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Article
The origin of bacterial contamination in AL-Habania reservoir in Iraq
تحديد أصل التلوث البكتيري لخزان الحبانية في العراق

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Abstract

Bacterial contamination of AL-Habania reservoir was studied during the period from February 2005 to January 2006; samples were collected from four stations (AL-Warrar, AL-Theban regulator, middle of the reservoir and the fourth was towards AL-Razzaza reservoir). Coliform bacteria, faecal Coliforms, Streptococci, and faecal Streptococci were used as parameters of bacterial contamination in waters through calculating the most probable number.Highest count of Coliform bacteria (1500 cell/100ml) was recorded at AL-Razaza during August, and the lowest count was less than (300 cell/100ml) in the rest of the collection stations for all months. Fecal Coliform bacteria ranged between less than 300 cells/100ml in all stations for all months to 700 cell/100ml in AL-Warrar, AL-Razaza and in the middle of the reservoir stations during August. Streptococci bacteria count ranged between less than 300 cell/100ml to 700 cell/100ml as a highest record in AL-Razaza station during August for both.The ratio between fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci (FC: FS) was detected to determined the origin of the pollution in the reservoir depending on Geldrich statistical law in this research, the ratio ranged between (1) to (2.3).

درس التلوث البكتيري لخزان الحبانية من شهر شباط عام 2005 ولغاية شهر كانون الثاني عام 2006، وأجريت النمذجة شهرياً بالنسبة للخزان. تم استخدام كثافات بكتيريا القولون (Total Coliform) وبكتيريا القولون البرازية (Fecal Coliform) وبكتيريا المكورات المسبحية (Total Streptococci) وبكتيريا المكورات المسبحية البرازية (Fecal Streptococci) كدالات للتلوث البكتيري في مياه الخزان.سجلت أعلى أعداد لبكتيريا القولون وبلغت 1500 خلية/100مل في المحطة الواقعة باتجاه خزان الرزازة خلال شهر آب ويقل العدد إلى أقل من 300 خلية/100مل لباقي محطات الجمع ولبقية الأشهر، تراوحت أعداد بكتيريا القولون البرازية بين أقل من 300 خلية/100مل في جميع المحطات ولكل الأشهر إلى أعلى قيمة لها وبلغت 700 خلية/100مل في كل من محطة الورار والرزازة ووسط الخزان خلال شهر آب. أما بكتيريا المكورات المسبحية فقد تراوحت أعدادها بين أقل من 300 خلية/100مل في محطات الجمع ولكل الأشهر إلى 700خلية/100مل كحد أعلى في محطة الرزازة خلال شهر آب، وتراوحت أعداد بكتيريا المكورات المسبحية البرازية بين أقل من 300 خلية/100مل في محطات الجمع ولكل الأشهر وصولاً إلى 700 خلية/100مل في محطة الرزازة خلال شهر آب. كما تم تحديد أصل التلوث الموجود في مياه الخزان بالاعتماد على النسبة بين أعداد بكتيريا القولون البرازية وبكتيريا المكورات المسبحية البرازية (القولونية البرازية: المسبحية البرازية) حسب قانون كيلدرخ، وتراوحت النسبة من (1) إلى (2.3) في مياه الخزان، نوقشت النتائج في متن البحث.

Keywords

Coliform --- Streptococci --- Pollution --- Reservoir


Article
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MUTAN'S STREPTOCOCCI BACTERIA FROM HUMAN DENTAL PLAQUE SAMPLES

Author: Nada H.A. Al-Mudallal, Essam F.A. Al-Jumaily
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 98-105
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Fifty plaque samples were collected from teeth. Forty five samples were considered to be positive bacterial isolates about (104 bacteria/ml) using selective Ms-agar (Mitis-Salivarius agar) medium. Thirty isolates were considered to be related to the genus Streptococcus and specially to the mutans streptococci of various group; S. sobrinus (serotype D, G), S. mutans (serotype C, F), S. cricetus (serotype A) and S. rattus (serotype B) with percentages of (39.29%), (30.30%), (18.18%) and (3.03%), respectively depending on biochemical and Lancefield grouping identification systems.

عزلت خمسين عينة من الطبقة المغطية لسطح السن. خمس وأربعون عينة أظهرت نموا ً إيجابيا ً للبكتريا حوالي ( 410 بكتريا/مل) على سطح الوسط المخصص للنمو (Milis-Salivarius agar medium). ثلاثون عزلة إعتبرت عائدة لبكتريا Streptococcus وخاصة للمكورات الفموية والتي تباينت بين الأنواع S . sobrinus (serotype D,G) و S. mutans (serotype C,F) و S. cricetus (serotype A) و S. rattus (serotype B) وبنسب (39.39%) و(30.30%) و(18.18%) و(3.03%) تباعا ً والتي تم تشخيصها إعتمادا ً على الطرق البايوكيميائية وخصوصية عالق ال (Latex) المضاد والخاص بالمجاميع (A وB وC وD وF وG) المتعددة السكريدات (المستضاد) والموجودة على الجدار الخارجي لهذه البكتريا (Lancefied group) أو (Serotype group).

Keywords

Mutan’s --- streptococci --- bacteria


Article
Effects of Pimpinella Anisum extract on salivary counts of Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci in comparison to Chlorhexidine in vivo

Authors: Sabreen S. Abd Al- Muhsen صابرين عبد المحسن --- Wesal A. Al-Qbaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 131-134
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Pimpinella Anisum is one of the commonly utilized traditional medicines due to its pharmaceuticalproperties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial effects. It is used to relieve coughs,sore throats and contraction of epilepsy also used in refreshing mouth and against bad breath.Aim of the study: To test the effects of Pimpinella Anisum extracts on the viability counts of salivary Streptococci andMutans Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine in vivo.Materials and methods: Pimpinella Anisum was extracted using ethanol; Different concentrations of the extractswere prepared in gm/100 ml of deionized water. Chlorhexidine used as control positive and deionized water ascontrol neutral. The volunteers were dental student divided into three groups each group rinse with one of the testagent (Pimpinella Anisum extract, chlorhexidine and deionized water) for 1min. Counts of bacteria recorded at fivetime interval (before rinsing, 1min., 15min., 30min. and 1hr). Mutans Streptococci were isolated from stimulated salivaof the students, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristics and biochemical tests.Results: Highly significant differences between the extract and both chlorhexidine and deionized water regardingthe count of bacteria. There were no significant differences between extract and chlorhexidine regarding pH, whilesignificant differences were found between the extract and deionized water at all time points except after 30minutes it was highly significant difference.Conclusion: Pimpinella Anisum ethanol extract was effective against Mutans Streptococci


Article
The effects of different concentrations of Alum solutions on Mutans streptococci (in vitro study)

Authors: Raed F. AI-Huwaizi رائد الحويزي --- Wael S. Al-Alousi وائل الالوسي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 146-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Alum has been used as a treatment medication in cases of oral and gingival ulcers, and also asantiseptic mouthwash. This study aimed to examine the effects of different concentrations of Alum on inhibition zone,viability counts and adherence ability of Mutans streptococci compared with deionized water and chlorhexidinegluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: The study dealt with an in vitro study to establish a concentration of Alum mouthrinse thatwould have the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration. The second partevaluated the anti-adherence ability of the experimental agents.Results: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000 PPMbut still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showed negativeadherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface.Conclusions: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000PPM but still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showednegative adherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface


Article
Dental caries among a group of boys with β-thalassemia major (10-12 years old) in relation to salivary Mutans streptococci

Authors: Raghad R. Al-Zaidi رغد الزيدي --- Sulafa K. El- Samarrai سلافة خالد السامرائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 157-159
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disorder that may affect general and oral health.The purpose ofthis study was toassess the severity of dental caries in relation to oral cleanliness, mutans streptococciamong a groupof boys with beta thalassemia majorin comparison with a control group.Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 boys with BTM aged 10-12 years compared to 30 healthy boys with thesame age group. d1-4mfs and D1-4 MFS indices were applied (Muhlemann, 1976), the viable counts of mutansstreptococci in stimulated saliva were also determined.Results: The entire thalassemic group was caries-active. For both dentitions, a higher dmfs/DMFS values wererecorded for study compared to control group, difference was statistically not significantconcerning dmfs, while itwas statistically significant concerning DMFS (P<0.05). Salivary bacterial counts of mutans streptococci were found tobe higher in the study compared to control group and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01).Allcorrelations between bacterial counts and dmfs/DMFS indices in study group were statistically not significant.Conclusion: Patients with Beta thalasemic major had more caries severity compared to normal subjects

المقدمة: یعتبرفقر دم البحر الأبیض المتوسط النوع الكبیر أحد أنواع الاضطرابات الوراثیة التي قد تؤدي الى انخفاض في انتاج كریات الدم الحمراء كما یعمل على زیادة تحطیمھا.یعاني المصابون بھذا المرضمن عدة تغیرات جرثومیة التي قد تصیب الفم واللعاب مما قد یزید من احتمالیة الاصابة بتسوّس الأسنان.أھداف الدراسة: تھدف ھذه الدراسة الى حساب حدّة تسوّس الأسنان, نظافة الفم, المكوّرات المسبحیة عند مجموعة من الأطفال الذكور المصابین بمرضفقر دم البحر الأبیض المتوسطالنوع الكبیربالمقارنة مع مجموعة ضابطة.12 ) سنة بالمقارنة مع 30 من الأطفال الأصحّاء ومن نفس الفئة العمریة. تم قیاس حدّة تسوّس الأسنان - المواد وطرق العمل: شملت الدراسة 30 مریض تتراوح أعمارھم مابین ( 10حسب طریقة موھلمان ( 1976 ). تم جمع عیّنات اللُعاب المحفّز بالاضافة احتساب الاعداد الحیّة للمكوّرات المسبحیّة في (D1-4 MFS و d1-4 mfs) ( حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةاللعاب.لدى (dmfs) ( النتائج: أظھرت النتائج اصابة جمیع الاطفال بتسوّس الأسنان. فیما یتعلق بالأسنان اللبنیة, أظھرت النتائج وجود قیم عالیة للتسوّس حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةلدى المرضى (DMFS) ( المرضى مقارنة بالأطفال الأصحّاء مع عدم وجود فروقات معنویة. فیما یتعلق بالأسنان الدائمیة, وجدت قیم عالیة للتسوّس حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةالنتائج بیّنت أن أعداد المكوّرات المسبحیة أعلى عند الأطفال المصابین بالمرض مقارنة مع المجموعة الضابطة مع .(P< مقارنة بالأطفال الأصحّاء مع وجود فروقات معنویة( 0.05كل العلاقات بین أعداد المكورات المسبحیة في اللعاب مع تسوّس الأسنان للأطفال المصابین بالمرضكانت بدون فروقات معنویة. .(P< وجود فرق معنوي عالٍ ( 0.01الأستنتاج: وجد أن تسوّس الأسنان في الأطفال المرضى أعلى من أقرانھم من الأطفال الأصحّاء, مما یعني ضرورة توفیر برنامج وقائي فعّال لھؤلاء الأطفال المرضى.


Article
The effect of black seed oil extracts on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro)

Authors: Baydaa H. Abd-Awn بيداء عبد عون --- Zainab A. Al-Dhaher زينب الظاهر --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The black seed or Nigella sativa has been used for centuries to promote health and fight disease. Thisplant has a great focus for research due to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and hypotensive effects. Thisstudy was conducted to assess the effect of the black seed oil extract on sensitivity of mutans streptococci and theadherence to tooth surface in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: Four different concentrations of black seed oil extract (1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were preparedusing ethanol as a solvent for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the black seed oil extract against mutansstreptococci isolated from saliva of volunteers and compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate using agar diffusiontest, followed by determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the black seed oil extract.Three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) were used in the adherence study whereby a stainless steel wires werethreaded from one end in the roots of previously cleaned, polished and sterilized first premolars, which were thenimmersed in 10 ml of the agent for 2 minutes, followed by washing with sterilized deionized water. The teeth werethen immersed in 10ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth and inoculated with 2% of bacterial isolates and incubatedaerobically at 370C for seven days. A positive score was given to the microbial growth on wire, teeth and bottleindicating a non-effective treatment and vice versa.Results The study showed inhibition zones for black seed oil extract which were found to be increased as theconcentration of the extract increased. The MBC of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci was 10%.The results also showed that the oil extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of mutans streptococci to toothsurface at a concentration of 10%.Conclusion: The black seed oil extract has a bactericidal effect against mutans streptococci at a concentration of10%, and can inhibit the adherence of these microorganisms to tooth surface


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF LANCIFIELD SEROGROUP G STREPTOCOCCUS CANIS BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS (PCR-RFLP) OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE
( Streptococcus canis تحديد المكورات السبحية لجين (RFLP) و ال PCR بواسطة سلسلة تفاعل البلمره (Lancifield serogroup G 16S ribosomal RNA

Author: Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan عبدالواحد احمد حسن
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 208-227
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In this study S. canis and 12 various species and serogroups of streptococci including: S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (serogroup C and L), S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (serogroup G), S. uberis, S. parauberis, S. phocae, S. suis, S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidimicus, S. porcinus and S. pyogenes were used and identified reliably by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) of 1.43 kb of 16S ribosomal RNA gene using universal oligonuclotide primers and subsequent digestion with the restriction endonucleases including RsaI, MspI and AvaII. The PCR-RFLP results showed that RsaI restriction RFLP pattern of S. canis appeared different with all streptococci species baring the S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidimicus. The MspI restriction RFLP pattern of S. canis could be differentiated from S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (serogroups C and L), S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (serogroups G), S. phocae, S. suis, S. porcinus and S. pyogenes. The AvaII restriction RFLP pattern of S. canis could be distinguished from S. dygalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (serogroup C and L), S. dygalactiae subsp. equisimilis (serogroup G) S. parauberis, S. phocae and S. suis. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP method using restriction endonucleases RsaI, MspI and AvaII could be useful method for identification of S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (serogroup C and L), S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (serogroup G) and other related streptococci species. It can be concluded that RFLP method might help to determine the prevalence of S. canis in animal and human infections .


Article
Effect of ginger extract on Mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate

Authors: Tuqa Akram Weli تقى اكرم --- Ahlam Taha Mohammed احلام طه محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 179-184
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The rhizome of ginger is used in cooking and for medicinal purposes such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal,anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The aims of the study were to test the effect of ethanolic extract of ginger ongrowth, adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% andde-ionized water.Materials and methods: From saliva often volunteers (dental students 20-22 years); mutans streptococci was isolated,purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical tests. Ginger was powderedand extracted, different concentrations of ginger extract were prepared. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% used as acontrol positive; while de-ionized water was used as a control negative. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experimentswere conducted. In vitro experiment, agar well technique was used to study the sensitivity of mutans streptococci todifferent concentrations of ginger extract and other control agents; also effect of ginger extract on the viable countof mutans streptococci, the adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci were studied.In vivo experiment,the volunteers couldn’t tolerate the extract.Results: Mutans streptococci was sensitive to different concentrations of ethanolic ginger extract, but they weremore sensitive to chlorhexidine gluconate than the extract. The effect of ginger extract on the viable count ofmutans streptococci at concentrations (30%, 35% and 40%) showed highly significant reduction in the count of thebacteria but less than chlorhexidine effect. In the effect of the extract on the adherence of mutans streptococci, theconcentrations (30%, 35%, 40%) were used and only 40% and chlorhexidine prevent the plaque formation. But in theacidogenicity of mutans streptococci procedure 35%, 40% of the extract and chlorhexidine showed effectiveness inreducing acid formation.Conclusion: Ginger extract was effective against mutans streptococci, chlorhexidine is more effective than otheragents.


Article
The Prevalence of S. Mutans and Other Oral Streptococci in Dental Plaque and Saliva of Adults

Authors: Dr. Ilham S.Banno. B.S.c.,M.Sc. د.الهام بانو --- Dr. Nahidha R.Al – Zahid. B.S.c.,M.Sc. د.ناهضة الزاهد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 242-244
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractOral streptococci constitute the most oral bacterial groups in the human oral cavity. Most of the oral streptococci belong to the viridians group and include the species S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and S. milleri.Dental plaques and saliva samples were randomly taken from 210 selected students of Education College of 22 – 24 years old. The results showed that S. mutans was isolated from 75 salivary samples (35.7%) and from 80 plaque samples (38.1%): the other oral streptococci were isolated from all saliva and plaque samples.


Article
B–Haemolytic Streptococcal Carrier Among School Age Children
حاملي بكتريا السبيحات المسيحة للدم بين الاطفال الاصحاء في سن التلمذة

Authors: Nahlah I. Al-Gabban د.نهلة الكبان --- Waleed Arif Al-Ani د. وليد عارف العاني --- Basma Jasim Al-Kinany د.باسمة جاسم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 91-96
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim of the study: To determine the incidence of the carrier of group AB-haemolytic Streptococci among healthy school age children.Study design: The study was conducted at Saddam Central Teaching Hospital for children from January 1998 to May 1998. One hundred asymptomatic healthy child accompany their mother in the outpatient department included in this study , their age range between 6-12 years , from different resident areas , rural , urban , & sub uraban.Throat swab was taken , & culture done for isolation of B-haemolytic Streptococci.Results: The percentage of carrier of B-haemolytic Streptococci was twenty four percent (24%). More male than female with high incidence in the age between 8-12 years .There is an obvious effect of socioecconomic state & resident area , also the time of the year when sample was taken .The incidence of carrier also increase if the child has previous history of recurrent pharyngitis .Keywords: B-hemolytic streptococci, Carriers, School children

أجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى صدام المركزي التعليمي للأطفال للفترة من كانون الثاني 1998 – آيار 1998 على مائة طفل طبيعي معافى ( لا يحمل أية أعراض مرضية سريريه ) من فئات عمريه مختلفة تتراوح بين 6-12 سنة ومن طبقات اجتماعية مختلفة ومناطق سكن تتوزع بين الريف والأقضية والمدينة وتم أجراء مسحة للبلعوم لجميع هؤلاء الأطفال لعزل بكتيريا السبحيات (B) المسيحة للدم وذلك لغرض تحديد نسبة حاملي هذه البكتيريا بين الأطفال بين عمر 6-12 سنة تأثير العوامل المختلفة مثل العمـر ، الجنس ، الحالة الاجتماعية ، منطقة السكن ، حالة المسكن في ازدياد نسبة حاملي هذه البكتيريا .لقد وجدنا أن نسبة حاملي هذه البكتيريا بين الأطفال الأصحاء في سن التلمذة كان 24% ، كذلك لاحظنا أن النسبة تزداد بين الذكور عندها في الإناث ، وهناك تأثير واضح للحالة الاجتماعية وازدحام السكن ومنطقة السكن ووقت أخذ المسحة من الطفل خلال السنة في ازدياد نسبة حاملي هذه البكتيريا . كذلك لاحظنا ازدياد نسبة حاملي هذه البكتيريا في حالة وجود تاريخ سابق للإصابة بالتهاب البلعوم .

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