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Article
The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-&#913;) in The Induction of Preterm Labor

Authors: Taiseer Abdul Ilah AL Hussainy --- Mohammad A. K. Al-Sa’adi --- Mohammad Sabri A. Razzak
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 no.1 Issue: 6 Pages: 779-783
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Abstract
Background: Microbial colonization and inflammation in the maternal genital tract has emerged as one of the major risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.
Objectives: this study aimed to demonstrate the role of tumor necrosis alpha(TNF-α)in the induction of preterm labor.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Babylon Teaching Hospital of Gynecology and Pediatrics from November 2007 to May 2008. A total of 60 pregnant women with preterm labor admitted to Labor Room and 20 control women (10 of them were pregnant at term with bacterial infection, 5 were pregnant at term without bacterial infection, and 5 were normal females not pregnants and not infected) were included in this study. The ages of patients and controls ranged from (17-40) years. Blood samples were collected from both patients and controls to estimate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α by EASIA (Enzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassay) method.
Results: The results show there is significantly higher (p<0.05) in the level of TNF- α in patients with preterm labor compared to all control groups.
Conclusion: The results clearly indicate the possible role of TNF-α in the induction of preterm labor.
Keywords: preterm labor, TNF-α

Keywords

preterm labor --- TNF-α


Article
Expression of Cytokine of Chronic Lymphocyte Leukemia from Baghdad / Iraq Population
التعبير الخلوي من مرضى ابيضاض الدم اللمفي المزمن في بغداد / العراق

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Abstract

Aim of the current study is to investigate correlation proinflammatory cytokines (Interleukin 6, 8, 10, and TNF α) with Chronic Lymphocyte Leukemia. In this study, serum was collected from (100) sample, a representative of 80 samples of chronic lymphocyte leukemia who were newly diagnosed by the consultant medical staff at the National Center of Hematology and 20 healthy sample on the other hand. IL-6, IL8, IL10 and TNF α were studied using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods from (R and D system/USA). This study have shown that IL6 levels increased about two fold compared with healthy groups and TNF α levels was three times higher in CLL patient compared with healthy and IL10 levels was 3.5 fold that healthy. The conclusion IL 6, 10, and TNF α levels have significantly increased in patients compared with healthy control. However, IL8 was the same production in CLL compared with control.

الهدف من الدراسة الحالية هو دراسة علاقة السايتوكينات الالتهابيه الاولية ( انترلوكين 6، 8، 10، α TNF) مع مرضى ابيضاض الدم اللمفي المزمن. في هذه الدراسة، تم جمع عينات من مصل من (100) عينة، وممثل عن 80 عينات من ابيضاض الدم اللمفي المزمن المشخصين حديثا من قبل الطاقم الطبي استشاري في المركز الوطني للأمراض الدم و 20 عينة سليمة من ناحية أخرى. تمت دراسة IL-6، IL8، IL10 وTNF α وباستخدام انزيم مرتبط المناعي من الشركه (R and D / الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية) وقد أظهرت هذه الدراسة أن مستويات IL6 زادت بمقدار الضعف مقارنة مع الاصحاء وانتاجية TNF كانت ثلاثة أضعاف في المرضى CLL مقارنة مع الاصحاء و 3.5 اضعاف من انتاج IL10 مقارنه مع الاصحاء. الاستنتاج زياده ملحوضه في انتاج السايتوكسنات الالتهابيه الاولية 6 و 10 و TNF α في مرضى ابيضاض الدم اللمفي المزمن بالمقارنه مع الاصحاء ومع ذلك كان انتاج السايتوكينات 8 نفس انتاج الاصحاء.


Article
8.LEVELS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA AND INTERLEUKIN-17 IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE WOMEN WITH ENDOMETRIOSIS

Author: Vean S.A. Al-Azawy فيان صباح علي العزاوي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 159-164
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Endometriosis is described by the existence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Infertility is one of clinical manifestation of endometriosis shown by the difference of fecundity.Objective: To compare the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-17 in fertile and infertile endometriosis patients.Methods: This study was conducted on 55 women patients with endometriosis (30 infertile women and 25 fertile women) and twenty apparently healthy controls. The technique used to reveal serum level of TNF-α and IL-17 was Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).Results: This study revealed significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of TNF-α in infertile patients other than that fertile. On the other hand, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between controls and each group of patients. Moreover, there were significant increase (p<0.05) in IL-17 levels in infertile patients than that fertile patients and controls, while there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between fertile patients and controls.Conclusion: The current results indicate that TNF-α and IL-17 might play a crucial role in endometriosis-related infertility.Keywords: Endometriosis, TNF-α, IL-17.Citation: Vean S.A. Al-Azawy. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-17 in fertile and infertile women with endometriosis. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 159-164 . doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.8

Keywords

Endometriosis --- TNF-α --- IL-17.


Article
The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma “a study in Iraqi patients”
دورعامل نخر الورم الفا (TNF-α) في إمراضية الورم النخاعي المتعدد " دراسة لمرضى عراقيين "

Authors: Mohammed A. Essa محمد أحمدعيسى --- Sabah N. Mohammed صباح نعمة محمد --- Talib A. Hussein طالب عبد الله حسين --- Azhar J. Mohsin أزهار جاسم محسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 عدد خاص بالمؤتمر النسوي الثاني Pages: 853-860
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the investigation of the cytokines roles in pathogenesis of cancer, thus the study aimed at evaluating the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in sera of Iraqi multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Beta 2-microglobulion (β2-m) was assessed to determine if there was any association between this cytokine and the level of β2- m, as the latter is related to the stage of the disease. In addition, the age and gender were also taken into consideration. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between IgG and TNF-α in sera of patients. 49 Iraqi patients (27 males and 22 females).The patients were also divided into two groups: the first group included (17) patients who were recently diagnosed and not received any treatment at the time of collecting samples while the second group included (32) patients who received treatment. A further group was also investigated which included (12) apparently healthy individuals (9 males and 3 females), who were regarded as a control group. Serum TNF-α and β2- m were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).while the concentration of IgG was measured by radial immune diffusion plates The study reached to the following results: TNF-α levels were not significantly elevated in the patients with MM compared to control group (5.98 ± 8.47 SD vs. 4.85 ± 12.1 SD) and no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the mean (6.02 ±8.1SD vs 5.9 ±9.4SD) concentration of TNF-α in patients with MM who received treatment, when compared with those who did not take the treatment .In addition, there are positive significant correlations between TNF-α and β 2 Microglobulin (r = 0.316, P = 0 .027), and no relationship between IgG and TNF-α (r = - 0.032, P = 0.829).Furthermore, the study observed that, there was no correlation between TNF-α on the one hand and factors of age and gender on the other hand.

تزايد الأهتمام خلال السَنَوات الأخيرة، في التحرّي عن أدوارِ الحركيات الخلوية في تولّد مرض السرطان ومنشأه ، وهكذا إستهدفتْ الدراسة الحالية تَقييم مستوى عاملِ نخرِالورمِ الفا (TNF-α) في مصول مجموعة من مرضى الورم النخاعي المتعدد في المرضى العراقيين. كما تمّ تقييم مستوى β2-m والتحري عن العلاقة بين عامل نخر الورم الفا TNF- α و β2-m لإرتباط الأخير بمرحلة المرض.إضافة الى ذلك اُخذت الدراسة بنظر الاعتبار عاملي العمر والجنس.فضلا عن ذلك تمّ التحري عن العلاقة بين تركيز عامل نخر الورم الفا TNF-αمن جانب والغلوبيولين المناعي من نوع (IgG) من جانب آخر.شملت الدراسة 49 مريض (27 ذكر و22 انثى )، هؤلاء المرضى قسموا الى مجموعتين تضمنت المجموعة الاولى (17 مريض ) من المرضى المشخصين حديثا والذين لم يتلقوا اي علاج في وقت جمع العينات ، في حين تضمنت المجموعة الثانية (32 مريضاً) كانوا خاضعين للعلاج. ايضاً تضمنت الدراسة مجموعة اخرى وهي المجموعة الضابطة والتي تشمل 12 شخص من الاصحاء(9 من الذكور و3 من الاناث).تمَّ قياس مستوى عامل نخر الورم الفا TNF- α و β2-mبأستخدام تقنية المُمْتَزِّ المناعي المُرْتَبِطِ بالانزيم ELISAفي حين استخدمت طريقة اطباق الانتشار المناعي الشعاعي لقياس تركيز الغلوبيولين المناعي نوع (IgG).توصلت الدراسةالى النتائج التالية :لايوجد اختلاف في مستوى تركيز عامل نخر الورم الفاTNF- α بين مجموعة المرضى والمجموعة الضابطة ) 5.98± 8.47 مقابل 4.85 ±12.1 بيكو غرام مليلتر) ،كما لايوجد اختلاف ذو دلالة معنوية بين مجموعة المرضى اللذين تلقوا علاج مقابل مجموعة المرضى المشخصين حديثاً (6.02 ± 8.1 مقابل 4.85 ±12.1 ).أضافة الى ذلك لوحظ وجود علاقة معنوية موجبة بين عامل نخر الورم الفاTNF- α وβ2-m حيث كان معامل الارتباط (r =0.316 ، P =0.027) كمـا توصلت الدراسة الى عدم وجود عـلاقة بين عامل نخر الورم الفاTNF- α و الغلوبيولين المناعي من نوع (IgG) حيث كان معامل الارتباط (r = - 0.032،P = 0.829 ) ،أخيراً أثبتت الدراسة عدم وجود علاقة معنوية بين انتاج TNF- α من جهة وعاملي العمر والجنس من جهة اخرى كما لايوجد تأثير للجنس على انتاج هذا النوع من الحركيات الخلوية.


Article
THE EFFECT OF TUMOR NECROTIC FACTOR ALPHA POLYMORPHISM ON RESPONSE TO BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS

Authors: Sadeq k. Hachim صادق كاظم حاجم --- Ahmed A. Abbas احمد عبد الحسن عباس --- , Mohammed H. Alosami محمد هادي العصامي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 220-226
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: The tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α) was associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and inflammation of joint, for this consider important target for drugs (TNF inhibitors) as for example infliximab.Objective: To investigate the role of TNF-α-308 polymorphism G>A in unresponsiveness to biological treatment (infliximab) in RA patients.Methods: This study included 29 RA patients treated with infliximab attending Department of Rheumatology in Baghdad Teaching Hospital and diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) with 30 persons as healthy controls. The age range was 20 to 68 years. The DAS28 was calculated for each RA patients. Blood samples were taken from them during the period from May 2014 to January 2015. The blood samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TNF-α-308 G>A then by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for A allele and G allele. HLA-DR genotyping by PCR-SSO.Results: The frequency of A allele was 23 (39.7%) in RA patients while G allele was 35 (60.3%) in RA patients, whereas in in controls A and G alleles frequencies were 5 (8.3%) and 55 (91.7%) respectively. The A allele was associated with high DAS28 19 (82.6% while for G allele was 1 (2.9%) and DAS28 showing significant association with TNF-α-308 polymorphism G>A. The distribution of A allele in female RA patients was 16 (36%) whereas G allele was 28(64%), while in male RA patients, A and G allele were 7 (50%) for each of them. The HLA-DRB1 not showing significant association with TNF-α-308 polymorphism G>A.Conclusion: The TNF-α-308 polymorphism G>A has effect on response to biological treatment (infliximab). The A allele of TNF-α was associated with unresponsiveness to infliximab and RA patients who carry this allele have high DAS28 score. The HLA-DRB1 not showing association with TNF-α-308 polymorphism G>A.Keywords: RA, TNF-α polymorphism, infliximab, HLA-DR.Citation: Hachim Sk, Abbas AA, Alosami MH. The Effect of tumor necrotic factor alpha polymorphism on response to biological treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(3): 220-226. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.3.2

Keywords

RA --- TNF-α polymorphism --- infliximab --- HLA-DR


Article
Role of Endometrial Scratch in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of ICSI Cycle Through Its Effect on TNF-α

Authors: Wasan A. Abdulhameed --- Manal T. AL-Obaidi --- Fadya K. AL-Jorani
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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AbstractBackground:The overall success rate of assisted reproductive techniques is onlyabout 30% due to certain limiting factors. Endometrial scratching could induceinflammatory response which manifested by the up-regulation of different cytokinesand chemokines with subsequent accumulation of immune cells in the injuredsite. One of the most important cytokine in this regard is TNF-α which wasfound to induce tissue remodeling by stimulating the production of many otherpro-inflammatory cytokines.Objectives:To investigate the role of endometrial injury during the luteal phasebefore ICSI cycles in the enhancement of pregnancy outcomes.Materials and Methods:This prospective study was undertaken in the High Instituteof Infertility diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Techniques / Al-NahrainUniversity. All women were undergone ICSI cycles. Women in the intervensiongroup underwent endometrial scratching with a Pipelle catheter in luteal phasepreceding cycle. Blood sample was taken before scratch. All patients undergocontrolled ovarian hyperstimulation, oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer, anotherblood sample was taken at day of embryo transfer to measure level of TNF-α.Clinical pregnancy rate then evaluation after luteal support of two weeks.Results:The patients in scratch group has higher pregnancy rate (14/23) 60.9%than non intervention group (11/33) 33.3% although not significant (p value0.057).The results showed that the TNF-α after scratch (54.53±10.2) was significantlyhigher than before scratch (39.26±14.74) in the same group, as p value was( <0.001). In addition the TNF-α was significantly higher in scratch group(54.53±10.2) than control (25.91±9.08) as p value was (< 0.001) .Conclusion:Induced endometrial local injury is an easy, simple and cost-effectivetechnique that can be used to improve the uterine receptivity and enhanceembryo transplantation.


Article
Changes in Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor–Alpha and Antioxidant status in Different Stages of Malignant Prostate Cancer Patients in Iraq
التغييرات في مستوى TNF.α وحالة مضادات الأكسدة في مصل الدم لدى مرضى سرطان البروستات الخبيث العراقيين بمختلف مراحله

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Chronic inflammation can induce proliferative events and posttranslational DNA modifications in prostate tissue through oxidative stress. The present study was designed to evaluate the changes in serum levels of TNF-α, malomdialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) patients with different stages of malignant prostatic cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). One hundred males (age range of 58-72 years) with different stages of malignant PCa were recruited from the Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during the period from September 2010 to April 2011. The patients were categorized according to the 4 disease stages (I, II, III, and IV); 25 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 25 normal healthy subjects were considered as comparator groups. Blood samples were taken from all subjects for analysis of TNF-α TAS and MDA levels. The results showed significant differences between the four stages of PCa patients in all parameters; however, highly significant difference was observed in stage IV compared to control and BPH patients. In conclusion, TNF-α and total antioxidant status could be utilized for marking the advanced stages of malignant PCa.

للالتهابات المزمنة دور فعال في تطور نمو وتخصص الأورام السرطانية من خلال زيادة تكوين أنواع مختلفة من الجذور الحرة. تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتقييم التغيرات في مستوى عامل التنخر السرطاني-الفا, المالوندايالديهايد, الحالة الكلية لمضادات الأكسدة ومعامل حالة الأكسدة خلال المراحل المرضية المختلفة لمرضى سرطان البروستات الخبيث. أظهرت النتائج اختلافا واضحا بين المراحل الأربعة لمرضى سرطان البروستات وعلى أية حال أظهرت المرحلة الرابعة من المرض فرقا معنويا واضحا في مستوى المعايير التي تمت دراستها مقارنة بمجاميع السيطرة ومجاميع تنسج البروستات الحميد. ويمكن الاستنتاج بإمكانية استخدام هذه المعايير كعوامل مضافة في تحديد مستوى تطور المرض ومتابعة علاجه.


Article
Association of TNF-α 308 polymorphism with diabetes mellitus type 2
علاقة التغيير الوراثي رقم308 لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا مع داء السكري النوع الثاني

Author: Sadeq K.Hachim د. صادق كاظم حاجم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2017 Volume: 59 Issue: 4 Pages: 313-316
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Back ground: The association between tumors necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)308 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial. The variation in ethnicity and life style play important role in these conflicting results.Objective: To investigate association of TNF-α 308 polymorphism with T2DM, TNF level and body mass index in these patients.Patients and methods: The current case control study included fifty patients with T2DM in addition to twenty-five healthy controls. The fasting blood sugar (FBS)and fasting blood (cholesterol, triglyceride) were done by colorimetric methods. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each patients and healthy controls. The level TNF-α in serum was measured by ELISA method (Ray biotechnology/ USA, 46078). The TNF-α 308 polymorphism was done by restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Result: The age range for T2DM patients was (43.54±4.590) year while for control was (45.04±4.394) year. The T2DM patients whom carry AA alleles for TNF-α 308 polymorphism showed highly significant association with study parameter F.B. S, BMI, cholesterol, triglyceride and TNF-α level with (P˂0.01). The T2DM patients with normal allele GG genotyping and GA genotyping of TNF-α 308 polymorphism also showed highly significant association with study parameter F.B.S,BMI,Cholesterol,Triglyecride and TNF- α with (P˂0.01). The TNF- α level in serum of T2DM patients showed highly significant association with F.B.S, cholesterol and triglyceride with (P P˂0.01), however the TNF- α level was nonsignificant with BMI in T2DM patients.Conclusion: In the present study TNF-α 308 polymorphism allele (AA, GA) showed a statistically significant association with TNF-α level in serum of T2DM patients and BMI. The AA and GA alleles showed a statistically significant association with high fasting glucose level. The TNF- α level didn't show a statistically significant association with BMI.Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, TNF-α 308 polymorphism, TNF-α level, BMI

خلفية الموضوع: العلاقة بين التغير الوراثي رقم 308 لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا ومرض السكري النوع الثاني يبقى مصدر جدل واختلاف في الاصول وانماط الحياة التي تلعب دور مهم في هذا التضارب.الهدف :لبحث دور التغير الوراثي رقم 308 في عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا مع مرض السكري النوع الثاني ومعيار كتلة الجسم في هؤلاء المرضى.طرائق العمل: الدراسة الحالية تضمنت خمسون مريض مصاب بداء السكري النوع الثاني بالإضافة الى خمسة وعشرون شخص كمجموعة ضابطة. معدل العمر كان 43.54سنة بينما للأصحاء كان 45.04سنة. تم قياس مستوى السكر بعد الصيام وكذلك الكولسترول والدهون الثلاثية بواسطة الطرق الكيميائية .معيار كتلة الجسم قد عمل لكلا المرضى والاصحاء. تم تحديد مستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا في مصل مرضى السكري النوع الثاني وكذلك الاصحاء بواسطة الطرق الانزيمية المناعية. تم تحديد التغير الوراثي لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية رقم 308 بواسطة الهضم بالإنزيمات القاطعة بعد البلمرة .النتائج: مرضى السكري النوع الثاني الذين يحملون النوع الوراثي Aلعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا قد اظهروا علاقة وثيقة مع معيار كتلة الجسم ومستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا والمعدل هو (76.98±89.06)(3.41±28.75) بالتتابع. عندما نقارن هذا مع النوع الوراثي نوع Gكذلك اظهر علاقة وثيقة مع معيار كتلة الجسم ومستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا نوع الفا (2.88±22.57)(2.987±8.269) بالتتابع ’بصورة عامة النوع الوراثي الهجين GAلعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا وضح علاقة وثيقة مع معيار كتلة الجسم ومستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا نوع الفا اوضح علاقة قوية مع معيار كتلة الجسم ومستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية نوع الفا (3.05±27.25)(26.699±48.37)عندما يقارن مع النوع السائد GG .اظهر مستوى السكر في الدم بعد الصيام علاقة قوية مع التغير الوراثي رقم 308 لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية مع معدل الانواع الوراثية AA ;GA(225±62.902)(216.75±29.97) حسب الترتيب ,عندما يقارن مع النوع الوراثي السائد GG(203.46±31.89).مستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية لم يعطي علاقة واضحة مع معيار كتلة الجسم لمرضى السكري النوع الثاني.الاستنتاجات : في هذه الدراسة التغير الوراثي لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية ((AA,GA اظهر علاقة وثيقة جدا مع مستوى عامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية في مصل مرضى السكري النوع الثاني وكذلك مع معيار كتلة الجسم .الانواع الوراثية لعامل تنخر الخلايا السرطانية AA,GA أوضحت علاقة وثيقة مع مستوى السكر بعد الصيام.


Article
Role of SalivaryTumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Immunoglobulin-Ain Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Mustafa M. Saliah مصطفى محمد صالح --- Batool H Al-Ghurabei بتول الغرابي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 207-210
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Until today, the etiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) remains unknown, although hints of its etiologic basis lay on genetic susceptibility, infectious agents and alterations in immune mechanics.Objectives:The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in salivarytumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Immunoglobulin-A (IgA) level in patients with RAS and its relation with clinical types of disease.
Subjects and Methods:Salivary TNF-αlevels were investigated in50 RAS patients and 25 healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Single radial immune diffusion method was used for estimation ofIgAlevel in two studied groups.
Results:Salivary level of TNF-α was significantly higher in RAS patients than in healthy controls (p<0.001), Moreover, the level of TNF-α was significantly increased in minor type of disease than in major and herptiform types (p<0.05).On the other hand, the levelof IgA showed no significant differences between patients and healthy controls and neither among clinical types of disease(p>0.05).
Conclusion: These findings suggestthat saliva provides an ideal medium for the detection of pro-inflammatory markers of the oral cavity, moreover; salivary TNF-α may play an important role in pathogenesis of this disease and it may also have an important role in the search of new treatments for this disease. As well as these results indicated to a possible role of mucosal immune system in pathogenesis of RAS.


Article
Serum levels of cytokines (TNF-&#945;, IFN-&#947;& IL-10) in Type-2 diabetic patients with HCV infection

Authors: Zena T. Mall-Allah --- Eman M. Saleh --- May Y. Saour
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-200
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common complication of all liver diseases. However clinical and experimental data suggest a direct role of HCV in the perturbation of glucose metabolism. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of HCV infection as a risk factor to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the immunopathogenicity of HCV in diabetes mellitus patients, through the assessment of IFN-γ, TNF- α and IL-10 serum levels.
Objectives: Is to investigate the role of HCV infection as a risk factor to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to study the immunopathogenecity of HCV in diabetes mellitus patients, through the assessment of IFN-γ, TNF- α and IL-10 serum levels.
Patients and Methods: Thirty six known T2D patients attending the endocrine and diabetes center in Baghdad for check-up were enrolled in this study. Their age ranged from 15- 70 year. Twenty one patients have T2D only while the other Fifteen were have diabetes with HCV infection. Thirteen healthy individuals without any signs or symptoms of disease were also included in this study as healthy controls. Serum levels of cytokines including IFN- γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were analyzed by ELISA immunoassay.
Results: Higher serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were observed in the investigated HCV patients with diabetes (43.87pg/ml, 68.1pg/ml respectively) compared to T2D patients (19.75 and 55.10 pg/ml respectively) and controls (8.08 and 31.4 pg/ml respectively). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between these three groups (P= 0.01). The mean serum levels of IL-10 were significantly elevated in T2D group as compared to HCV patients with T2D and control groups (28.7, 10.32, 15.78 pg/ml respectively, p=0.05).
Conclusion: The over production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF- α) and the low IL-10 level could play a crucial role in pathogenesis of HCV that leads to T2D via increasing the insulin resistance.

Keywords

T2D --- HCV --- IFN-γ --- TNF-α --- IL-10

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