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Article
Probiotic Induce Macrophage Cytokine Production via Activation of STAT-3 Pathway

Author: Neama Y. Habil
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 484-494
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes generated from monocyte emigrated from blood circulation. Macrophages mediated the innate and adaptive immunity through different routes, and cytokine production is one of these routes. Signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs) are cytoplasmic transcription factors that are key mediators of cytokine and growth factor signalling pathways. STAT-3 is implicated in macrophage cytokine signalling and production. It's well reported that the microbiota is very important as it primes the immune system for the antigens encountered later in life. Probiotics defined as ‘Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, the aim of this project was to answer the question whether probiotics induced cytokine production via activation of STAT-3 signalling pathway. Results showed that probiotic of Lactobacillus casie strain Shirota was successfully induced cytokine production via activation of STAT-3 by anti-inflammatory macrophages induced by TNF-α. The findings of this study will open new strategy to modulate the immune response by probiotic bacteria leading to treat the diseases that related with irregular cytokine production.

Keywords

macrophages --- probiotics --- cytokines --- STAT-3


Article
Chaos is persistent...the limits of Iran's role in the Middle East region
الفوضى المستحكمة... حدود الدور الايراني في منطقة الشرق الاوسط

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Abstract

Since 2003, the Middle East has a state of chaos and regional instability due to the US force policy to bring change to the region, especially after its occupation of Iraq, This state of chaos had repercussions on the roles of regional powers, including Iran, which felt the danger because of the presence of the United States and its troops stationed in Iraq nearby the Iranian border. Therefore, Iran has sought to play a regional role based on increasing its security and interests under chaotic system and increase its strength and gains. This chaos has increased with what happened in 2011, which was known as the "Arab Spring". It changed the roles of the regional powers (especially Turkey and Saudi Arabia), as well as the formation of coalitions map in the region.

لقد شهدت منطقة الشرق الاوسط بعد عام 2003 حالة من الفوضى والاضطراب الاقليمي بفعل سياسة الولايات المتحدة الامريكية في استخدام القوة الصلبة لاحداث التغيير لاسيما باحتلال العراق، حالة الفوضى هذه كان لها تداعيات على ادوار القوى الاقليمية ومن بينها ايران التي استشعرت الخطر نظرا لاقتراب الولايات المتحدة الامريكية وقواتها المتواجدة في العراق من الحدود الايرانية، لذلك فقد سعت ايران الى ممارسة دور اقليمي قائم على تعظيم امنها ومصالحها في ظل نظام فوضوي والسعي لتعظيم قوتها ومكاسبها، هذه الفوضى ازدادت مع الحراك الشعبي العربي الذي حصل عام 2011 وعرف (بالربيع العربي) وماتلاه من تبدل ادوار القوى الاقليمية (لاسيما تركيا والسعودية) فضلا عن تشكل خارطة جديدة للتحالفات في المنطقة حتمت بالنهاية على ايران العمل على زيادة دورها لتأمين هدفها المتمثل بالاستمرار والبقاء.


Article
دراسة تأثير السلم المصمم محليآ في بعض العمليات الحقليه لاشجار النخيل

Authors: فلاح كمال محمد --- ياسين درب ظاهر
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Pages: 1196-1205
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

For helping Iraqi farmers to rise palm-date trees and doing different works such as cutting fronds , vaccination , fixing and plucking besides combating different agricultural blights ( lesions ) from all kinds of diseases , insects rodents . Two simple new equipment have been manufactured , they are easy to use and move and from local cheap materials which are :a-Moveable stairs with crescent-shaped anticline .b-Tubal stairs with crescent-shaped anticline

بهدف مساعدة المزارع العراقي للقيام بعملية صعود النخيل والقـيام بعمليات الخدمة المختلفة .قص السعف والتلقيح والتركيس والجني وكذلك القيام بعمليات مكافحة الافات الزراعية المختلفة من امراض وحشرات وقوارض .تم تصنيع ألتين جديدتين بسيطتين وسهلتي الاستخدام والتنقل ومن مواد محلية رخيصة الثمن وهما :أ‌-السلم المتحرك ذو القبوه الهلالية ب- السلم الانبوبي ذو القبوه الهلالية

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