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Article
The Microbial Contamination of Toothbrushes and Their Disinfection by Antimicrobial Solutions

Authors: Eman A Mustafa --- Rayia J Alnaimi --- Rafi A Al–Talib
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 144-150
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes after brushing and the efficacy of their decontamination by immersing them in different antimicrobial solutions when toothbrushes were not inuse. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy dental students participated in this study, they were all supplied with a new toothbrush of the same brand and type together with identical tubes of fluoridated toothpastes and were asked to brush twice daily for a period of 4 weeks during which they were asked to follow their oral hygiene practices. The students were divided into 3 groups, the first group kept theirtoothbrushes in a ventilated area exposed to air after brushing; the second group kept their toothbrushes soaked in 1% Sodium hypochlorite solution (1 part bleach, 4 parts of distilled water); the third groupimmersed their toothbrushes in 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. After one month the toothbrushes were collected, decapitated and examined in the laboratory by making bacteriological cultures to identify the aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms in each toothbrush, also the total live bacterial counts per toothbrush were obtained. Results: The toothbrushes that were not immersed in any antimicrobial solution were heavily contaminated and the immersing of toothbrushes in 0. 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate solution was a very effective method in reducing the mean number of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Conclusions: Toothbrushes can become contaminated after approximately1 month of use, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate which proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce toothbrush contamination.


Article
Effect of Two Disinfectant Solutions on Wettability of Flexible Denture Base Material

Author: Asmaa A. Abdulkadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 424-430
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate wettability of flexible denture base martial after immersion in saliva, artificial saliva, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 7 days period of time. Materials and methods: sixty rectangular shape sample of flexible denture base martial were prepared with one surface polished and another surface unpolished. These samples were stored in the previously mentioned four solutions in addition to the distilled water as a control group for 1 day and 7 days. Contact angle (parameter of wettability) were measured on both surfaces after each storage periods (1- day and 7 days). The statistical analysis to the data was performed using ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results: The results revealed that the wettability of unpolished flexible denture base material is significantly more than the polished surface. Sodium hypochlorite had significantly decrease the wettability of polished surfaces. Periods of storage had significant effect only on the wettability of polished surfaces rather than unpolished surfaces. Conclusions: Wettability of unpolished surface of flexible material is better than the wettability of the polished surface. The storage periods have no effect on the wettability of unpolished surface. Disinfectant solutions that have oxidizing effect (sodium hypochlorite) has a worsening effect on the wettability of flexible denture base materials.


Article
The Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on Shear Bond between Composite and Porcelain Specimens

Authors: Ashraf S Qassim --- Sabah A Ismail --- Emad F Alkhalidi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 316-320
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim of Study: This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of intra oral por-celain repair system using 10% sodium hypochlorite and different acid etch. Materials and methods: Forty specimens were prepared in form of metal disks (8mm in diameter, 15mm height) and porcelain was applied according to the manufacturer instructions.The specimens randomly divided into 4 equal groups. In Group I ,II the samples were treated with 9% hydrofluoric acid for one minute. While groups III, IV were treated with 37% phosphoric acid for one minute, after washing the specimens with water and dryness, groups II, III the surfaces treated with 10%sodium hypochlorite for one minute while group I and IV leaved untreated. After that, the surfaces of all samples were washed and dried and silane coupling agent (MonoBond-S Vivadent, Liechtenstein) was applied according to the manu-facturer instructions, then bonding agent (Excite) (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and composite (tetric N–ceram) (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were applied according to the manufacturer instructions. All the sam-ples were stored in normal physiological saline for 7 days. Then the samples were thermocycled ma-nually between two water baths After that Shear bond strength was tested using universal testing ma-chine. Results: using ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests. The result showed that there was highly significant difference between groups treated with 10%sodium hypochlorite with untreated one. There was significant difference between samples acid etched using hydrofluoric acid with those etched with phosphoric acid. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and hydrofluoric acid significantly increase the shear bond strength between composite resin and porcelain fused to metal specimens


Article
The effect of SOLO and sodium hypochlorite disinfectant on some properties of different types of dental stone

Authors: Aseel M. Al-khafaji اسيل الخفاجي --- Shorouq M. Abass شروق عباس --- Bayan S. Khalaf بيان خلف
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 8-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental casts come into direct contact with impression materials and other items that are contaminatedby saliva and blood from a patient's mouth, leaving the casts susceptible to cross-contamination. The disinfectantsolutions of the impression materials cause various adverse reactions. Therefore, disinfection of dental casts may beeffective in preventing cross infection. This study was carried out to evaluate the surface hardness, dimensionalaccuracy, reproduction of details and surface porosity of type III, type IV and type IV extra hard dental stone afterimmersion in and spray by using SOLO and Sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solutions.Materials and methods: 240 Stone samples were prepared in rubber rings, A total of 60 test block were prepared foreach test (surface hardness, dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details and surface porosity).the samples weredivided into three groups (20 for each type of stone) type (III, IV, IV extra hard); SOLO and Sodium hypochloritedisinfectant by 2 methods (immersion and spray) were used in each test.Results: the results of dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details, surface hardness and surface porosity revealedno significant difference for all types of tested stone samples after immersion or spraying in SOLO and NaOCl exceptthe surface hardness of type IV extra hard showed significant difference after spray with SOLO and the surfaceporosity of type IV extra hard showed significant difference after immersed in both SOLO and NaOCl solutions.Conclusions: Based on the results of this study immersion in and spray by using SOLO and NaOCl disinfectant solutionsproduced no adverse effect on dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details, surface hardness and surfaceporosity for type III, type IV dental stone and for type IV extra hard dental stone except for the surface hardness fortype IV extra hard when sprayed with SOLO and the surface porosity when type IV extra hard stone immersed in theSOLO and NaOCl solutions


Article
Effect of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidin and EDTA on dentin microhardness
تأثير هيبوكلوريت الصوديوم ، الكلورهيكسيدين و EDTA على متانة العاج

Authors: Basam Kareem Amin --- Sazan Sherdil Saleem --- Diyar Khalid Bakr
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1175-1179
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: The use of chemical irrigants solution in root canal therapy is capable of altering the proportion of organic and inorganic components of root canals. The structural properties of dentin may be changed such as permeability, solubility and microhardness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of root canal irrigants on the microhardness of root canal by using three types of irrigant solutions with different concentration and normal saline used as control group. Methods: Root halves were prepared by longitudinal splitting of the roots of 56 freshly extracted caries free maxillary second premolars and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, leaving the dentin surface exposed. The root halves were randomly divided to seven groups composed of 16 samples each and treated for five minutes with one of the following irrigants: normal saline (control group), 0.2 % chlorhexidin, 2% chlorhexidin, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, 5.25%, 5% Ethylene dimetha tetra hydrate EDTA and 17% EDTA. After surface treatment, the dentin microhardness of the root samples were recorded at the mid-root level by using a vicker microhardness tester. The data were statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Duncans test with a significant difference test at P ≤0.05. Results: EDTA, sodium hypochlorite, and 2% chlorhexidin significantly decreased the microhardness of root dentin compared with controls (P <0.05), while 0.2% chlorhexidin had no significant effect on the microhardness of root dentin. Conclusion: The irrigant solutions affect the microhardness of the samples except 0.2%.


Article
The antibacterial activity of certain disinfectant solutions incorporated into stone mixture

Author: Dr. Basima Mohammed Ali Hussein.* د. باسمة محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 200-204
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Cross infection control is a way of life and it was realized that a radical changes inthe way of work in the dental clinic and laboratories would detect considerable revisesof traditional working patterns. Disinfection of dental stone cast by incorporation ofChlorhexidine gluconate CHX, Sodium hypochlorite and Madacide 11 separately in aconcentration of (0.5 , 0.5 , full strength) respectively according to the manufacturerinstructions and testing their activity against S.aureus,  -haemolytic streptococcuspneumonia, pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli was performed. 5 trials were donefor each disinfectant solution and control (distilled water).The result showed that all the disinfectant solutions showed significant reductionof microbial growth in comparison with the control. Sodium hypochlorite sterilizedental stone cast followed by CHX.Sodium hypochlorite gave negative result for allthe tested microorganisms in all the trials followed by chlorhoxidine gluconatesolutions .Disinfection of stone cast is among recommended methods in infectioncontrol.Sodium hypochlorite was the best among the tested disinfected solutions.


Article
Effect of some disinfectant solutions on the hardness property of selected soft denture liners after certain immersion periods.

Author: Basima M.A. Hussein* BDS, MSc, PhD د. باسمة محمدعلي حسين
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 259-264
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary: Background: Disinfection of denture and soft denture liners became among the priorities for cross contamination control as well as patient's health. All the trials aimed to have maximum infection control with minimal adverse changes in the materials properties. Materials and methods: Discs of 30x2mm were made from Coe Super Soft and Coe Soft denture liners. Every 5 specimens were immersed separately and daily in CHX, Sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, control group specimens were immersed in the distilled water. Hardness property of the experimental and control groups was evaluated by using Shore A durometer after 1, 7, 30 days. Results: Statistical analysis indicated non significant differences when the control group was compared with every disinfectant solution regarding tested periods, while ANOVA test showed significant differences among tested solutions after every testing period. Further LSD attributed these differences to the chlorine dioxide since it is the only solution that decreases hardness value after immersion. Conclusion: Either of the tested solutions can be used safely regarding hardness property, although CHX and Sodium hypochlorite are more recommended since their effects on the hardness property was relatively same in comparison to the control. Keywords: CHX, Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorine dioxide, hardness, soft denture liners.


Article
EFFECT OF TREATMENT LIMESTONE IN LIGHT WEIGHT SELF-COMPACTING MORTAR ON FERROCEMENT PANELS IN FLEXURE
تأثير الحجر الكلسي المعالج في المونة الخفيفة الوزن و الذاتية الرص على لوحات السمنت المسلحة بالانثناء

Author: Jasim Mahmood mhalhal م.م.جاسم محمود مهلهل العبادي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 543-554
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The present work investigated the possibility of using limestone as a fine aggregate, after treating with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL), in improving the properties of light weight self-compacting cement mortar (LWSCM). In this paper, three different mortars were fabricated, one of them contained limestone, the second one had NaOCL-treated lime stone, and the third was a normal mortar with fine sand which kept as reference. In addition, a total of nine ferrocement panels containing NaOCL were fabricated, they were tested under effect of four-point loading in order to study their mechanical properties. The effect of sodium hypochlorite on some physical and mechanical properties of mortar in both states fresh and hardened was also investigated. Compressive strength of (LWSCM) was examined at three commonly selected ages: 3, 7 and 28 days. Results showed that, the treated limestone improves the compressive strength compared to cement mortar containing untreated limestone and normal fine sand. Additionally, the treating of lime stone by the sodium hypochlorite enhances the fresh mortar properties such as mini slump flow test and flow time, besides the mechanical properties of hardened mortar including specific gravity, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Finally, the panels of treated-limestone mortars experienced the largest ultimate load and stiffness of all panels.

هذا البحث يهدف الى امكانية استخدام حجر الكلس كركام ناعم , بعد معالجتة بهايبوكلورات الصوديوم (NaOCL) ,في تحسين خصائص المونة الخفيفية الوزن ذاتية الرص(LWSCM) . في هذا البحث تم أعداد ثلاث خلطات مختلفة, واحدة منها حاوية على الحجر الكلسي والثانية على الحجر الكلسي المعالج والثالثة على الرمل الناعم كمونة مرجعية. بالاضافة الى تسع من الالواح السمنتيه المسلحة والتي اختبرت تحت تاثير اربع نقاط تحميل لدراسة الخصائص الميكانيكية . كذلك تم دراسة تاثير هايبوكلورات الصوديوم على بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية للمونة الطرية والمتصلبة. تم فحص مقاومة الانضغاط لل (LWSCM) باعمار 7,3و28 يوم . اظهرت النتائج ان حجر الكلس المعالج زاد من مقاومة الانضغاط بالمقارنة مع حجر الكلس غير المعالج والركام الناعم الاعتيادي .بالاضافة الى ذلك معالجة حجر الكلس يعزز من خصائص الخلطة الطريه مثل قابلية التشغيل وزمن الانسياب فضلا عن الخصائص الميكانيكية للخلطة الصلبة بما في ذالك الوزن النوعي ,مقاومة الانثناء ومقاومة الانضغاط .واخير الالواح بمونة حجر الكلسي المعالج شهدت تحمل وصلابة اعلى من كل الالواح.


Article
Kinetic of Disinfection reaction by Sodium Hypochlorite Solution

Authors: Majid I. Abdul-Wahab --- Bashaer M. Namoos
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present studier aims to study the kinetic of reaction at different experimental conditions depending on coliform bacteria concentration and hypochlorite ion. The effects that had been investigated were different of sodium hypochlorite doses, contact time, pH and temperature (20, 29, 37) o C. The water samples were taken from Al-Wathba water treatment plant in Risafa side of Tigris River in Baghdad. The biological tests included the most probable number (M.P.N) for indicating the concentration of coliform bacteria with different contact times and the total plate count (T.P.C) for indicating the amount of colonies for general bacteria. The iodimetry method (chemical test) was used for indicating the concentration of hypochlorite ion with different contact times. Different models were examined to fit the experimental data including the kinetics power law (first and second order) and Selleck model. It was found that the Selleck model fitted well the experimental data in which degree of Selleck model was equal to two and the rate constants was 1.3791 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 20o C, 3.0806 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 29oC, and 5.738 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 37o C.


Article
The Effect of Chemical Disinfectants on the Setting Time and Dimensional Change of Alginate Impression Material.

Author: Luma M. Al-Nema
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing different concentrations of chlorhexidine, iodine ,and sodium hypochlorite solutions on the setting time and dimensional change of alginate impression material. Materials and methods: Total number of samples (40) has been prepared in this study. Ten samples for control group made from pouring alginate impressions of metal model .The other groups made by mixing alginate with 0.05% iodine, 0.5% chlorhexidine and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions. Dimensional change was measured with AutoCAD program .The Setting time was also measured for each group. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test. Results: no significant difference in the linear dimensional change among the tested groups ,sodium hypochlorite added to alginate as disinfectant showed the highest dimensional changes among the other groups. There was a significant difference among the tested groups in the setting time. It was found that treating the alginate with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine disinfecting agents accelerated the setting time of the material. Conclusion: The testing disinfecting agents can be used safely regarding dimensional change.

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