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Article
SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND POSTPRANDIAL LIPIDS IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN MALE WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

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Abstract

Background:Earlier studies have suggested that total testosterone (Testo) concentrations influence lipid metabolism. Whether these concentrations are prospectively associated with an adverse lipid profile and an increased risk of incident dyslipidemia has not yet been investigated. Objective:Test the hypothesis that increased levels of postprandial triglycerides (TG) are associated with hypogonodism in male patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).Methods:Forty male patients with CVD aged 30-60 years and 46 normal healthy controls were studied. Postprandial blood glucose, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were measured. In addition, Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were done by Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay. Body mass index was calculated.Results:Negative correlation between Testo, and postprandial TG in both CVD and control groups was found with significant differences in Testo between these two groups, while SHBG correlated negatively with postprandial TG, in control group.Conclusion:Postprandial triglyceride levels were associated with risk of CVD. These findings are particularly interesting and may contribute to an explanation for the higher cardiovascular disease risk in men with lower total testosterone concentrations.Key words:CVD, Dyslipidemia, postprandial TG, Testosterone.


Article
A Manual Kinetic Study for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires by Use of TG Technique

Author: Mohammed A.Abass
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 341-358
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The kinetic study of pyrolysis involved the use of a homemadethermogravimertic analysis (TG) system and showed that the reaction isfirst order at high temperature range (390- 450) ºc.The reaction rate constant has been increased with temperature(0.15903- 0.9183) min-1 at the same range of temperature above accordingto Arrhenius model equation modeled Bovier and Gelus, which can beused to estimate the kinetic parameters .the activation energy of reactionis found to be 1.33 kcal/mol. , whereas the frequency factor is equal to 1x10-8 l/mol. sec.From comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion due tothe same model above it could be seen that there is a good agreementbetween theoretical and experimental results and higher temperatures(390-450) ºc but become worse of low temperatures (200-350) ºc.


Article
Evaluation of lipid profile among Iraqi patients with the Breast Cancer

Author: Mushtaq T. Hasan1 , Zafir H. Al-Qaissi 2 , Wathiq A. Al-Draghi 1
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 68-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Breast cancer is most common cancer among women worldwide. In this study, the association between serum concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides( TG|), low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL),( VLDL) very low density lipoproteins and breast cancer has been investigated. These case control study include three groups: thirty women with breast cancer and fifteen healthy women as control group. Serum lipids: cholesterol,( LDL),( HDL) and (VLDL) were analyzed in all subjects of study using conventional method. The results of this study showed that there was a significant increase in the rate of the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins( LDL),( VLDL) very low density lipoproteins in the work group when compared with control (P=0.028, P=0.017, P=0.024 and P=0.033) respectively, except high density lipoproteins (HDL). We conclude that high concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride, (LDL), and (VLDL) may be associated with breast cancer.

Keywords

: Lipid profile --- Breast cancer --- TG --- HDL --- VLDL .


Article
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SACCHARUM/UNSATURATED POLYESTER COMPOSITES

Authors: Aseel Mahmmod Abdulah --- Nadia Aziz
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 410-416
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The investigation on the thermogravimetric analysis of unsaturated polyester matrix composites reinforced with untreated saccharum fibers and other treated by alkaline solution of NaOH with four weight percent include 0.5, 1, 2 and 2.5% was involved in this work. Generally the incorporation of saccharum fibers slightly change the thermal stability of the unsaturated polyester matrix by the weight loss value and only for reinforcement by unsaturated sacchrum fibers and that treated in 2.5% NaOH.


Article
Estimation of the oxidative stress status and lipid profile in ischemic heart disease in male patients
تقدير حالة الجهد التأكسدي وصورة الدهون في أمراض نقص التروية القلبية عند الرجال

Authors: Arshad N. Al-Dejal ارشد نوري --- Hussein K. Al- Hakeim حسين كاظم --- Suaad M. J. Al-Hadrawy سعاد محمد جودة
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 24-36
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: The present study is carried out to the measurement of lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to estimate the lipid profile parameter both in control subjects and in ischemic heart diseases (IHD) patients.Methodes: Sixty eight patients with ischemic heart diseases including stable angina (SA), unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction (MI) (aged 40-69 years) were involved in the present study during their admission to Al- Sader Teaching Hospital / Al- Najaf Al- Ashraf. Age matched twenty two healthy men were included as control group. All blood samples were taken early morning from fasting subjects. Ischemic heart diseases patients were divided into smoker and nonsmoker groups, to observe the effect of smoking on lipid peroxidation in coronary heart disease patients.The measured parameters in serum included: total cholesterol (TC) and it's different fractions, triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA).Results: Malondialdehyde and lipid parameters were found significantly high (P< 0.05) with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was not significantly different among groups in ischemic heart diseases patients. Smokers with coronary heart disease showed significantly increased (P< 0.05) malondialdehyde levels as compared to nonsmokers with coronary heart disease.Conclusion: Malondialdehyde elevation in IHD patients indicating a possible role of oxidative stress processes in the pathophysiology of the heart diseases. Smoking has adverse effects on lipid profile and MDA.

الهدف: تم في هذه الدراسة تقدير تركيز النواتج النهائية لأكسدة الدهون (مالون ثنائي الديهايد (MDA بالاضافة الى صورة الدهون عند مرضى القلب كوسيلة لمتابعة وحتى التنبؤ والتشخيص لامراض القلب.طرق العمل: اشترك في هذه الدراسة 68 مريضا بامراض القلب المختلفة وتراوحت اعمارهم بين 40-69 سنة وكالاتي: الجلطة القلبية و الذبحة الصدرية المستقرة و الذبحة الصدرية غير المستقرة من الداخلين في مستشفى الصدر التعليمي. كما اشترك 22 شخصا سليما كمجموعة سيطرة حيث تم سحب عينات الدم في الصباح وقبل الفطور ( في حالة الصيام).تم استخدام مجموعة من الأختبارات الكيمياوية لقياس المتغيرات الآتية عند المرضى و الأصحاء: صورة الدهون الكاملة و والكليسيريدات الثلاثية والمالوندايالديهايد (MDA).النتائج: أظهرت النتائج ارتفاع في تركيز MDA وكل معايير الدهون عند المرضى مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة بينما لم يتأثر مستوى الكولسترول في الشحوم البروتينية ذات الكثافة العالية (HDL-C) .. اظهرت نتائج التدخين انها ذو تأثير سلبي على صورة الدهون والمالوندايلديهايد عند مرضى القلب.الاستنتاجات: يستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان ان ارتفاع المالوندايالديهايد في مرضى القلب يؤكد حالة الشدة التاكسدية كمؤثر في عملية الاصابة بهذه الامراض. اظهرت نتائج التدخين انها ذو تأثير سلبي على المالوندايلديهايد وحالة الدهون عند مرضى القلب.

Keywords

TC --- TG --- HDL-C --- LDL-C --- malondialdehyde --- TC --- TG --- HDL-C --- LDL-C --- malondialdehyde


Article
Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Metabolic Parameters of type 2 Diabetic patients
تأثير صيام شهر رمضان على المؤشرات الأيضية في مرض السكري نمط 2

Author: Isam Noori Salman Al- Kirwi د. عصام نوري سلمان الكروي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-39
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Ramadan fasting exposes diabetic patients to glycemic exertion (mainly post prandial hyperglycemia in the night) and to metabolic dysregulation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetic patients.Patients & Method: Twenty eight type 2 diabetic patients on oral antidiabetic drugs attending National Diabetes Center ( NDC ) at October 2006 were investigated before and during Ramadan fasting ( 1st, 2nd, 4th, week )of fasting for the following parameters ( FPG; PPG; Lipid profile, urea and HbA1c).changes in the dose of medication were done during fasting. Results: During Ramadan fasting the FPG increased to 173.4±25.4mg/dl and PPG show no changes at 183.3±43.5mg/dl. While HbA1c increased at the end of Ramadan to8.95±1.55%.Both Total cholesterol and LDL- c level decreased to the 218.2±53.9mg/dl and 121.5±19.9 mg/dl respectively.TG elevated non significantly and HDL–c level increased at end of Ramadan.Conclusion: There is an improvement in most of metabolic control during Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan for type 2 diabetic patients will not expose them to an improper metabolic imbalance especially if they were followed up, education about diet and self monitoring were done.Key words: Ramadan fasting; FPG; PPG; TC; LDL-c; HDL-c; TG.

مقدمة البحث: إن صيام شهر رمضان يعرض مرضى السكري إلى اختلاف في السيطرة على مستوى السكر ( خصوصاً ارتفاع في مستوى السكري بعد فترة الافطار ليلاً ) وأيضا يؤثر على عدم انتظام العمليات الايضية في الجسم والتي تتفاقم بعد انتهاء شهر رمضان.هدف البحث: لدراسة تأثير فترة صيام شهر رمضان على مؤثرات العمليات الايضية لدى مرض السكري نمط 2.طريقة البحث : تمت الدراسة على مرض السكري نمط 2 الذين يراجعون المركز الوطني للسكري خلال شهر تشرين أول 2006 وتمت دراسة (28) مريض مصاب بداء السكري نمط 2 يعالجون بواسطة خافضات السكر الفموية وتم اخذ عينات من الدم قبل شهر رمضان وأعيد فحص عينات أخرى من الدم من الأسبوع الأول والثاني والرابع من شهر رمضان. وأجريت تغيرات ضرورية على جرعة ووقت تناول العلاج خلال شهر رمضان و أجريت فحوصات مستوى الدهون والخضاب السكري قبل شهر رمضان وفي نهاية الشهر.النتائـــج: إن مستوى السكر في الدم قبل الافطار خلال صيام شهر رمضان يرتفع بينما مستوى السكر بعد الافطار يبدي عدم تغيير في المستوى بينما مستوى الخضاب السكري يزداد في نهاية فترة الصيام. كما إن مستوى الدهون من دهون الكولسترول واطئة الكثافة تبدي انخفاض ملحوظ بينما هناك زيادة في مستوى دهون عالية الكثافة في نهاية شهر رمضان.الاستنتاج: هناك تحسن في اغلب مؤشرات العمليات الايضية خلال فترة صيام شهر رمضان. إن صيام شهر رمضان عند المصابين بداء السكري نمط 2لا يعرضهم إلى تغيرات في توازن العمليات الايضية إذا كانت هناك متابعة مستمرة وتثقيف حول طبيعة ونوع الطعام خلال فترة الصيام والمتابعة الذاتية من قبل المريض.

Keywords

Ramadan fasting --- FPG --- PPG --- TC --- LDL-c --- HDL-c --- TG.


Article
The Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in A sample of Infertile Iraqi Women
تكرار حالات التهاب الدرقية المناعي الذاتي في عينه من النساء العراقيات غير الخصيبات

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Abstract

In the present study, the aim was made to identify the relationship between thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and female infertility. The study was performed on 30 infertile women and 22 age-matched healthy fertile control age (33 ± 5 years). Overall, serum prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assay is the key test for the diagnosis and management of hypo and hyperthyroidism. Anti-TPO Ab and anti-TG Ab were measured. The mean ± SE of serum PRL (31.080 ± 3.06) ng/ml was significantly (P<0.05) higher in infertile group compared with control (16.191±1.36) ng/ml. Serum TSH was significantly (P<0.05) higher in infertile group (5.689 ± 1.12) µIU/ml compared to control group (2.282 ± 0.18) µIU/ml. The prevalence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was higher infertile women (248.439 ± 88.77) IU/ml than that of the control (15.118 ± 2.75) IU/ml. Also there was significant differences (P<0.05) in Anti-TG Ab titration in infertile women (360.139 ± 210.32) IU/ml compared to control (31.636±4.69) IU/ml. However, when thyroid antibodies were positive, hypothyroidism was more frequent in infertile women as compared to the control group. In the other hand, a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between TSH hormone and Anti TPO Ab r = 0.37, while non-significant correlation was found between Anti- TG Ab and TSH. The present study demonstrated that autoimmune thyroiditis in infertile women is higher than that in healthy fertile controls.

اجريت هذه الدراسة للتعرف على العلاقة بين حالات العقم غير المشخصة والتهاب الغدة الدرقية المناعي الذاتي شملت الدراسة ثلاثون امرأه عراقية غير خصيبة واثنان وعشرون امرأة سليمة الخصوبة كمجموعة سيطرة بمعدل اعمار ( 33 ± 5 سنه ). جمعت عينات الدم من النساء المريضات والسليمات. لغرض الدراسات الهرمونية والمناعية النتضمنة قياس مستوى هرمون البرولاكتين (PRL), هرمون المحفز للدرقية (TSH) الذي يعد مفتاح تشخيص لاضطرابات الغدة الدرقية و تراكيز الاجسام المضاده المسببة لاضطرابات الدرقية المناعي Anti-TPO-Ab and Anti-TG-Ab و اوضحت النتائج مايلي وجود زيادة معنويه (P < 0.05) في تركيز هرمون البرولاكتين (PRL) لمجموعة النساء غير الخصيبات (31.080 ± 3.06) ng/ml بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة (16.191±1.36) ng/ml, كمالوحظ وجود ارتفاع معنوي (P < 0.05) في تركيز الهرمون المحفز للدرقية (TSH) في مجموعة النساء غير الخصيبات (5.689 ± 1.12) µIU/ml بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة ,(2.282 ± 0.18) µIU/ml واما في حالة الاجسام المضادة فكان هناك ارتفاع معنوي (P < 0.05) في تركيز Anti-TPO-Ab في النساء غير الخصيبات (248,439 ± 88.77) IU/ml بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة (15,118± 2,75) IU/ml, ايضا و هنالك ارتفاعا معنويا (P < 0.05) في تركيز Anti-TG-Ab ضمن المجموعة النساء غير الخصيبات (360,439 ± 210,32) بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة(31,636 ±4.69). وقد بينت النتائج ان هنالك تكرار في حالات التهاب الدرقية المناعية ذاتية ضمن النساء غير الخصيبات بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة.


Article
Studying the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Carbon Nanotubes Composite
دراسة الخوص الميكانيكية لمتراكبات الايبوكسي مع الانابيب الكربونية النانوية

Authors: M. I. Mohamed محمد ابراهيم محمد --- N. J. Saleh نجاة جمعة صالح --- L. H. Mohmoud لمى حسين محمود
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2015 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-90
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In the present work a modified chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) was adopted for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used for identification of these of carbon nanotubes. The identification revealed two types of carbon nanotubes Single wall (SWCNTs) and nanocoils tubes. These nanotubes were successfully employed in the development of bulk composites, where commercial epoxy resin has been used as matrix, while mixed phase of carbon nanotubes served as reinforcement phase. It was observed that a substantial increase in all mechanical properties: hardness and Young modulus as well as the thermal properties from which Tg curves were recorded, consequently Glass transition temperature Tg was determined.

في هذا البحث تم تطوير طريقة الترسيب الكهربائي الكيمياوي (CVD) لانتاج انابيب النانوكاربون, وتم استخدام تقنية المايكروسكوب الماسح الاليكتروني(SEM) لتشخيص الانابيب المنتجة في هذا البحث وكانت هذه الانابيب النانوية على نوعين: احادية الجدار (SWCNTs) والحلزونية (Nanocoils). تم استخدام طور الانابيب النانوية وبنجاح كطور تقوية لانتاج مواد مركبة, مادة الاساس فيها هو الايبوكسي التجاري.بعد اتمام عملية الخلط وتكوين المادة المتراكبة تبين وبعد القيام باختبارات الخواص الميكانيكية زيادة ملحوظة في جميع تلك الخواص مثل الصلادة ومعامل يونك كما تم قياس الخواص الحرارية والتي تم تسجيل منحني Tg لها قبل وبعد عملية التدعيم ومن ثم تعين Tg.


Article
Effect of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hormones Disorder on Enzymes Gammaglutamyl Transferase, Oxaloacetic Transaminase, and Proteins

Author: Maysoon M. Najeeb M. Saleem
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 31-41
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex metabolic disorder of endocrine gland in women of reproductive age. The present work illustrate the effect of (PCOS) and hormone disturbance on serum enzymes activities, iron status parameters and hormone profile in patient women suffering from, PCOS, acute kidney disease (AKD) with PCOS, acute kidney disease and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). A total of 160 women, include 135 patients and 25 of control apparently healthy group, patients were subdivided into four groups,(G1) consisted of 50 patients of PCOS, (G2) of 30 patients of PCOS with AKD, (G3) of 30 patient of AKD and (G4) involve 25 patients of IDA. The specimens were collected from different hospital in Baghdad city. The patients and control were investigated for enzymes, gammglutamyltrasferase (GGT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) or aspartate transaminase (AST) & glutamicpyruvic transaminase (GPT) or alanine transaminase (ALT) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total serum proteins (TSP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Also iron status parameters (serum iron, transferrin saturation percent (TS%), transferrin concentration, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin concentration) were estimated. As well as hormone profile (testosterone (TT), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PL), estradiol (E), and progesterone (PRG)) were estimated Results revels highly significant increases for AST or GOT, ALT or GPT, and GGT activities P˂0.001, and a change in LDH of G1 and G2 patients were highly increased P˂0.001 as compared with normal. Remarkable rising was detected in TSP of (G1) patient while there is significant decrease in proteins level of (G2) patients in comparison with normal. Patients of (G3) show significant difference in GGT, LDH and protein. There is significant change in LDH and albumin in (G4), and no change in AST, ALT, GGT, and proteins as compared with normal. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), creatinine show very highly significant change for patients of (G1, G2, G3&G4). Patients women with PCOS show no remarkable change in uric acid and urea and a change in creatinine concentration. Serum iron parameters were changed significantly in patients of (G1, G2, G3, and G4) in comparison with healthy control groups. Hormones levels were significantly different in PCOS patients as compared with normal individual. In conclusion there were remarkable changes in the activities of AST, ALT, GGT, and LDH. This is the first time for the estimation of a change in LDH activity in women with (PCOS) this could be due to genetic and envirmental factor and gene mutation. Hormone levels and iron status parameter changed remarkably may be due to metabolic disturbance and abnormality in the function of hypothalamic neurotransmitter.

Keywords

Polycystic ovary syndrome --- GGT --- Iron status --- LDH --- TG.


Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME METAL COMPLEXES WITH SOME FURANOSE RINGS AND STUDY THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
تحضير وتوصيف بعض المجمعات METAL بعض الحلقات فورانوز ودراسة نشاطهم البيولوجي

Authors: Ahmed W. Naser احمد ناصر --- Nada M. Abbass ندى محمد عباس
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-67
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

1,2:5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene (2) as starting material have been synthesized by the reaction of D-glucose with dry acetone in presence of Zncl2/H3Po3.3-ullos derived (3) was prepared by oxidation of (2) with DMSO/Ac2O. Hydrolysis of (2) and (3) by 60% Ac2O gave the corresponding derivateivies 1,2-O- isopropytidene –α – D -glucofuranose (L1) and 1,2-isoproplyene-α-D-ribohexafuranose-3-ulos(LΠ). Coordination chemistry of L1and LΠ with Co(Π), Cu(Π), Ni(Π), Pd(Π) and Pt(ІV) ions were studied. The two ligands were characterized depending upon CHN analyses, Ή NMR and FTIR. Structure of metal complexes were proposed depending on atomic absorption, CHN, Thermal analyses (TG & DTG), FTIR spectra, uv-vis and chloride contents, magnetic moments (meft) as well as conductivity measurements. From the spectral measurements, monomer structures for the complexes were proposed. The newly metal complexes were subjected to in vitro testing agains pathogenic microorganisms.

1،2:5،6-دي-O-ايزوبروبيلدين (2) في بدء المواد تم توليفها من خلال تفاعل مد الجلوكوز مع الأسيتون الجاف في وجود Zncl2/H3Po3.3-ullos المشتقة (3) عن طريق الأكسدة وأعدت (2) مع DMSO/Ac2O. التحلل من (2) و (3) بنسبة 60٪ وأعطى Ac2O derivateivies المقابلة 1،2-O-isopropytidene-α - D-غلوكوفورانور (L1) و1،2-isoproplyene-α-D-ribohexafuranose-3-ulos (LΠ). الكيمياء تنسيق L1and LΠ مع شركة (Π)، النحاس (Π)، ني (Π)، وقد درس المشتريات (Π) وحزب العمال (ІV) الأيونات. تميزت بروابط اثنين تبعا CHN التحليلات، Ή NMR وFTIR. واقترح هيكل المجمعات المعادن اعتمادا على الامتصاص الذري، CHN، تحليلات الحرارية (TG وDTG)، FTIR الأطياف والأشعة فوق البنفسجية وتجاه محتويات كلوريد، لحظات المغناطيسي (meft)، وكذلك القياسات الموصلية. من القياسات الطيفية، واقترحت هياكل مونومر للمجمعات. وتعرض المجمعات المعادن حديثا في المختبر لاختبار الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المسببة للأمراض امام نظيره

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