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Article
Distributed Generation Embedded In the Iraqi Power Grid
التولید الموزع المدموج في شبكة القدرة العراقیة

Authors: Qais Matti Alias --- Wael A. Jaafar
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 20 Pages: 6035-6049
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Recently, there has been great interest in the integration of distributedgeneration units at the distribution level. This requires new analysis tools forunderstanding system performance. Installing Distribution Generation (DG) inthe distribution level has positive impacts on the system voltage profile as well onthe substation’ s capacity. However the extent of such benefits depends greatly ofthe DG size and location.In this work, investigation of adding diesel units regarded as distributedgenerators at the distribution voltage levels were done. These investigations dealtwith the impact of the units addition on the Iraqi grid power flow and short circuitlevels . This work is done by using PSS/E program (Power System Simulation forEngineering), A sample from substations (with fuel and space availability ) of theBaghdad area were considered for the diesel units addition, in order to findrecommendations for the voltage level to connect these units to it.The extension in mind was to develop a quick rule of thumb in order to decidewhere to add the DG units. This of course with no regard to the unit size as it islimited by the Short Circuit Level (SCL) and economic considerations. IEEEstandardsystems were considered here with the development of Matlab routinesfor the simulation and calculations required.A novel quick criterion as where to add the distributed generation to minimizeloss was proved. This state’s “add the units at the lowest short circuit level bus,i.e., at the bus of highest Thevenin impedance”.

حدیثا, كان ھناك اھتمام كبیر في ادخال وحدات التولید الموزع في مستویات التوزیع, وھذا یتطلب أدوات تحلیل جدیدة لفھم سلوك النظام. التولید الموزع المنصوب في مستویات التوزیع لھ تأثیرات ایجابیة على فولتیة النظام وكذلك على سعة المحطة الثانویة. وجود ھذه الفوائد یعتمد بشكل كبیر على حجم وموقعھذه الوحدات. في ھذا العمل تم التحقیق في إضافة وحدات دیزل ینظر لھا على أنھا وحدات تولید موزعة في مستویات التوزیع. ھذه التحقیقات تعاملت مع تأثیر إضافة الوحدات على سریان الحمل ومستوى الدورة القصیرة في الشبكة العراقیة. درست عینة من محطات بغداد الثانویة لإضافة وحدات الدیزل فیھا وذلك للخروج بتوصیات لنصب تلك الوحدات على أي مستوى من مستویات فولتیة التوزیع. وأیضا تم التوسع في التحقیقات لاستخراج قاعدة سریعة بسیطة لتقریر مكان إضافة وحدات التولید الموزع , ھذا مع عدم الأخذ بنض ر الاعتبار حجم الإضافات لكونھا محددة بمستوى الدورة القصیرة واعتبارات اقتصادیة أخرى.للدراسة مع تطویر MATLAB استخدمت منظومات تم اثبات . لعمل المحاكاة والحسابات المطلوبة IEEE روتینیات القیاسیة مقیاس جدید وسریع لمعرفة مكان إضافة التولید الموزع لتقلیل الخسائر, وھو ینص" أضف الوحدات على العمومي الأقل دورة قصیرة " .


Article
REDUCING SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS BY USING SYSTEM SPLITTING STRATEGIES

Authors: Inaam I. ALI --- Mohanad Sh. Tarad AL-AASAM
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 309-331
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Preliminary studies on Iraqi power system show a significant increase in the short circuit level at some of the grid substations and some power stations. This increasing results from the growth of the power generation and transmission systems in size and complexity. Islanding or splitting is dividing the power system into several islands inorder to reduce short circuit levels and avoiding blackouts. The main islanding problem is determining the location of proper splitting points and load balance and satisfaction of transmission capacity constraints for each islands.This paper mainly introduces new proposed splitting strategies of large-scale power systems by using (PSS™E version 30.3 PACKAGE PROGRAME), such that, make re-interconnection of 400KV super high voltage substation based on three-phase load flow to be minimum flow at splitting point and infeed fault current details method to control short circuit levels in Iraq power system without islanding the power system into isolated islands. Controlled islanding or splitting scheme is frequently considered as the final solution to avoid blackouts of power system.Simulation IEEE-25 bus and Iraqi power system used as the test systems for this method. Furthermore, simulation results show significant effectiveness on reducing short circuit levels with same time give stable splitting islands with same frequency for preventing the system blackouts.


Article
Protection Coordination with Distributed Generation in Electrical System of Iraqi Distribution Grid

Authors: Rashid H. Al-Rubayi --- Ammar Abbas Majeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1161-1181
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The nature characteristic in conventional distribution networks is radial by single source supplying a downstream network. The interest about the environmental impacts and development in technologies have led to increase distributed generation (DG) interconnected in distribution networks. Protective device coordination will be affected by adding DGs to the existing network through participating to the change in direction of power flow and fault current values and direction which cause loss in settings and mis-coordination for protective devices, especially over current relays. The effect of DG on coordination depend upon number, location and size of DG, so in this work, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technicality utilization to locate optimal location and sizeof DG to obtain minimum active power losses.The Time Current Characteristic (TCC) curves represented which depended on the over current protection relays parameters to find settings and limited any loss in it, in order to reset these relays to obtained the proper operation without intersections in time of operation and satisfy optimal coordination between primary and pack up over current protection relays.In this work two soft wares are used, the first is Matlab R2014a for implementation of the PSO algorithm while the second software is CYMDist program for load flow analysis, short circuit current calculation and protection coordination device analysis. To verify the developed algorithm parts from Iraqi distribution network (Baghdad Al-Rusafa 33KV distribution networks). So, used two DG units with total capacity 50MW distributed in 33kV of South Al-Rusafa distribution network which represented about 9.4% from the total load of this network 533.5MW, the total active power losses reduced from 11.597MW to 6.658MW with losses reduction 6.96MW about 43% from total losses.


Article
Reducing Short Circuit Level in 400kV Iraqi Grid System by Using FACTS Device

Authors: Mohanad Sh. Tarad Al-Aasam --- Inaam I. Ali
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2019 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 90-99
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Electrical power systems are different in their sizes because of their amount ofgeneration power stations, substations, transmission lines and loads. Therefore, thesefactors may impact on short circuit levels values. Capacity of power stations and dummytransmission lines in Extra high voltage grid (400kV) of the Iraqi Electrical power gridscause high short circuit levels values such that exceed both rating of the peak and breakingcapacity of switchgear equipment's. Reduction of short-circuit levels by using Fast-actingFlexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) types devices in power gridsmaintain the operation of power grids with acceptable value of short circuit levels for theirelectrical equipment's and preventing cascading event outages which may lead toblackouts. This paper mainly studies strategies on how to add Short Circuit Current Limiter(SCCL) device by determining its number, value and location of connection in power gridsby programing with (PSS™E version 30.3 Package Program). IEEE 25-bus system is usedfor testing the adding series SCCL at power transmission lines method procedure. Theresults of adding series SCCL with power transmission lines give significant reducing shortcircuit levels for the stations have highest short circuit levels in order to prevent theblackouts of overall power grid.

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