research centers


Search results: Found 30

Listing 1 - 10 of 30 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by

Article
Soft tissue tumors - Histopathological study of 93 cases

Authors: Intisar S. Hasan انتصار سالم حسان --- Abdulkarem Y. Suliman عبد الكريم يونس سليمان --- Bashar A. Hassawi بشار حساوي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 92-98
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Objective: Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of soft tissue tumors to assess the value of these techniques in verifying the primary diagnosis and their classification.Methods: A prospective study of 93 consecutive soft tissue biopsies that reached the department of histopathology, central labs, Dohuk, and application of immunohistochemical markers on 27 biopsies.Results: Out of 93 soft tissue tumors, 70 (75.2%) were benign with mean age 27.6 y. and 23 cases (24.8 %) were malignant with mean age 39.1 y.. Immunohistochemistery was performed in 27 cases; 21 (77.7%) cases of malignant tumors and 6 (22.3%) benign cases. The most common benign tumors were Lipoma, Haemangioma, Neurofibroma, while malignant muscle tumors (leiomyosarcoma and Rhabdomyosarcoma) and malignant round cell tumors (Ewing’s sarcoma/ PNET) were the major groups .Conclusion: High quality H and E stained section, remain the best method for establishing the primary diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, but immunohistochemical examination proved extremely helpful in sub classifying them, where 7 out of 9 cases of gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs) showed strong immunoreactivity with (c – kit proteins) CD117, CD34, while other (non GISTs) tumors were negative.

الهدف: استعمال الفحوصات النسيجية والكيمياوية النسيجية المناعية للتوصل الى التشخيص النهائي وتصنيف أورام الأنسجة الرخوة. الطريقة والنموذج المستخدم: دراسة مستقبلية لـ 93 خزعة نسيجية مأخوذة من أورام الأنسجة الرخوة واستعمال الفحوصات النسيجية الكيمياوية المناعية لـ 27 حالة تطلب استعمالها لتثبيت تشخيصها النهائي وتصنيفها.النتائج: مثلت حالات الأورام الحميدة من الأنسجة الرخوة حوالي (70) حالة (75,8%) وكان معدل العمر 27,3 سنة، و (23) حالة (24,8%) من سرطانات الأنسجة الرخوة مع معدل عمر 39,1 سنة وكانت أورام الأنسجة الرخوة الحميدة من نوعlipoma وhaemangioma هي الأكثر شيوعا. وسرطان الأنسجة الرخوة للعضلات، وround cell هي الأكثر انتشارا. الاستنتاج: الصبغة النسيجية من نوعH and E هو أفضل طريقة وتمثل حجر الزاوية للتشخيص النهائي لأورام الأنسجة الرخوة.

Keywords

Soft tissue --- tumors


Article
Soft tissue sarcomas in Mosul: a pathologic evaluation

Authors: Bedoor AK. Al-Irhayim بدور عبد القادر الارحيم --- Ahmad F. Lazim احمد لازم
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 152-160
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Objective: Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of soft tissue sarcomas(STS) in Mosul to assess the value of these techniques in verifying the primary diagnosis.Methods: Paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 35 cases of soft tissue sarcomas collected over a period of 20 months in Mosul, were utilized. H&E, reticulin ,and Van Gieson's staining techniques and immunohistochemical marker for S-100 protein were applied to all the cases.Results: Soft tissue sarcoma accounts for 16.4%of the total of 213 cases of benign and malignant soft tissue neoplasms,with a mean age of 30.5 years ,and a male preponderance( Male: Female ratio of1.7:1). The most common histologic subtypes are extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma(ES), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans(DFSP) ,and spindle cell sarcoma, not other wise specified (NOS). The extremities are affected in 51.4% of all cases, particularly the lower limbs. The majority of soft tissue sarcomas belong to the high grade category by applying French Federation of Cancers Centers Sarcoma Group ( FFCCSG) and American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) grading schemes .Both reticulin and Van Gieson's stains have been successfully depicting the growth patterns of different subtypes. Immunoreactivity for S-100 protein was positive in two cases.Conclusions: High quality H&E stained sections remain the best method for establishing the diagnosis of sarcomas .Reticulin stain proved extremely helpful in subclassifying sarcomas and S-100 protein was instrumental in changing the diagnosis of sarcoma in one case.

الهدف: استعمال الفحوصات الكيمياوية النسيجية والكيمياوية النسيجية المناعية للتوصل إلى التشخيص النهائي لسرطانات (غرن) الأنسجة الرخوة في الموصل.النموذج المستخدم: القوالب الشمعية الخالصة بنسيج 35 حالة لسرطانات (غرن) الأنسجة الرخوة خلال فترة 20 شهر. الطريقة: استعمال الصبغات النسيجية (H&E, reticulin, Van Gieson's) الكيمياوية النسيجية المناعية من نوع S-100 protein في كل الحالات.النتائج: مثلت حالات سرطانات (غرن) الأنسجة الرخوة نسبة 16,4% من أصل 213 حالة شملت أيضاً الحالات الحميدة وكان معدل العمر 30,5سنة مع زيادة طفيفة للمصابين من الذكور نسبة للإناث (1.7:1) أكثر الحالات هي من نوع (ES) Ewing's sarcoma.الاستنتاج: الصبغة النسجية من نوع H&E هي أفضل طريقة للتشخيص مع بقية الصبغات المستخدمة.

Keywords

Sarcomas --- soft tissue


Article
Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Head & Neck: Case Report in Al-Ramadi General Hospital
ساركوما الانسجة الرخوة للرأس والعنق

Author: Kamal Turki Al-Kubaisi
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 48-54
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract:Sarcoma in the head & neck area are rare. Management of soft tissue sarcoma in the head & neck is primarily surgical. However the critical anatomy of the head & neck limits the capacity to obtain wide surgical margins. This case report involves a patient who is a 54 years old woman who was referred to the maxillofacial department because of rapidly enlarging mass in the right side involving submandibular space, right cheek and temporal fossa and progressive pain complaint with hearing loss and trismus. Physical examination revealed large firm mass at the right side of the face occupying the submandibular space, infratemporal & temporal fossae, there was trismus, and no other abnormalities were found especially no mucosal lesion or swelling intraorally & no lymph node enlargement in the neck. MRI study was done to the head & neck to study the mass. CT-scan of the chest & abdomen did not show site of distant metastasis. Transoral biopsy through an incision in to the oral vestibule under local anesthesia showed on histopathological examination a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. A surgical resection consisting of parotidectomy, hemimandibulectomy, infratemporal fossa dissection & temporal fossa dissection has been done. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed positive surgical margins. The patient refused to receive postoperative radiotherapy. Unfortunately 7months postoperatively she developed intracranial metastasis.Key ward: Soft tissue sarcoma

الملخص: إن ساركوما الرأس والعنق من الأمراض النادرة والعلاج الأساسي لهذا المرض هو الاستئصال الجراحي, لكن الوضع التشريحي الحرج لمنطقة الرأس والعنق يصعب الحصول على نطاق جراحي آمن.في هذا التقرير تم تسجيل حالة امرأة عمرها 54 سنة أحيلت إلى شعبة جراحة الوجه والفكين بسبب ورم سريع التنامي في الجهة اليمنى السفلى للوجه مع الم متزايد وتكزز في الفك وضعف في السمع .الفحص ألسريري أظهر وجود ورم اشتمل على المنطقة النكفية والصدغية وتحت الصدغية,ولم يظهر أعراضا أخرى مثل إصابة المنطقة الداخلية للفم أو تضخم الغدد اللمفاوية في العنق. تم إجراء فحص الرنين المغناطيسي للورم مع فحص المفراس للبطن والصدر ولم يظهر أي علامة على وجود انتشار بعيد للمرض.بعد اخذ عينة من الورم تحت التخدير الموضعي من خلال الفم أظهر وجود ورم غلاف العصب المحيطي السرطاني .تقرر إجراء جراحة لاستئصال الورم واشتملت العينة المستأصلة على الغدة اللعابية النكفية ونصف الفك السفلي مع تشريح المنطقة الصدغية و تحت الصدغية,وأظهرت الفحوصات النسيجية للعينة وجود بقايا للورم على حافة العينة وتم تحويل المريضة إلى قسم الإشعاع الذري لكنها رفضت,وبعد سبعة أشهر ظهر لديها أعراض ورم داخل القحف وتم التأكد من وجوده بواسطة المفراس.


Article
Soft Tissue Infections associated Bacteria
جراثيم مصاحبة لخمج الأنسجة الرخوة

Authors: Imad, S. Mahmoud عماد شكر --- Auroba K Abbass --- Ameera Abdulameer Mahe اميره عبدالامير
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 349-353
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

AbstractObjectives: This work aimed to isolate and identify microorganisms from different clinical conditions; it is also to do anti microbial sensitivity test to recommend the most effective antimicrobial agents.Methodology: Each specimen collected from different sites of the body was subjected to well known microbiological methods for isolation and identification of certain microorganisms.All isolates were tested for sensitivity or resistance to the commonly used drugs employing Kirby-Bauer technique (1). Results: Out of the total samples studied (168) it was possible to isolate and identify 124 microorganisms from which Gram-Positive bacteria represented 50 isolates (62%) while Gram-negative bacteria represented 74 isolates (91.76%).From the Gram-positive bacteria it has been found that S. aureurs represented 25 (20.16%) isolates followed by' S. epidermidis 16 (12.90%) isolates.P. aeruginosa which is Gram-negative bacteria ranks the highest among all isolates representing 30 isolates (24.19%) followed by K. pneumonia 15 (12.90%) and proteus spp 14 (11.29%) respectively.No site of specimens was free from serratia although it is with low percentage ranging from (1.48% - 0.74%)Antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that S. pneumonia is highly sensitive toClindamycin 90% and to Amoxicillin 90% respectively and less sensitive to vancomycin 60%.K. pneumonia revealed resistance to chloramphenicol 2% and to each of the drugs lincomycin, cloxacillin and erythromycin 40% respectively. P. aeruginosa showed high resistance to most of the drugs used In this study ranged between 10-52%.It reveals sensitivity to cefatriaxon 90% and less sensitive to ceftazidine 80% Serratia marcessens showed good sensitivity to all antimicrobial used in this study except co-trimoxazole to which it is resistant.Conclusion: Grams- negative bacteria are the predominant from which P. aeroginosa rank the highest among all isolates. No sit of specimens was free from serratia mercessens. S. pneumonia is highly sensitive to clindomycine (90%) P. aeroginosa showed high resistaice to most of the drugs used in this study.

الملخص:الهدف : يهدف البحث الى عزل وتشخيص جراثيم مصاحبة لخمج الانسجة الرخوة من مناطق مختلفة من الجسم وكذلك لدراسة حساسية او مقاومة الجراثيم المعزولة للمضادات الحياتية لغرض التوجيه باستعمال المضاد الحيوي و التأثير الفعال.طرق البحث : كل نموج جمع من مناطق مختلفة من الجسم عومل بالطرق المايكروبايولوجية المعروفة لغرض عزل وتشخيص الجراثيم. كافة العزلات بعد تشخيصها تعرضت لفحص الحساسية للمضادات الحياتية استعمال طريقة-Bauer Kirby.النتائج : ان المجموع الكلي للنماذج المدروسة بلغت 168نموا حيث تم بالامكان عزل وتصنيف (124) عزلة منها جراثيم الموجبة لصيغة غرام والتي مثلت 50 عزلة (بنسبة 62%) بينما الجراثيم السالبة لصيغة غرام مثلت 74 عزلة ( بنسبة 76,91%) من الجراثيم الموجبة لصيغة غرام.وجد ان العنقودية الذهبية S.aureus قد مثلت 25 عزلة بنسبة (16,20%) تبعها العنقودية البشروية S.epidermidis 16 عزلة بنسبة 12,90).P.aerurginosa الزائفة الزنجارية التي تعتبر هي جراثيم سالبة لصيغة غرام كانت المرتبة الاعلى من بين جميع العزلات حيث مثلت 30 عزلة (بنسبة 24,19) تبعها الكليبسلا الرئوية K.pneumonia 15 عزلة (12,9%) والمتقلبة proteusspp 14 عزلة وبنسبة (11,29%) على التوالي.لم يكن أي موقع من العينات خالي من Serratia وبرغم من نسبتها الواطئة التي تتراوح من (1,48-0,74%)اظهر اختبار الحساسية للمضادات الحيوية ان S.pneumonia كانت عالية الحساسية للClindamycin ( بنسبة 90%) و الاموكسسلين وبنسبة ( 90% )على التوالي واقل حساسية للفانوكوميسين وبنسبة (60% )ا ظهرت K.pneumonia مقاومة للكلور و الفينيكول وبنسبة (2% )وان كل من المضادين اللنكومايسين و الكاوكسيلين و الارثرمايسين و بنسبة 40% على التوالي. اظهرت P.aeroginosa مقاومة عالية لمعظم المضادات المستخدمة في هذه الدراسة تراوحت بين 10-52% واظهرت حساسية للسيلفاتريكسون بنسبة 90% واقل حساسية للسيفتازدين بنسبة 80%.Serratia marcessens اظهرت حساسية جيدة لجميع المضادات الحيوية المستخدمة في هذه الدراسة باستثناء نو-ترايموكسازول والتي كانت مقاومة له.الاستنتاج: يتنتج من البحث بأن جراثيم سالبة - الكرام هي الاوسع انتشارا (91,76% )ومنها الزائفة الزنجارية التي تمثل النسبة الاعلى من بين جميع العزلات (24,19% ). لا يوجد موضع لنموذج بعيد خال من Serratia mercessexs على الرغم من انها توجد بنسبة ضئيلة. السبحية الرئوية اظهرت حساسية عالية جدا للمضاد الحيوي كلندامايسين ( 90%).الزائفة الزنجارية اظهرت مقاومة شديدة لاغلبية المضادات المستعملة في البحث.

Keywords

Bacteria --- soft tissue --- antibiotic


Article
Incidence of facial soft tissue injuries among patients attending surgical casualty reception in Rojh-halat emergency hospital
حدوث إصابات في الأنسجة الرخوة في الوجه بين المرضى الذين يراجعون استقبال الحالات الجراحية في مستشفى الطوارئ روزهلات

Authors: Omed I. Shihab --- jalal Hamasalih Fattah --- Rasool Hamed Awlla
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 300-304
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background and objective: Facial soft-tissue injuries are the most common injuries presenting to surgical causality reception. The present study aimed to provide a preliminary data base about the distribution, type, pattern and etiology of facial soft tissue injuries. Methods: In a prospective clinical study all patients with facial injury were enrolled in this study, over a ten months period (from 1st October 2010- 1st July 2011), who attended Surgical Casualty Reception in Rojh-halat Emergency Hospital. A questionnaire was used to collect patients’ database and relevant information. The wound configuration was divided as laceration, abrasion and contusion as well as the site of facial soft tissue injuries were recorded using the modified MCFONTZL system. Results: A total of 168 patients with facial soft tissue injuries were received and managed at Surgical Casualty Reception in Rojh-halat Emergency Hospital. The age of the patients were ranged from 1-80 years old. Most of the patients were within the age range of 1-10. Male patients constitute 62.5% of the cases. The most common etiology of facial soft tissue injury was falls. Regarding type of the injury, laceration was the most common type. The lips and chin region were mostly involved. Conclusion: Fall is the most common cause of facial injury. Lower third of the face is mostly involved. road traffic legislations have a role in decreasing road traffic accidents.

Keywords

face --- soft tissue --- injury


Article
Evaluation of Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis for Iraqi Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

Authors: Ne'am F Agha --- Alaa' D Al-Dawoody --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 231-237
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Aims: To determine cephalometric standards for Iraqi adults using Holdaway soft tissue analysis. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 60 individual (31 males and 29 females), aged 18–23years. Ten linear and tow angular parameters were measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs, using the definitions provided by Holdaway. For each variable mean and SD were calculated, in additionindependent samples t– test was performed to detect sexual dimorphism. Results: Some differences were determined when the measurement obtained for Iraqi sample were compared to Holdaway norms.Iraqi adults showed a more obtuse H angle, less nose prominence, more upper lip strain, more skeletal convexity, and greater soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, a comparison between males and femalesrevealed a significant sexual dimorphism for upper lip sulcus depth, upper lip thickness, basic upper lip thickness, and soft tissue chin thickness. Conclusions: soft tissue cephalometric norms are specific foreach ethnic group. The normative data for Iraqi population should be used as a guide for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment


Article
Soft tissue impingement and lip form in Iraqi teenagers

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Soft tissue impingement and lip form have often been overlooked in previous epidemiological surveys.Materials and Methods: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess traumatic overbite causing soft tissue impingement and the lip form of each student.Results: Soft tissue impingement was found in 2.7% (2.5% palatally and 0.2% labially). Normal lip form was found in 80.7%, contracting lip form in 14.7% and lip trap in 4.6% of the sample. All the previous were non-significantly related to gender and residency.Conclusion: Iraqi children present a much mre favorable lip form than Western children

Keywords

Soft tissue --- impingement --- lip form


Article
Integumental lips’ height and separation in different Angle’s classes of malocclu-sions

Author: Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-49
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Aims: To reveal the possible soft tissue difference in the upper and lower lip heights, separations and coverage of lower lip to upper incisors in different Angle’s classes of malocclusion, to determine any difference in the mean between males and females for each variable and to find any correlation among the variables. Materials and Methods: Nightly nigh students (52 males, 47 females), 20–23 years of age that was randomly selected from the college of dentistry, University of Mosul.The overall sample was classified depending on Angle’s classification of malocclusion into four groups (Class I, II.1, II.2 and III). For each group, four facial soft tissue variables were measured directly using electronic digital viernier caliper. Results: A major findings that emerged from the research is that the Class I subjects possessed higher values of upper lip length followed by Class II then Class III, this difference is significant between Class I,III and II,III and non significant between I,II. Where as Class III subjects possessed non significant higher values of lower lip length followed by Class II then Class I. The lip separation value is non significantly higher in Class II subjects followed by Class III then Class I. While Class III subjects possessed non significant higher values of lower lip to incisor superior followed Class I then Class II. Conclusions: For each specific Angle’s class of malocclusion, a specific facial soft tissue parameters. The upper lip length is greater in Class I subjects. Class III subjects have the greater lower lip length. The inter–labial gap is larger in Class II subjects.While the coverage of the lower lip to incisor superior is greater in Class III subjects. Most of the variables are higher in males than females. Complex correlations among the studied variables are found that varied between weak to high positive or negative with varying degree of significance.


Article
Accuracy and precision of a photographic system for the three-dimensional study of facial morphology

Authors: Shwan E Abdulkareem شوان عبد الكريم --- Nagham Al-Mothaffar نغم المظفر
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Facial analysis is vital for orthodontic treatment planning but traditional methods of facial analysis areincapable of fully capturing the three-dimensional complexity of the human face. The purpose of this study was todetermine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through low-cost digitalthree-dimensional photogrammetry system.Materials and methods: Eighteen standard craniofacial measurements were obtained from faces of thirty youngadults using two methods: calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Photomodeler system). After markinganthropometric landmarks on the faces of the sample, direct measurements were taken using calipers then fivephotographs were taken at different angles and 3D model constructed and the same measurement were takenusing Photomodeler. Differences between two methods were calculated. To test the precision of the newphotogrammetric system, measurements were repeated on the same photographs by the researcher and then byanother examiner and also a new set of photographs were taken for each individual and measurements were doneon them. Three different precision estimates were calculated to measure random error for the new method.Results: Systematic errors between the two methods were found for seven measurements but most mean differenceswere clinically insignificant (below 2 mm). In terms of measurement precision, no systematic biases were foundbetween repeated measurements on the same photographs or on different photographs and our precisionestimates showed a clinically acceptable level of repeatability for the Photomodeler system.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Photomodeler 3D photogrammetry system can provide accurate and reliablefacial measurements. It is relatively fast and requires only inexpensive equipment


Article
The variation of facial soft tissue thickness in Iraqi adult subjects with different skeletal classes (A comparative cephalometric study)

Author: Hiba M. Hussein Al-Chalabi هبة الجلبي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 143-149
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The variation of facial soft tissue thickness is an important factor in facial reconstruction andsuperimposition methods in forensic dentistry as well as for orthodontist and plastic surgeons because they providethe basis for quantification and repeatability. The purpose of this study was to compare facial soft tissue thickness ofIraqi patients with different types of skeletal relations.Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric study was conducted on 60 adult Iraqi patients with normal verticaldimensions (diagnosed clinically and radiographically as SN-Mandibular Plane angle 28›-36›), aged 18-30 years,classified according to skeletal sagittal relationship using ANB angle into three groups (each group consist of 10 maleand 10 female subjects): Class I group (ANB2-4›), Class II group (ANB>4›) and Class III group (ANB<2›). Cephalometricanalysis of soft tissue thickness was achieved by 10linearmeasurements using AutoCAD program 2007.Results and Conclusions: This study showed that the facial soft tissue thickness measurements were significantly higherin male than in female in almost all measured midline landmarks, in comparing the three skeletal relation groups,Class III group show the highest readings when compared to Class I and Class II, Class II show the lowest resultsamong the three groups (except for the labiomental fold area and pogonion area), while Class I group lies betweenthe other two groups for all the measured values.

Listing 1 - 10 of 30 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (30)


Language

English (28)

Arabic and English (2)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2013 (9)

2012 (6)

More...