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Article
An evaluation of methods of inducing sputumproduction in patient with suspected lung cancer

Author: Maha Shakir Hassan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 383-386
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : the major focus of respiratory cytology is the diagnosis of lung cancer , carcinoma of the lung is now reported to be the most commonly diagnosed non- Cutaneous malignancy in the world. Iraq has faced the increase in incidence of this lethal type of cancer. Sputum cytology is a convenient method of screening and diagnosing primary epithelial tumor of the lung which is of many types include fresh smear ,Sacccomanno smear, and mailing container method.
Methods : Sputum cytological study was done on 50 patients suspected to have pulmonary carcinoma prepared by fresh smear method ,Saccomanno method ,and mailing container method.One, two,or three samples taken from each patient.Slides were prepared and stained by H and E stain and examined thoroughly .The accuracy specificity, and sensitivity was found for each method for comparison.
Result and Conclusion : A careful and sometimes frequent sputum samples is very essential in the diagnosis of lung cancer .Preservation and fixation methods are found to facilitate more accurate diagnosis especially in areas far from hospital.


Article
A Statistical Radiological Analysis in Patients with Sputum Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Waleed Latif Hussein --- Basil Fawzi Jameel --- Muhammed .W.AL.Obaidy --- Adnan M. AL,Jubouri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-157
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACK GROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) a multi-systemic disease with various presentations and manifestations; is due to infection with the acid fast bacillus mycobacterium. Disease occurs in only (10%) of infected individuals, it is associated with overcrowding and immune-compromised statesOBJECTIVE:To identity the main findings in plain chest X-ray and CT-scan of the chest of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with sputum smear positive in relation to certain factors and clinical conditions including : gender, age , smoking , alcohol- consumption , co-morbid diseases e.g. diabetes mellitus and steroid medication for more than 4 weeks .PATIENT AND METHOD:Across sectional study of randomly collected (100) patients all were new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis disease with sputum smear positive, A plain chest radiography was done to all of them , and a randomly chosen (30) patients (out of the same sample of the study) were examined also by ( high resolution CT-scan ) of the chest to compare the radiological findings.The sample of patients collected consisted of (68)males and (32) females , aged between (12 -82) years.The study was done in the specialized chest and respiratory diseases center in Baghdad during the period from first of March 2012 ,to the end of August 2012.RESULTS:100patients with sputum smear positive – pulmonary tuberculosis disease were collected, 68 patients (68%) were males and 32 patients (32%) females. From our study97 patients(97%)of total number presented with positive radiological findings whether by plain chest X-ray and /or CT-scan of chest, And 3 patients(3%) of the sample studied were with normal both plain chest X-ray and CT-scan of chest.The radiological findings of all of the patients studied were as :Infiltrative lesion48 patients( 48% )Cavitary lesion(: 37%)Consolidation ( 32%)Pleural effusion (17%)Miliary shadowing( 1%)Clear radiological was found that 28 patients (28%) had radiological abnormalities in the right side of the chest and 25 patients were with left sided radiographic abnormality, while bilateral chest radiological finding had been shown in44 patients (44%).CONCLUSION:The CT- scan of chest is more sensitive than plain chest X-ray for evaluation of abnormal or obscured radiological findings. There is no specific pattern for radiological finding in the chestthe direct sputum examination is remained the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.


Article
THE EFFICIENCY OF MOLECULAR AND CONVENTIONAL METHODS IN DETECTION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS ISOLATED FROM IMMUNOCOMMPROMSED PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY SYMPTOMS

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Abstract

Background:Candida albicans (C. albicans) has emerged as a potentially pathogenic fungus rather than benefit mucosal commensal in patients with pulmonary diseases. Although respiratory candidiasis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis has been reported in the past, it has gained more relevance recently due to increased use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective:To detect C. albicans in sputum samples from patients with pulmonary diseases using conventional and molecular methods.Methods:One hundred sputum samples obtained from patients with pulmonary symptoms were included in this study. Sputum samples were dispensed into three specimen parts; the first one was applicated for cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 37 °C for 48 hrs and then the purified colony of Candida underwent biochemical tests including API Candida strips, and germ tube. The second part was undergone direct gram stain, while the third part was applicated for DNA extraction and then molecular diagnosis with PCR technique using specific primers.Results:Culture result revealed 43 positive samples for Candida species out of 100 samples. Among these positive samples, 23 (53.5%) were positive for C. albicans in each of culture, germ tube and API. Molecular test revealed an amplicon with 538bp fragment of phospholipase gene from the same 23 samples.Conclusion:C. albicans is highly prevalent among patients suffering from bronchopulmonary symptoms. The molecular and conventional methods gave concomitant results as detection tools for the diagnosis of such microorganisms.Keywords:Candida albicans, phospholipase B gene, sputum.


Article
دراسة مقارنة لأنواع مختلفة من بكتريا Mycoplasma بطريقتي العزل الجرثومي MDCS وال PCR

Authors: غيداء جاسم عبدالنبي الغزاوي --- رواء صادق مجيد
Journal: Misan Journal of Acodemic Studies مجلة ميسان للدراسات الاكاديمية ISSN: 1994697X Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 31 Pages: 95-105
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

AbstractA 150 samples were collected (50 samples of sputum , 50 swabs of the gingiva and 50 of vaginal swabs) from patients who admitted Al -Basra general hospital and the specialist center of the first dental medicine in the governorate of Basra for the period from January 2015 to May 2015 from males and females , their age of patients ranged from 6-70 years old . Samples were collected and96cultured by monophasic-diphasic culture setup method ( MDCS ) .Three types of Mycoplasma were isolated : Mycoplasma pneumoniae from sputum , Mycoplasma salivarium from the swabs of the gingiva and Ureaplasma urealyticum from the vaginal swabs. Isolated Mycoplasma were diagnosed by biochemical tests and PCR technique .Results were statistical analysis by chi – square at P ≤ 0.05 level . Mycoplasma spp . were isolated from 76 individuals out of 150 samples with biochemical tests. Twenty five cases were diagnosed as M. pneumoniae (50%) , 13 cases were diagnosed as M. salivarium (26%) and 38 cases were diagnosed as U.urealyticum (76%) .Sixty eight isolates of Mycoplasma spp. were diagnosed by PCR at first time in Iraq , 23 were diagnosed as M. pneumoniae (46%) , 13 were diagnosed as M. salivarium (26%) and 32 were diagnosed as U. urealyticum (64%).

الخلاصة :جمعت 150 عينة ) 50 عينة من القشع , 50 مسحة من اللثة و 50 مسحة من المهبل ( من المرضىالمراجعين لمستشفى البصرة العام و المركز التخصصي لطب الأسنان الأول في محافظة البصرة للفترة منكانون الأول 2015 ولغاية أيار 2015 ومن الذكور والإناث , تراوحت أعمارهم من) 6 - 70 سنة (.جُمعت تلك العينات و زُرعت بطريقة الزرع الاحادي الثنائي الطور - Monophasic-Diphasic Culture Setup (MDCS) .عُزلت ثلاث أنواع من المايكوبلازما:Mycoplasam pneumoniae مننن القشننع , Mycoplasma salivarium مننن مسننحات اللثننة وUreaplasma urealyticum منن المسنحات المهبلينة . تنم تشنخيا هنذ العنزلات بواسنطة الا تبناراتالبنايو كيميائيننة و تقنيننة - . PCR تننم تحلينل النتننائئ احصننائيا باسننتخدام مربننع كنناي وتحننت مسننتو معنويننة0.05 P≤ . وجنندت المايكوبلازمننا فنني 76 حالننة مرضننية مننن عينننات الدراسننة البالغننة 150 عينننة و التننيشُخصننت بواسننطة الا تبننارات البننايو كيميائيننة , - 25 حالننة منهننا شُخصننت pneumoniae . M بنسننبة( 50 )% 13 حالنننننة منهنننننا شُخصنننننت salivarium M. بنسنننننبة ) 26 %( و 38 حالنننننة شُخصنننننتurealyticum . U بنسبة ) 76 %( .أظهرت نتائئ التشخيا بال PCR ثلاث أنواع منن المايكوبلازمنا فني68 عينننة مننن أصننل 150 عينننة مننن الننذكور والاننناث ولأول مننرة فنني العننراق , هننذ الأنننواع هنني M. pneumoniae ظهنرت فني 23 عيننة و بنسنبة) 46 )% salivarium . M ظهنرت فني 13 عيننة و بنسنبة( 26 %( وأ يرا ظهرت urealyticum . U في 32 عينة وبنسبة ) 64 .)%


Article
Evaluation of laboratory examination of Bronchial Wash Versus Sputum Examination in Diagnosing Lung Diseases
تقييم الفحص ألمختبري للقشع مقارنة بفحص سائل غسول القصبات الهوائية في تشخيص أمراض الرئة في مستشفى الرمادي التعليمي.

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Abstract

Sputum study and bronchial wash study are considered two of the most common well known classic diagnostic tools in detecting various lung diseases among the wide and continuously expanding diagnostic procedures for detection of lung pathology.Sputum study still play a rule in diagnosis of lung diseases but the sensitivity of the sample is highly depended on the procedure of collection and the co-operation of the patient, the type and the site of lung lesion.Fiber optic bronchoscopy is another option providing both direct visualization of the trachea-bronchial tree and the bronchial wash collected by the fiber optic bronchoscopy provides important information for detection of various lung diseases. the study was conducted in ramadi teaching general hospital. This is a comparison prospective study of 45 consecutive patients whom underwent both sputum collection and bronchoscopy for bronchial wash collection and comparing the results of the patients which showed that among the 45 patients 33 patients had inconclusive or negative sputum studies while 12 patients had positive sputum study in comparison with bronchial wash which give positive results in 41 patients. This study confirms that the sensitivity of bronchial wash is much higher than bronchial wash is much higher than the sputum study in diagnosing lung diseases and the higher sensitivity usually associated with abnormal chest x-ray.the study confirms the importance of these tools for rapid diagnosis of a disease with starting immediate therapy, economic value in reducing time-admission period in the hospital with high necessity to support a staff well trained on bronchoscopy to ensure rapid and accurate diagnoses of chest diseases

یعتبر الفحص ألمختبري للقشع وكذلك فحص سائل غسول القصبات الهوائیة المستخرج عن طریق تنظیر القصبات اللیفيأحدا أهم الفحوصات المختبریة المستخدمة في تشخیص أم ا رض الجهاز التنفسي شیوعا وبالرغم من تعدد وتنوع الطرق التشخیصیة بقيهذان الفحصان یلعبان دو ا ر أساسیا في تشخیص أم ا رض الجهاز التنفسي.یستخدم فحص القشع على نطاق أوسع ولسهولة اخذ العینةأصبح مفضلا على فحص سائل غسل القصبات المأخوذ عن طریق الناظور.أجریت هذه الد ا رسة في مستشفى الرمادي التعلیمي شعبةج ا رحة الصدر وشملت ٤٥ مریضا أخذت لجمیع المرضى عینات من القشع وتم تعریف المرضى بكیفیة إعطاء القشع ولیس اللعابوتم إعطاء بعض المرضى الأدویة المقشعة لزیادة جودة العینة وتم إج ا رء تنظیر القصبات باستخدام ناضور القصبات اللیفي المرنوجریت على جمیع العینات الفحوص المختبریة والتي شملت فحص التدرن وز ا رعة العینة لكشف نوع البكتریا والفحص الخلوي للكشفعن الخلایا السرطانیة ، بینت الد ا رسة إن فحص القشع لم یبین نوع أو سبب المرض إلا في ١٢ مریضا وبقیت ٣٣ حالة مرضیة غیرمعروفة بینما أظهرت فحوص السائل المستخرج من غسل القصبات عن طریق ناضور القصبات المرن تحت التخدیر الموضعي أسبابوأع ا رض المرض في ٤١ مریضا.أثبتت نتائج هذه الد ا رسة أن هناك جدوى أكیدة على الصعید العلمي في سرعة تحدید المرض وسرعةالبدء في العلاج وجدوى اقتصادیة في تقلیل فترة الرقود في المستشفى وأكدت على ضرورة توفیر كوادر لها إلمام بتنظیر القصبات كونهأكثر سرعه ودقة في تشخیص الأم ا رض الصدریة.


Article
Rapid Direct Detection and Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Sputum by Real-Time PCR
الكشف والتمييز المباشر السريع لعصيات السل المركبة في القشع بأستخدام تفاعل البوليميراز المتسلسل اللحظي

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Abstract

Tuberculosis status as the second leading causes of significant morbidity and mortality from an infectious disease worldwide, after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sample collection was conducted at the Institute of Chest and Respiratory Diseases/Baghdad Medical City in Baghdad. The collection interval was from August to October 2014, 629 suspected TB patients were examined during this period. The results revealed among total 629 specimens, 56 (8.9%) of the specimens were positive by direct examination and 573 (91.1%) negative specimens by smear microscopy. Fifty six DNA samples were extracted from positive ZN smears of sputum specimens and 40 samples from healthy persons (as control) were subjected to molecular diagnosis by real time PCR to detect and differentiate of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. bovis BCG. The results were clarified that the 48 samples (85.72%) were M. tuberculosis, 2 samples (3.57%) were mixed of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, no M. bovis BCG was detected, and 6 (10.71%) were negative. These findings propose that M. bovis plays a minor role compared to M. tuberculosis in the etiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in Baghdad.

يعتبر مرض السل المسبب الرئيسي الثاني للهلاك و الوفاة في جميع انحاء العالم من بين الأمراض المعدية، بعد فيروس نقص المناعة المكتسب (HIV). تم جمع العينات في المختبر المرجعي التابع لمعهد الأمراض الصدرية و التنفسية/مدينة بغداد الطبية في بغداد، للفترة من بداية شهر آب الى نهاية شهر تشرين الأول 2014، أذ تم فحص 629 من المرضى المشكوك بأصابتهم بمرض السل، أكدت النتائج وجود 56 (8.9%) عينة موجبة للفحص المجهري المباشر، بينما 537 (91.1%) عينة كانت سالبة لهذا الفحص. تم أختيار 56 عينة الموجبة للكشف المجهري المباشر و 40 عينة سالبة للكشف المجهري المباشر لأغراض الدراسة الجزيئية بأستخدام تفاعل البوليميراز المتسلسل اللحظي و بعد أستخلاص الجينوم (DNA) منها لتشخيص عائدية البكتريا الى جنس Mycobacterium كذلك لمعرفة عائدية هذه الجراثيم لمجموعة عصيات السل المركبة Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex وهي M. tuberculosis ، M. bovis ، M. bovis BCG . أظهرت النتائج وجود 48 (85.72%) مريض مصاب بـ M. tuberculosis، 2 (3.57%) مريض مصاب بخليط من M. tuberculosis و M. bovis، ولم تشخص اي حالة أصابة بـ M. bovis BCG، بينما أظهرت 6 (10.71%) عينات نتيجة سالبة لهذا الفحص. و تشير هذه النتائج الى أن M. tuberculosis تلعب دوراً كبيراً و بارزاً في التسبب في مرض السل الرئوي في بغداد مقارنة بـ M. bovis.


Article
Correlation between chest X-ray & sputum investigation of pulmonary Tuberculosis in Salah Al-deen Governorate

Author: Khalid Omar Mohammad Ali.
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 112 Pages: 47-49
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

لTo determine the importance of direct smear examination of sputum correlated to the chest X-rayfindings as reliable diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The medical records of patientswith PTB in the chest disease center in Tikrit city were reviewed regarding ages, sex, chest X-rayand direct smear examination of sputum. The present study show that the most of cases 37 (57.81%) were positive for sputum smear examination and X-ray findings, while 27 (42.19 %) of patientshad been positive chest X-ray findings . Regarding methods of diagnosis the study shows that 41(64 % ) of cases were positive for direct smear examination. The direct microscopic examinationdose not require cost and sophisticated equipments and can be performed without regular electricityand water supply . It is possible to use this method as a base for the diagnosis of PTB

لتحديد أهمية فحص اللطاخة المباشر من البلغم ربطها الصدر بالأشعة السينية نتائج التشخيص كما يمكن الاعتماد عليها من السل الرئوي (PTB). السجلات الطبية للمرضى مع PTB في الصدر وسط مدينة تكريت في مرض واستعرضت الأعمار فيما يتعلق، الجنس، والصدر بالأشعة السينية وفحص اللطاخة المباشر من البلغم. وتظهر الدراسة أن معظم الحالات 37 (57.81 ٪) كانت ايجابية للفحص لطاخة البلغم ونتائج الأشعة السينية، في حين أن 27 (42.19٪) من المرضى كان الصدر بالأشعة السينية إيجابية النتائج. بخصوص طرق تشخيص المرض تظهر الدراسة أن 41 (64٪) من الحالات كانت ايجابية لفحص اللطاخة المباشر. الفحص المجهري المباشر جرعة لا تتطلب تكلفة ومعدات متطورة ويمكن القيام بها من دون كهرباء منتظمة وإمدادات المياه. فمن الممكن استخدام هذه الطريقة كقاعدة لتشخيص PTB


Article
THE FINDINGS OF SPUTUM CULTURE OF INTUBATED MECHANICALLY VENTILATED PATIENTS VERSUS NON-INTUBATED PATIENTS IN THE ICU

Author: Nawfal Ali Mubark
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 41-46
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A prospective clinical study was carried out in the ICU at Al-Basrah & AI-Tahreer General Hospitals to determine the percentage of positive sputum culture among intubated & mechanically ventilated patients compared to non-intubated patients, reflecting the impact of intubation and mechanical ventilation on increased risk of nosocomial infection and subsequent increased frequency of morbidity and mortality in ICU patients. One hundred & twenty patients were admitted to these ICUs during a 6-months period (November 2008 to April 2009), they were 55 Females and 65 Males with mean age of 44.14 year (range 4-86year). Among 60 intubated ventilated patients, 25 (41.7%) had positive sputum culture. The bacteriology of positive sputum culture was caused predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 36% followed by Klebsiella species in 28%, streptococcus pneumonia 24% and Escherichia coli in 12%. Among 60 non intubated patients, 8 (13.3%) had positive sputum culture. The bacteriology of positive sputum culture was caused predominantly by Streptococcus pneumonia in 50% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 25% and Klebsiella species in 25%.This study confirmed that intubation and mechanical ventilation (mechanical interference) are risk factors that lead to increase the rate of nosocomial infection and subsequent increased frequency of morbidity and mortality in ICU patients.

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