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Article
Pressure - Settlement Characteristics of Shallow Foundations using Finite Element Method

Authors: Hend Jamal Maulood --- Adnan Jayed Zedan
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-37
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study attempts to represent the behavior of shallow foundations under the effect of eccentric inclined loading in terms of the main criteria of design which are the ultimate bearing capacity, permissible settlement, horizontal displacement and tilt. Due to the square shape of the analysed foundations, three dimensional finite element analysis are used. Elastic-perfectly plastic behavior of soil and rigid of foundations was adopted using Mohr-Coulomb criterion, 15-Node wedge elements were used to model and represent the soil and 5-Node linear elements with three degree of freedom to model and represent the foundations in used program PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL version 1.2. The results of analysis were presented in the form of pressure-settlement, pressure-horizontal displacement and pressure-tilt characteristics. Then the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundations were gotten and compared with (Meyerhof, 1956) and (Saran & Agrawal, 1991), a good agreement was found between them. Using the data obtained from the analysis, non-dimensional correlations have been developed for predicting the values of settlement, horizontal displacement and tilt of eccentrically-obliquely loaded foundations. These relationships can be used by the engineers.


Article
Stabilization of Clay Soil Using Tyre Ash
تثبيت الترب الطينية الضعيفة باستخدام رماد الإطارات

Authors: Mahmood Dheyab Ahmed محمود ذياب احمد --- Ahmed Mohamed. Adkel احمد محمد ادخيل
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 6 Pages: 34-51
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The planning, designing, construction of excavations and foundations in soft to very soft clay soils are always difficult. They are problematic soil that caused trouble for the structures built on them because of the low shear strength, high water content, and high compressibility. This work investigates the geotechnical behavior of soft clay by using tyre ash material burnt in air. The investigation contains the following tests: physical tests, chemical tests, consolidation test, Compaction tests, shear test, California Bearing Ratio test CBR, and model tests. These tests were done on soil samples prepared from soft clay soil; tyre ash was used in four percentages (2, 4, 6, and 8%). The results of the tests were; The soil samples which gave the value of plas-ticity test were 2% (25), 4% (25.18), 6% (25.3), and 8% (26.7).The soil samples which gave the value of specific gravity were 2% (2.65), 4% (2.61), 6% (2.5), and 8% (2.36).The value of maximum dry density in a compaction test observed with 2% percentage gave the value 15.8 kN/m3, the 4% gave the value 15.4 kN/m3, 6% gave 15.3 kN/m3 and 8%with 15.2 kN/m3.Samples that gave the values of undrained shear strength test were 2% (55 kN/m2), 4% (76 kN/m2), 6% (109 kN/m2), and 8% (122 kN/m2). The best of them is 8%. The sample that gave the best value for swelling test was 8%.The best value for compression index Cc was in 8%.The results of CBR test, were improved in all soil samples. The soil samples which gave the value for CBR were 2% (3.507%), 4% (4.308%), 6% (5.586%), and 8% (9.569%). The best value was obtained from 8%.

التخطيط والتصميم وأنشاء الحفريات ووالأسس في الترب الطينية الضعيفة والضعيفة جدا تكون دائما صعبة للمهندسين وتمثل تحديا صعبا لهم التي تكون ذات مشاكل مسببة أضرارا في أعمال الإنشاء عليها بسبب ضعف مقاومة القص ومحتوى الماء العالي ووالانضغاطية العالية لها. هذا العمل تحرى في سلوك خواص الرص للترب الطينية الضعيفة باستخدام رماد الإطارات المحروقة في الهواء. أعمال التحريات تحتوي على الفحوصات التالية: الفحوصات الفيزيائية ,الفحوصات الكيميائية , فحص الانضمام وفحوصات الحدل و فحص القص و فحص ونسبه التحمل لكاليفورنيا وفحوصات الموديل. تلك الفحوصات أجريت على نماذج من التربة الطينية الضعيفة , واستعمل رماد الإطارات بأربع نسب من رماد الإطارات (2, 4 , 6 , و 8%). وكانت نتائج الفحوصات لنماذج التربة التي تعطي قيم فحص اللدونة للنسب2%(25), 4%(25.18) , 6%(25.3) , و8%(26.7). ونماذج التربة التي تعطي قيم الوزن النوعي للنسب 2%(2.65), 4%(2.61) , 6%(2.5) , و8%(2.36) .وقيم فحص الحدل عند إضافة 2% تعطي قيمه (15.8)kN/m3, 4% تعطي قيمه ,(15.4)kN/m3 6% أعطت (15.3)kN/m3,و8% أعطت(15.2)kN/m3 .والنماذج التي أعطت قيم مقاومة القص الغير مبزولة كانت 2%kN/m2 (55), 4% kN/m2 (76) , 6% kN/m2 (109) , و8% kN/m2 (122) ,حيث كانت أفضل قيمه بينهما هي 8% .والنموذج الذي أعطى أفضل قيمة لفحص الانتفاخ هو 8%.وكذلك أفضل قيمة لدليل الانضغاط هي 8%.ونتائج فحص CBR لكل نماذج التربة المحسنة, هذه النماذج أعطت 2%(%3.507), 4%(4.308%) , 6%(5.586%) , و8%(%9.569) . وأفضل قيمة أعطتها نسبة 8%.

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