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الحماية الدولية لضحايا العنف الجنسي في النزاعات المسلحة

Author: م.م قاسم حمزة ماضي
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2018 Volume: 4 Issue: 25 Pages: 1364-1382
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The crime of sexual violence shaped a flagrant violation of a number of rights set out international instruments such as: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which contained in the third Article ,which provided for the human right to freedom and safety of person .Furthermore this kinds of crime also contradicts in the Article fifth of the same Declaration , the right not to be subjected to torture or any formula of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment .Additionally, the fourth Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Rules of 1977 did not overlook this kind of crime, as mentioned to in article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention Besides article (12) of the Geneva Conventions; both first and second role of the international criminal judiciary, which has given this kinds of crimes, must not be ignored, because of its importance as reflected in numerous of its judicial rulings.

تشكل جرائم العنف الجنسي انتهاكاً صارخاً لعدد من الحقوق التي نصت عليها المواثيق الدولية كالإعلان العالمي لحقوق الانسان والذي تضمن المادة (3) التي نصت على حق الانسان في الحرية وسلامة شخصه، كذلك يتعارض هذا النوع من الجرائم مع المادة (5) من الاعلان نفسه والتي تنص على حق الانسان في عدم الخضوع للتعذيب او أي شكل من اشكال المعاملة القاسية او اللاإنسانية او الحاطة بالكرامة، كذلك فان اتفاقيات جنيف الاربع لعام 1949 وبروتوكوليها الاضافيين لعام 1977 لم تغفل هذا النوع من الجرائم وهذا ما اشارت اليه المادة (27) من اتفاقية جنيف الرابعة وكذلك المادة (12) من اتفاقيتي جنيف الأولى والثانية ، ولا يمكن اغفال دور القضاء الجنائي الدولي والذي أعطا هذا النوع من الجرائم الأهمية البالغة وهو ما انعكس في العديد من احكامه القضائية .


Article
Husbands Violence against Wives in Kerbala Governorate, Iraq in 2018

Authors: Jawad, Naba --- Al Mousawi, Ali --- Al Haydari, A
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 4143-4153
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Husband violence is an international problematic behavior with grave abuse of civilian privileges that happens between all religious, cultural, economic and social groups. However, this problem is widely prevalent in under-developed countries with huge mass of media news and discussion about its great impact and sequel in these societies. It aims to identify the lifetime prevalence of husband among health center clients and to identify its relationship to socio-demographic variables.Methods: a survey was conducted among a cross sectional sample among 320 women (aged 15 to 65 years) attending primary health care centers in Kerbala governorate in Iraq in 2018. A female doctor measured husband violence and potential predictors through interview questionnaire dependent mainly on the World Health Organization questionnaire used in multi-country study questionnaire.Results: Tow thirds of the sample were exposed to husband violence. The verbal violence was the most common type of husband violence (27.5%) followed by sexual (21.6%) and physical violence (20.3%). Even pregnant women were not spared while all divorced women in the sample were abused. Low economic income significantly raised husband violence which was also associated with husband substance use (smoking, alcohol and other substances). Abused women welcomed any help even by health care personals (64%).Conclusions: Husband violence was very common problem among women in Karbala city and verbal violence was the most common type. The problem needs further large scale investigation and urgent preventive programs to be set through wide community efforts.

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