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Article
Accuracy and precision of a photographic system for the three-dimensional study of facial morphology

Authors: Shwan E Abdulkareem شوان عبد الكريم --- Nagham Al-Mothaffar نغم المظفر
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Facial analysis is vital for orthodontic treatment planning but traditional methods of facial analysis areincapable of fully capturing the three-dimensional complexity of the human face. The purpose of this study was todetermine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through low-cost digitalthree-dimensional photogrammetry system.Materials and methods: Eighteen standard craniofacial measurements were obtained from faces of thirty youngadults using two methods: calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Photomodeler system). After markinganthropometric landmarks on the faces of the sample, direct measurements were taken using calipers then fivephotographs were taken at different angles and 3D model constructed and the same measurement were takenusing Photomodeler. Differences between two methods were calculated. To test the precision of the newphotogrammetric system, measurements were repeated on the same photographs by the researcher and then byanother examiner and also a new set of photographs were taken for each individual and measurements were doneon them. Three different precision estimates were calculated to measure random error for the new method.Results: Systematic errors between the two methods were found for seven measurements but most mean differenceswere clinically insignificant (below 2 mm). In terms of measurement precision, no systematic biases were foundbetween repeated measurements on the same photographs or on different photographs and our precisionestimates showed a clinically acceptable level of repeatability for the Photomodeler system.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Photomodeler 3D photogrammetry system can provide accurate and reliablefacial measurements. It is relatively fast and requires only inexpensive equipment


Article
Reliability of Soft Tissue Analysis in Conventional and Digital Cephalographs

Author: Ruba J Mohammed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 108-115
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This study compared the reliability of measurements of soft tissue cephalometric analysis be-tween the direct digital and conventional cephalometric images using computerized cephalometric pro-gram and hand tracing. Materials and Methods: The adult sample consisted of (30) Iraqi subjects (females and males) with age ranged 18 – 25 years old, the samples satisfied the criteria of this study. Nine soft tissue measurements were recorded from lateral cephalometric radiographs using either hand tracing or digitally directly on the monitor. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and stu-dent’s t–test. Results: No significant differences were found between the conventional or hand tracing and digital cephalometric analysis. Conclusions: The analysis of soft tissue profile using digital cepha-lometric analysis is reliable as using the conventional method. Yet, the digital method had more benefit than the conventional method, such as reduction of the radiation dose and the image enhancement.

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