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The effect of smear layer removal on apical seal of teeth obturated with two different obturation techniques
تأثير إزالة طبقة اللطاخة على الختم القمي للأسنان المغطاة بطريقتين مختلفتين للتسرب

Author: Media A. Saeed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 56-63
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: .The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer removal on apical seal and the quantity of microleakage associated with lateral cold condensation and thermafil obturation.Methods: Forty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups; in group A, 20 roots with smear layer free, 5.25 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as irrigants to remove the smear layer, while in group B, 20 roots with smear layer, normal saline was used as irrigant. All root canals were instrumented with the Pro-taper rotary system using a crown-down technique. Each group of instrumented roots were subdivided randomly into two obturation groups; in group 1, 10 roots were obturated by thermafil with plastic carrier, while in group 2, 10 roots were obturated by cold lateral compaction technique. Zinc oxide euginol was used as the sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish except for the apex, then dye penetration study conducted and samples were examined under the stereomicroscope. Data had been collected from two independent examiners and statistically analyzed using student t-test.Results: There was non significant difference between all the groups radiographically while stereomicroscopic analysis showed significant difference of smear layer free group when obturated by thermafil with other groups. Conclusion: Smear layer free group gave the best results when used with lateral condensation technique (LCT) and smear layer group gave the best results when used with thermafil.

Keywords

Smear layer --- Thermafil --- Obturation


Article
Evidence for feasibility of aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) solution as a root canal irrigant

Author: Bestoon M. Faraj بستون فرج
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity and cleaning efficiency ofthe aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) solution.Materials and methods: The antibacterial action of alum solution (1 mg /mL, at pH 3.6) against bacterial isolatesfound in infected root canals, including facultative anaerobic microorganisms (Escherichia coli , Staphylococcusaureus and Klebsiella sp.), and aerobic species (Pseudomonus aerogenosa ) ,using agar well diffusion test. Theinvestigation of the debridement and smear layer removing efficiency, on the cervical, middle and apical thirds ofroot canals of freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth were done by a scanning electron microscopy study.Results: Alum solution were able to demonstrate antibacterial activity against all the bacteria tested, and producedinhibitions zones of 27, 25, 24 and 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonus aerogenosa ,Escherichiacoli, and Klebsiella sp. respectively. Alum solution was effective in removing the debris and smear layer. Removal ofthe smear layer and other debris was more effective in the coronal and middle third than in the apical third.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that alum solution has potential for use as an endodontic irrigant,during chemomechanical root canal preparation


Article
The effect of smear layer on push-out bond strength to dentin of Bioceramic sealer (In vitro study)

Authors: Hamid Abbas Hamid --- Abdul-kareem Jassim Al-Azzawi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 5-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Sealers should demonstrate adhesive properties to dentin, decreasing the chance of endodontictreatment failure. Increased adhesive properties to dentin may lead to greater strength of the restored tooth, whichmay provide greater resistance to tooth fracture and clinical longevity of an endodontically treated tooth. The aimof this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of Bioceramic iRoot SP sealer, AH plus sealer and Apexit plussealer in absence or presence of smear layer using push out bond strength test.Materials and Methods: Sixty straight single roots of the mandibular premolars were selected for this study. All canalswere instrumented using ProTaper rotary instruments to achieve tapered canal walls, instrumentation was done withcopious irrigation of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Roots were randomly divided into three groups according to thetype of sealer used (twenty teeth for each group): Group A: Apexit plus + gutta percha, Group B: AH plus sealer +gutta percha, Group C: iRoot SP sealer + gutta percha .Then groups were subdivided according to types of finalirrigation into two subgroups. Groups (A1, B1, and C1) were irrigated with 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl for 1 minute whileGroups (A2, B2, and C2), the smear layer was removed with 5 ml of 17% EDTA for 1 minute. All groups were rinsed withdistilled water and then obturated with cold lateral condensation technique, the roots then stored in moistenvironment at 37°C for one week. The roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and three horizontal sectionswere prepared at a thickness of 1 mm ±0.1 in the apical, middle and coronal parts of each root. The test specimenswere subjected to the push-out test method using a Universal Test Machine that carried 1-mm, 0.5- mm and 0.3-mmplungers for coronal, middle and apical specimens, respectively. The loading speed was 0.5 mm/ min. The computershowed the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. These forces were divided by the surfacearea to obtain the bond strength in MPa.Results: The results showed that the bond strengths of iRoot SP and AH Plus were significantly higher than those ofApexit plus, but there was no significant difference between the bond strength of iRoot SP and AH Plus.In terms ofroot segments, the bond strengths in the middle specimens and the apical specimens were higher compared withthe bond strengths in the coronal specimens.Conclusion: The presence or absence of smear layer did not significantly affect the bond strength of Bioceramicfilling materials


Article
Smear Layer Removal and Apical Extrusion Evaluation Among Different Irrigating Techniques and Solutions (In vitro Comparative study)

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Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness ofEndovac, Vibringe and needle with different irrigation solutions on removal ofsmear layer and apical extrusion of irrigating solution.Methods: Seventy-two sound human premolar teeth were used and divided into threeexperimental groups (n=24) according to the type of irrigation technique used: Ingroup1 irrigation was performed with Vibringe. In-group 2 irrigation wasperformed with a 30-gauge side-vented irrigation needle. In-group 3 irrigation wasperformed with Endovac. Instrumentation was performed by using the ProTaperfiles. Each main group divided into three sub-groups (n=8) according to irrigationsolution used: In sub-group 1 Irrigation was performed with 5.25% Sodiumhypochlorite (NaOCL). In sub-group 2 Irrigation was performed with 17%Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acidic Acid (EDTA). In sub-group 3 Irrigation wasperformed with 5.25% NaOCL and 17 % EDTA. The amount of extrudedirrigating solution was then measured by subtracting the weight before finalirrigation from the weight after final irrigation using the electronic balance. Thecleanliness of smear layer removal was evaluated using scanning electronmicroscopy.Results: The results showed that the group that resulted in more irrigation extrusionwas as follow from highest to lowest: side-vented >Vibringe> Endovac. Thedifference among all groups was significant. As for cleaning results, smear layercollection in both EndoVac and Vibringe groups were less than side-vented groupand these differences were significant. When the three irrigating solutionscompared the differences among all the groups were significant and combinationof (5.25% NaOCL and 17 % EDTA) resulted in more smear layer removal.Conclusion: In conclusion, the EndoVac irrigation system extruded significantly lessirrigant solution than both the Vibringe and needle irrigation systems. Smear layercollection was least in the apical third regarding the EndoVac irrigation systemand resulted in more Smear layer removal. And combination of NaOCL andEDTA group was more effective on smear layer removal than other two groups.

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