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Article
Structural Properties of Semiconducting Nanostructures Prepared by DC Plasma Reactive Sputtering Method

Author: Noor I. Naji
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 41-44
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, semiconducting nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures were prepared by reactive dc plasma sputtering method. Magnetron was employed at the cathode to prepare these nanostructures and show the advantage of such device in the production of highly pure nanostructures. The sputtered nickel atoms were sputtered and oxidized in presence of oxygen in the Ar:O2 gas mixture of 4:1 ratio. Employment of magnetron results in formation of NiO only in the final samples according to the XRD analysis, increase the roughness and hence surface area of the produced NiO nanostructures, and finally decrease the particle size of NiO nanoparticles lower than 100nm. These improvements in the structural properties of the produced NiO make these nanostructures good candidates for specific applications, such as photodetectors, solar cells and electrochromic smart windows.


Article
Preparation of Highly Pure Nanostructures by Reactive DC Magnetron Sputtering Technique
تحضير تراكيب نانوية عالية النقاوة باستخدام تقنية الترذيذ التفاعلي المستمر

Authors: Firas J. Kadhim --- Oday A. Hammadi --- Mohammed K. Khalaf --- Bahaa T. Chiad
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 27-34
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, metal oxide and nitride nanostructures were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique. These nanostructures were synthesized from metal oxide such as NiO and nitride such as Si3N4 for functional materials applications. The prepared nanostructures were diagnosed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the prepared nanostructures are highly pure, which is ascribed to the featured characteristics of magnetron sputtering technique for such purposes.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Silicon Dioxide Nanostructures by DC Reactive Closed-Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Mohammed A. Hameed --- Zahraa M. Jabbar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-18
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, silicon dioxide nanostructures were prepared by a reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron dc plasma sputtering technique. The target of p-type silicon was sputtered in presence of argon-oxygen gas mixture used for plasma generation and oxidation of silicon sputtered atoms. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed that only distinct peak corresponding to the crystal plane of (101) was observed with reasonable intensity. This is typical behavior of nanostructures. The scanning electron microscopy of the prepared samples showed that certain gas mixtures can produce the smallest particles with high probability for large grains to grow. Uniform distributed particles could be obtained using different mixtures. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed that only silicon and oxygen have appeared in the final sample with different weight percentages depending on the mixing ratio of the argon and oxygen gases. The SiO2 prepared in this work are very good candidates to be employed in random gain media as scattering particles.


Article
Structural Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanostructures Prepared by Closed-Field Unbalanced Dual Magnetron Sputtering Technique

Authors: Firas J. Kadhim --- Oday A. Hammadi --- Mohammed K. Khalaf
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 3-10
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, nickel oxide nanostructures were prepared by a closed-field unbalanced dual magnetron plasma sputtering technique. The structural characterizations performed on the prepared samples showed that they were polycrystalline and the optimization of preparation conditions, only two crystal planes; (111) and (012), were observed in the final product. The surface roughness of the nanostructures can be varied by controlling the inter-electrode distance. Minimum particle size of 25nm was determined for the samples prepared at inter-electrode distance of 6cm.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Silicon Nitride Nanostructures Prepared by DC Reactive Sputtering Technique with Novel Design of Closed-Field Unbalanced Dual Magnetron Assembly

Authors: Firas J. Kadhim --- Mohammed K. Khalaf --- Oday A. Hammadi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 3-12
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In this work, novel design of closed-field unbalanced dual magnetrons system was employed in a DC reactive sputtering system to prepare silicon nitride nanostructures. Two types of silicon wafers (n- and p-type) were sputtered in presence of nitrogen gas to deposit nanostructured silicon nitride thin films on glass substrates. The prepared nanostructured were polycrystalline with six dominant crystal planes: (101), (110), (200), (232), (301) and (321). The surface roughness of the sample prepared at inter-electrode distance of 4cm was higher than other samples prepared at smaller or larger distances and the average and R.M.S roughness were 0.777 and 1.03 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles of minimum size of 30nm were formed and recognized as individual accumulated particles. Two bands of significant absorption were observed around 960 and 1086 cm-1, those are attributed to the Si-N-Si vibration mode in Si3N4 molecule. An absorption peak was observed at 389nm, which is attributed to the quantum size effect of nanostructures. The refractive index of the prepared Si3N4 samples was determined to be 1.38-2.1 and the energy band gap was ranging in 5.1-5.2 eV. The energy band gap was found to increase with decreasing thickness of the prepared film. The wide energy band gap of Si3N4 nanostructures makes them good candidate, as similar as AlN, BN and GaN, for power electronics and optoelectronics operating at high temperatures.


Article
The Effect of Heat Treatment on Phase Formation of Ti-Al-C thin films
تأثیر التعامل الحراري على الاطوار الناتجة لفلم رقیق من سبائك التیتانیوم - المنیوم- كاربون

Author: Ahmed Mohamed Hasan احمد محمد حسن عبدالكاظم
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 19 Pages: 405-419
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A variety of different chemical compositions Titanium-Aluminum-Carbon thinfilms were achieved by combinatorial magnetron sputtering. The as-depositedternary diagram can be divided into two regions. The first region consists oftitanium carbide structure with substitutional Aluminum atoms at the Carbon richside of the diagram. The second region consists of the amorphous phase at the restof the appearing diagram. At 500°C the amorphous phase transforms to titaniumcarbide structure with substitutional Aluminum atoms and at 600 and 700°C manyternary phases have been shown by X-ray diffraction at different regions while theCarbon rich side sustains the titanium carbide structure with substitutionalAluminum atoms. This work could be considered as a leading study in the way toproduce the ternary ceramics at temperatures below the conventional ranges inpowder metallurgy as it had been proved earlier by us.

تش كیلة م ن التراكی ب الكیمیائی ة المختلف ة م ن الاف لام الرقیق ة ل التیت انیوم-المنی وم-ك اربون ت مانجازھا بواسطة التذریة المغنترونیة. یمكن تقسیم مخطط الات زان الثلاث ي ال ى منطقت ین ف ي درج ةحرارة الغرفة الاولى متبلورة من تركیب كاربید التیتانیوم الحاوي على ذرات الالمنیوم التعویض یةفي نسب الكاربون العالي واخرى غیر متبلورة في المناطق المتبقیة. عند درجة حرارة 500 درجةمئویة تتبلور جمیع المناطق الغیر متبلورة لتنتج كاربید التیتانیوم الحاوي على المنیوم. وعن د درج ةحرارة 600 و 700 درج ة مئوی ة وج د ظھ ور ع دة اط وار ثلاثی ة أمك ن تشخیص ھا بحی ود الاش عةالسینیة في مناطق مختلفة من المخطط الثلاثي م ع اس تمرار المحافظ ة عل ى ط ور الكاربی د الثن ائيالحاوي على الالمنیوم في المناطق ذات نسبة الكاربون العالی ة. تع د ھ ذه الدراس ة رائ دة ف ي مج الانتاج افلام رقیقة من السیرامیك الثلاثي بدرجات ح رارة اق ل م ن درج ات الح رارة التقلیدی ة. وھ ياثب ات اخ ر لدراس اتنا الس ابقة ع ن امكانی ة اس تخدام التعام ل الح راري لانت اج الس یرامیك الثلاث يبدرجات حرارة اقل من نضیراتھا في حال الانتاج بتقنیة المساحیق.

Keywords

Thin Films --- TiCx --- Sputtering


Article
Control the deposition uniformity using ring cathode by DC dischargetechnique
التحكم بانتظام الترسيب باستخدام كاثود حلقيفي تقنية التفريغ الكهربائي للتيار المستمر

Authors: Kadhim A. Aadim كاظم عبدالواحد عادم --- Muhammad O. Salman محمد عودة سلمان
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 32 Pages: 57-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Simulation ofdirect current (DC) discharge plasma using COMSOL Multiphysicssoftware were used to study the uniformity of deposition on anode from DC discharge sputteringusing ring and disc cathodes, then applied it experimentally to make comparison between film thickness distribution with simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results shows that the deposition using copper ring cathode is more uniformity than disc cathode.

تم استخدام برنامج COMSOL Multiphysics لعمل محاكاة لبلازما التفريغ الكهربائي للتيار المستمر لدراسة انتظام الترسيب على الأنود الناتج من عملية الترذيذ بواسطة التفريغ الكهربائي عن طريق استخدام كاثود حلقي واخر دائري, ثم تطبيق ذلك عمليا لعمل مقارنة بين توزيع سمك الغشاء مع نتائج المحاكاة. بينت نتائج المحاكاة والنتائج العملية أن الترسيب باستخدام كاثود حلقي من النحاس أكثر انتظاما من الكاثود الدائري.


Article
Preparation of Cu thin film by cylindrical magnetron sputtering device
تحضير الاغشية النحاسية بواسطة منظومة الترذيذ المغناطيسي ذات الابعاد الاسطوانية

Authors: Rahman R. Abdula رحمن رستم عبدالله --- Qusay A. Abbas قصي عدنان عباس --- Baha T. Chied بهاء طعمة جياد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 8 Pages: 25-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present work, a D.C. magnetron sputtering system was designed and fabricated. This chamber of this system includes two coaxial cylinders made from copper .the inner one used as a cathode while the outer one used as a node. The magnetic coils located on the outer cylinder (anode) .The profile of magnetic field for various coil current (from 2Amp to 14Amp) are shown. The effect of different magnetic field on the Cu thin films thickness at constant pressure of 7x10-5mbar is investigated. The result shown that, the electrical behavior of the discharge strongly depends on the values of the magnetic field and shows an optimum value at which the power absorbed by the plasma is maximum. Furthermore, the plasma characterization was also measured by Planar Langmuir probe to given information bout the behavior of plasma through the sputtering process

في هذا البحث , تم تصميم و بناء منظومة الترذيذ المغناطيسي ذات التيار المستمر. ان حجرة هذه المنظومة تتكون من أسطوانتين نحاسيتين متداخلتين. الداخلية منها تستعمل كقطب سالب بينما الخارجية منها تستعمل كقطب موجب. حيث ان ملف المغناطيسي موضوع على السطح الخارجي للاسطوانة الخارجية (القطب الموجب). أن توزيع المجال المعناطيسي لمختلف التيارات المارة بالملف من 2 أمبير الى 14 أمبير قد وثقت. تم دراسة تأثير المجال المغناطيسي على أسماك الاغشية النحاسية المحضرة تحت ضغط ثابت مقداره 7x10-5 ملي بار. ان نتائج هذا البحث قد بينت بان سلوك التفريغ الكهربائي يعتمد على قيم المجال المغناطيسي حيث لوحظ بان المجال المعناطيسي يمتلك افضل قيمة عندما تكون القدرة الممتصة من قبل البلازما أعظم مايمكن. بالاضافة الى ذلك أن خصائص البلازما قد قيست بأستخدام مجس لانجمور المستوي لغرض معرفة سلوك البلازما خلال عملية الترذيذ.


Article
Structural Characteristics of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by New Arrangement of Concentric Targets in DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Firas J. Kadhim --- Ruaa A. Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 9-12
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanostructures were synthesized by co-sputtering of Ni and Fe targets in presence of oxygen. A dc plasma sputtering system employing closed-field unbalanced magnetron at the anode was used for the preparation of these films. The structural characteristics of the prepared films were determined and the results showed that these films are polycrystalline, highly pure, with average particle size of 20-25nm and average surface roughness of 0.465nm. These nickel ferrite nanostructures were prepared at low production cost, high reliability and reasonable structural purity.


Article
Investigation of plasma characteristics of center region of postcylindrical magnetron sputtering device
دراسة خصائص البلازما في منطقة المركز لمنظومة الترذيذ الماكنترون ذات الأبعاد الأسطوانية

Authors: Qusay A. Abbas قصي عدنان عباس --- Rahman R .Abdula رحمن رستم عبدالله --- Baha T. Chied بهاء طعمة جياد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2010 Volume: 8 Issue: 11 Pages: 33-40
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A d.c. magnetron sputtering system was designed and fabricated. The chamber of this system is consisted from two copper coaxial cylinders. The inner one used as the cathode and the outer one used as anode with magnetic coil located on the outer cylinder (anode). The axial behavior of the magnetic field strength along the cathode surface for various coil current (from 2A to 14A) are shown. The results of this work are investigated by three cylindrical Langmuir probes that have different diameters that are 2.2mm, 1mm, and 0.45mm. The results of these probes show that, there are two Maxwellian electron groups appear in the central region. As well as, the density of electron and ion decreases with increases of magnetic field strengths.

في هذا العمل تم تصميم و تكوين منظومة الترذيذ الماكنترون. ان حجرة هذا المنظومة تتكون من اسطوانتين نحاسيتين ذات محور مشترك. حيث استخدمت الاسطوانة الداخلية كقطب سالب اما الاسطوانة الخارجية استخدمت كقطب موجب حيث يكون الملف المغناطيسي موضوع على السطح الخارجي للاسطوانة الخارجية (الانود). تم دراسة توزيع المجال المغناطيسي المتولد في الملف لتيارات مختلفة تتراوح بين (2 إلى 12 أمبير). ان نتائج هذا العمل قد فحصت باستخدام ثلاثة مجاميع من مجسات الانجمور الأسطوانية مختلفة الأقطار وهي 1 ملي متر,ملي متر 0.45,ملي متر . 2.2أن نتائج هذه المجسات قد بينت بان هناك مجموعتين من الإلكترونات مختلفة الطاقة تخضع لتوزيع ماكسويل تظهر في منطقة المركز. بالإضافة إلى ذلك فقد لوحظ بان كثافة الإلكترون و الأيون تقل مع زيادة قوة المجال المغناطيسي

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