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Article
Experimental Investigation about the Parameters that Effect on Evap-oration from Sub-storage Reservoir

Authors: Isam M. Abdulhameed --- Ammar Hatem Kamelb --- Sura Ibraheemc
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2018 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 260-266
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Management of water resources become one of the most important subjects in the human's life. The water sustains life on earth, therefore; more care for water management is necessary. In the last years, studies show water use will be more in the world as result of rapid increase in population, industrialization, and urbanization etc. The evaporation losses from dam's reservoirs and lagoon form very huge losses in water resources. The annual evaporation depth losses in Iraqi Western Desert is about (2.25 -3) meter, this depth store the highest percentage of the small dams. Sub-surface storage reduces evaporation losses and maintains water quality by minimizing salt concentration. In present study, three tanks are used to simulate the subsurface reservoirs to study the effectiveness of underground storage on reducing the evaporation loss. Each tank have squares cross section tanks of (80) cm length and (40) cm depth and filled up to (34) cm with different graded soil (labeled as A, B with coarse soil, and D with fine soil) to simulate the storage below the ground. While the forth tank filled with water (labeled as C) to represent the reservoir of direct evaporation for comparison study. The present study considers three parameters that can controlled the evaporation from subsurface reservoirs: (a) temperature variation, (b) water table variation, and (c) material properties such as porosity. The field study continues for four months, it was started at Jun.11, 2016 and ended at Dec. 15, 2016 in the Erbil city at north of Iraq. The results showed evaporation losses are reduced by using subsurface storage reservoir with gravel in comparison with free surface evaporation. The evaporation losses are reduced about 46 % , 39% , 64% when the water table below gravel surface range from 5 to 10 cm , while at 20 cm depth of the water table the evaporation reduction is about (85 % to 86% 95%) from A, B and D tanks with porosity 0.65 ,0.67 and o.35 for A ,B and D tanks, respectively..


Article
Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq
الجدوى الهيدروهندسية لحصاد مياه السيح السطحي لحوض وادي العجيج شمال غرب العراق

Author: Thair M. Al-Taiee Anass M. M. Rasheed
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2011 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-28
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The hydro engineering characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS). The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95) km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35 46 6 Latitude and Longitude 41 36 11) having a catchment's area of (3043)km2. The proposed dam height was (12.5) meter with a dam length of (1277)m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8) million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places.

تم دراسة وتحليل الخواص الهيدروهندسية لحوض وادي العجيج الذي يقع ضمن سهل سنجار الجنوبي شمال غرب العراق لتحديد أمكانية حصاد مياه السيح الناتجة عن الأمطار الساقطة في المواقع المتقدمة للحوض باستخدام نظام WMS، حيث اعتمدت بيانات الأمطار اليومية المسجلة في محطتي سنجار والبعاج للسنوات (1994-2006) في حساب معدل كميات السيح السطحي السنوية للحوض والتي بلغت حوالي 53144784 متر مكعب. كما تم دراسة الجدوى الهيدرولوجية لإنشاء سد إملائي صغير على وادي العجيج وعرض تصميم أولي لهذا السد واختير الموقع الأمثل له الذي يقع على بعد 3.95 كم من موقع التقاء فرع وادي البديع مع وادي العجيج ويفع على خط طول 11 36 41 وخط عرض 6 46 35 حيث بلغت المساحة المغذية له 3043 كم2. بلغ ارتفاع السد الإملائي المقترح12.5 متر وطول 1277 متر وخزين حوالي 38.8 مليون متر مكعب عند المنسوب الاعتيادي للخزان. أن أنشاء سدود صغيرة في مثل هذه المواقع والتي تتصف بشحة في المياه خلال معظم أيام السنة سوف يؤدي إلى دعم التنمية المستدامة لهذه المنطقة وذلك بزيادة مساحات الأراضي الزراعية والإنتاج الزراعي وتحسين دخل الفلاحين الساكنين فيها مؤديا إلى منع هجرتهم إلى مواقع أخرى تتوفر فيها المياه.

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