible.Results: For the all measurements for sexes the mean value for male were highly significant than female with (P=value < 0.001).A receiver operating characteristic curves was obtained for each variable to observe their overallperformance in sex determination. The area of maximum mandibular ramus height was found to be the bestparameter according to ROC analysis to establish the diagnosis of male (ROC=0.952cm for both unilateral andbilateral measurements). Age showed no statistical difference in the current study.Conclusion: 3D reconstructed computed tomography scanning plays an important role as a diagnostic method foranalyzing the linear measurements of the mandibular ramus in sex differentiation. Sex determination for isolated partof the skull (e.g. mandible) could be achieved, instead of complete skull, and the highest accuracy in sexdetermination can be obtained whether complete or part of mandible is available for examination

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