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Article
The antibacterial effect of herbal alternative, green tea and Salvadora Persica (Siwak) extracts on Entercoccus faecalis

Author: Abdulkareem J. Al-Azzawi عبد الكريم جاسم العزاوي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Disinfection and shaping of the canal with a combination of chemical agents and endodonticinstruments play an important role in the success of endodontic therapy. Eliminating the microorganisms within thepulp space is a critical and important objective in treating a tooth with apical periodontitis. This study wasconducted to evaluate the antibacterial properties of herbal alternatives (Green tea and siwak extracts) as possibleirrigants during endodontic treatment compared with the conventional irrigation solutions.Materials and methods: Salvadora Persica (siwak) and Green Tea solutions were prepared.An agar diffusion test wasperformed on Mueller-Hinton agar using the well diffusion method. The tested solutions (5.25% NaOCl, 2%Chlorhexidine gluconate, 5% Siwak extract and 5% Green tea extract)were used to fill the wells that were made inthe agar media respectively.Plates were left to incubate for 24 hr. at 37°C. Zones of inhibition of the bacterial growthwere calculated to measure the antibacterial effect of the tested irrigants.Results: Sodium hypochlorite had the highest mean value (29.88) followed by Chlorhexidine which had a mean valueof (26.13), Siwak with mean value of (11.25) and Green tea being the least with mean value of (8.88). ANOVA testshowed a highly statistical difference with a P-value of (0.000).Conclusions: NaOCl still the superior irrigant than other irrigants. Herbal alternatives (Siwak and Green tea) can beused as possible irrigants solution to disinfect the root canal system from Enterococcus faecalis during endodontictreatments.


Article
Effect of Siwak Extract on the Microhardness and Microscopic Feature of Initial Caries-Like Lesion of Permanent Teeth, Compared to Fluoridated Agents

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Abstract

Siwak is a chewing stick used to clean the teeth and message the gum. Their routine use was shown to be associated with the reduction in severity of dental caries. This study aimed to test the effect of water Siwak extract on the microhardness and microscopic features of artificially initiated carious lesion of the outer enamel surface, in comparison to stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride. Upper first premolars were extracted and subjected to pH cycling procedure. Teeth immerged individually in 20 ml of selected agents for four minutes then rinsed by de ionized water. Agents involved were 5% and 10% water Siwak extract, 8% stannous fluoride and 0.05% sodium fluoride. Samples were subjected to Vickers microhardness test and microscopic examination before and after the pH cycling and following insertion in the agents. Water Siwak extract, stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride were found to increase the microhardness values of de mineralized enamel surfaces, this were statistically highly significant for Siwak extract and stannous fluoride (P< 0.01) and significant for sodium fluoride. However none of the mentioned agents was able to increase the micro hardness to approximate the original values of the sound enamel. Under polarized light results revealed that water Siwak extracts and stannous fluoride produce the best remineralization surface zone. Water Siwak extracts is very effective in remineralization of initial carious lesion.


Article
Dissolution of inorganic phosphorous ion from human enamel treated with different concentration of Siwak aqueous extract in comparison with sodium fluoride

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Abstract

Background: The use of Miswak, chewing sticks (salvadorapersica) can be traced back to Babylonians some 7000years ago. It is commonly used throughout the world especially for the purpose of oral hygiene. Muslims are using asthe religious view. Current study aimed to test the ability of aqueous siwak extract to increase the resistance ofenamel surface against acid dissolution compared to sodium fluoride.Materials and Method: Twenty maxillary first premolars were treated with the selected solutions included twoaqueous siwak extract concentration(5%,10%) and sodium fluoride(0.05%)as control positive for 2 minutes once dailyfor 20days interval, de ionized water was used as control negative. The concentration of the dissolved phosphorusion was measured in etching solution of 2N HCL by flam atomic absorption spectrometer.Result: 10% aqueous siwak extract test solution was registered the lesser release of phosphorusion from etchedenamel surface, then 5% aqueous siwak extract followed by sodium fluoride 0.05%. No significant differencebetween two aqueous siwak extract concentration, while a significant difference was found between mentionedagents and sodium fluoride. De ionized water was recorded a highly significant difference with all test solutions.Conclusion: Aqueous siwak extract effective in increasing the resistance of enamel surface for acid dissolution andshould be use not only for the religious view but also for the benefit of its effects produced


Article
EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA (BLACK SEED), SALVADORA PERSICA (SIWAK) AND ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SULPHATE (ALUM) AQUEOUS EXTRACTS ON ISOLATED BACTERIA FROM TEETH ROOT CANAL
تأثير المستخلصات المائية للحبة السوداء والسواك والشب في البكتيريا المعزولة من تسوس الأسنان

Author: محمد إبراهيم نادر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 99-104
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Swabs were taken from 20 patients from root canal (Endodontic Department, Al-Elwiya Specialized Centre for Oral and Dental Surgery), Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus anginosus, Enterococcus durans, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus epidermides were identified according to their cultural properties, microscopic examination and biochemical Api and miniapi tests. Antibacterial action was evaluated on these bacterial isolates by using six different concentrations of Salvadora persica(Siwak), Nigella sativa (black seed), aluminum potassium sulphate (alum) and mixture of them, the concentrations are 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100%. At 100% concentration of alum, Salvadora persica, Nigella sativa and the mixture of them, the maximum inhibition zone diameters were 42mm on Enterococcus durans, 27mm on Enterobacter cloacae, 26mm on Enterobacter cloacae and 25mm on Staphylococcus epidermides, respectively.

أخذت مسحات من قنوات جذور الأسنان من 20 مريض من قسم حشوات الجذور– مركز العلويه التخصصي لطب وجراحة الفم والأسنان). تم تشخيص العزلات البكتيريه (Streptococcus oralis ، Streptococcus anginosus ،Enterococcus duran، Enterobacter cloacae ، Staphylococcus epidermides) إستناداً لخواصها الزرعيه والفحص المجهري والاختبارات الكيموحيويه Api and miniapi. تم تقييم الفعالية المضادة للبكتيريا لمستخلصات الحبة السوداء والسواك والشب والخليط المكون من هذه المستخلصات ضد العزلات البكتيرية المعزولة من قنوات جذور الأسنان وذلك بإستعمال ستة تراكيز مختلفة لكل من هذه المستخلصات( 3.125، 6.25، 12.5، 25، 50، 100%). عند استعمال مستخلصات الشب والسواك والحبه السوداء والخليط المكون منهما، كانت قيم الحد الأعلى لقطر منطقة التثبيط 42 مليمتر لبكتيريا Enterococcus durans و27 مليمتر لبكتيريا Enterobacter cloacae و26 مليمتر لبكتيريا Enterobacter cloacae و25 مليمتر لبكتيريا Staphylococcus epidermides، على التوالي.


Article
Dissolution of calcium ion from teeth treated with different concentrations of siwak water extract in comparison with sodium fluoride

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Abstract

Background: The miswak is a teeth cleaning twig made from a twig of the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in Arabic).A traditional alternative to the modern toothbrush, it has a long, well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits. It also features prominently in Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.Materials and methods: Twenty maxillary first premolars were treated with the selected solutions which included siwak water extract (5%, 10%) and sodium fluoride 0.05% for 2minutes once daily for 20 days interval, deionized water was used as control negative. Then the concentration of the dissolved calcium ion in the etching solution of 2N HCL was measured.Results: The least amount of the dissolved calcium ion was registered for water siwak extract 10%, then sodium fluoride0.05%followed by water siwak extract5%. A significant difference was found between the two concentrations of siwak water extract, while no significant difference was recorded between the mentioned agents and sodium fluoride. There was highly significant difference between deionized water group and other groups except between water and siwak water extract5% the difference was significant.Conclusions: Siwak water extract is successful in improving tooth resistance against caries challenge as it mineralize and harden enamel surface


Article
The effect of waterlase laser and herbal alternative, green tea and Salvadora Persica (Siwak) extract on push-out bond strength

Author: Abdul-kareem Jassim Al-Azzawi عبد الكريم جاسم العزاوي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The bond strength of root canal sealers to dentin was important for maintaining the integrity of the sealin root canal filling in both static and dynamic situations. In a static situation, it should eliminate any space thatallowed the percolation of fluids between the filling and the wall while in a dynamic situation; it was needed to resistdislodgement of the filling during subsequent manipulation.Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolars were selected for this study. All canals were instrumented usingProTaper rotary instruments. Instrumentation was done with copious irrigation of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Rootswere randomly divided into four groups according to the type of cleaning and method of root canal irrigation (tenteeth for each group): Group A. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 17% of EDTA for 1 minute and 5 ml of5.25% NaOCl. Group B. Cleaning with waterlase laser. Group C. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 5mg/ml ofsiwak (Salvadora persica) extract for one minute. Group D. The root canals were irrigated with 5 ml of 5% of greentea (camellia sinensis) extract for one minute. All groups were rinsed with distilled water and then obturated with coldlateral condensation technique and i Root sp sealer (Bioceramic sealer, the roots then stored in moist environment at37°C for one week. Three horizontal sections were prepared at a thickness of 1 mm ±0.1 in the apical, middle andcoronal parts of each root. The test specimens were subjected to the push-out test method using a Universal TestMachine that carried 1-mm, 0.5- mm and 0.3-mm plungers for coronal, middle and apical specimens, respectively.The loading speed was 0.5 mm/ min. The computer showed the higher bond force before dislodgment of the fillingmaterial. These forces were divided by the surface area to obtain the bond strength in MPa.Results: In all groups the mean value of push-out strength was greatest in apical area and least in coronal area andthe middle area was in between, except in Waterlase the middle area showed the least mean push-out strength.Conclusion: Herbal extracts used in this study (Siwak and green tea) can be used safely as an intra-canal irrigant forsmear layer removal with efficiency that is comparable with conventional synthetic materials (EDTA) and morecomplicated methods (Waterlase).

Keywords

Waterlase --- Siwak --- Green tea --- push out test


Article
The antibacterial effect of 10% Salvadorapersica (Siwak), 10% green tea, and 50% lemon juice on Enterococcus faecalis: an invitro study
التأثير المضاد للجراثيم لسلفادوريسا بنسبة 10٪ و سواك بنسبة 10٪ و شاي أخضر، و 50٪ من عصير الليمون على Enterococcus faecalis: دراسة خارجية

Authors: Venus Dilshad Najeeb --- Nsar Muhyaddin Aziz
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 367-371
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Shaping and disinfection of the root canal with a combination of chemical agents and endodontic instruments play an important role in the success of endodontic therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of herbal alternatives as possible irrigates against Enterococcus faecalis during endodontic treatment compared with the conventional irrigation solutions such as NaOCl 5%.Methods: A 10% Siwak extract, 10% green tea extract and 50% fresh lemon juice were prepared separately to make antibiotic disks and seeded on the culture media respectively and compared with 5% NaOCl, distilled water as the control. Plates were left to incubate for 48 hours at 37Cₒ. Zones of inhibition of the bacterial growth were calculated to measure the antibacterial effect of the tested irrigants.Results: All irrigants were active against this bacterium. The 5% NaOCl had the highest mean value (27.70±0.66), followed by 10% Siwak (Salvadorapersica) (21.60±0.7), 50% lemon juice (15.10±0.56), and 10% green tea (10.50±0.5).Conclusion: Herbal extracts can be used as the possible irrigant to compensate 5% NaOCl during endodontic treatment.


Article
Effect of salvadora Persica Extracts on Titanium Alloy Surface Topography

Author: Nadira A. Hatim
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-38
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction:Fluoride containing mouth rinses, and toothpastes have been reported to decreasethe corrosion resistance of titanium.Salvadora persica has been recently introduced in twoforms: tooth paste (Saudi Arabia) and mouth wash. The influence of these products on TitaniumAlloy Surface Topography has not been tested before. Aim of the study: To compare betweenthe effects of Salvadora persica(Siwak® toothpaste and its alcoholic extract), with fluoridecontaining tooth paste (kin® toothpaste) and kin® mouth wash on the corrosion of pure titaniumgrade 2 (cpTi). Materials and methods: Alcoholic extract of Salvadora persicawas prepared,and tested on sixty weighted samples of cpTi divided into 4 experimental groups. Samples in thecontrol group were immersed in distilled water. In the first experimental group, samples weretreated with Kin® tooth paste. For the 2nd experimental group, samples treated with Kin® mouthwash. Samples in the 3rd experimental group were treated with Siwak® toothpaste. The finalexperimental group was treated with extract of Salvadora persica. These samples were subjectedto surface topography (AFM) and transverse strength tests before, after three, and six months oftreatments. Results: Weighting test showed no significant difference (p≤0.05) between the meanvalues of four treated groups of cpTi samples before, and after 3 months. However, there was asignificant difference (p<0.05)between cpTi before and after 6 months treatment with Siwak®tooth paste. Surface topography showed a statistically significant difference between root meansquare roughnesses of cpTi samples after 3, and 6 months of treatment. Transverse strength alsoshowed a statistically significant difference between the mean value of cpTi between the treatedand control groups after three months and six months.Conclusions:Siwak® toothpaste seems to have more effect on both weight and roughness of cpTicompared to alcohol extract of Salvadora persicaand Kin® toothpaste.

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