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Article
Molar Buccal Tubes Front and Back Openings Dimensions and Torsional Play

Authors: Hiyam J. Al-Zubaidi --- Akram F. Alhuwaizi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 32-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background/: Buccal tubes are orthodontic attachments used on the posterior teeth instead of bands, so it is important to focus on the effect of their properties on orthodontic treatment. The aims of the present in vitro study are to evaluate and compare the buccal tube front and back openings dimensions and the torsional play angle of six different brands.Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of Single bondable, non-convertible first molar buccal tubes from six brands supplied from six companies (Dentaurum, Forestadent, Ormco, 3M, American Orthodontic, A-Star). Regarding tube opening dimension, ten buccal tubes of each brand were examined by an optical microscope. Each tube was fixed during examination using synthetic mud and oriented for observation of the front and back slot openings. A picture was taken for both tube openings and the result appeared on the computer's screen where width and height measurements were made. While regarding torsional play angle, ten buccal tubes of each brand were used. Each tube was fixed on a metal block attached to a surveyor base. Then an L-shaped wire was inserted inside the front opening of the tube. Two photographs were taken, one with the wire in free fall position and the other with the wire elevated by a 10g weight with the same angle of shooting as the first photograph. Later, the two images were superimposed in Adobe Photoshop program, and an electronic MB-ruler Software was used to calculate the angle which represents the torsional play within each tube. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA and LSD tests.Results: There are marked differences between measured tube dimensions and the manufacturer stated dimensions with the front tube openings being generally larger than the back opening dimensions. Furthermore, the torsional play angle was highest in A-Star and smallest in Ormco's tubes. This angle was significantly correlated to the height of the tube front opening.Conclusion: It can be concluded that tube dimension varies among different companies and effect greatly torsional play angle.


Article
Abdominal Operations without Nasogastric tube :A major advance inmodern surgery

Authors: Muqdad F.A. Al-karim --- Safa M. Al-Obaidi --- Salem A.H. Al-Sarraf
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 303-307
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Routine use of nasogastric tubes, after abdominal operations, is intended to
hasten the return of bowel function, prevent pulmonary complications, diminish the risk of
anastomotic leakage, increase patient comfort and shorten hospital stay. Aim of this study is to
evaluate the efficacy of routine nasogastric decompression after abdominal surgery, in
achieving each of the above goals.
Patients and methods:Two hundred and twelve patients having abdominal operations of any
type, emergency and elective have been followed prospectively over a period of three years (1st

December 2004 until end of December 2007) in Baghdad teaching hospital. Patients were
randomized into two groups. Group 1 had nasogastric tube inserted and kept in place until
intestinal function has returned. Group 2 had no nasogastric tube or immediately removed at
the end of the operation. Excluded from the study , were laparoscopic surgeries , gastric and
duodenal surgeries.
Results: There was earlier return of bowel function and shorter hospital stay in the non tube
group. There were no significant statistical differences concerning the occurrence of
postoperative vomiting, pulmonary complications, anastamotic leakage and wound dehisence.
Conclusions: Routine nasogastric decompression does not accomplish any of its intended
goals and so should be abandoned in favor of selective use of nasogastric tube.


Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBANT ASSAY AND AGGLUTINATION TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS IN BAGHDAD

Authors: Haidar A Shamran حيدر احمد شمران --- Haidar F Ghazi حيدر فيصل غازي --- Jabbar S Hassan جبار سلمان حسان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 170-175
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Human infection with Brucella spp. had been able to evoke humeral immune response containing both IgG and IgM.Objective:This study designed to compare results obtained from Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Tube Agglutination Test (TAT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) employ serum are described and compared for the detection of human IgG and IgM anti-brucella antibodies.Methods:Serum samples from 105 subjects were collected. 90 were clinically infected with human brucellosis, and 15 were age and gender matched controls. RBT and TAT are the two screening tests routinely recognized, while the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME) is the confirmatory assays currently in use. In order to improve the serological diagnosis of human brucellosis, an indirect IgG, IgM and IgG-IgM ELISA kits were evaluatedResults:Totally, 90 cases were positive in RBT, from those only 92% shows positive TAT, and by ELISA there are IgG (27.78%), IgM (14.44%) and (57.78%) were Positive for both immunoglobulins.Conclusion:Although RBT and TAT are widely applied tests, they cannot differentiate acute and chronic states of brucellosis. Our data suggest that IgM ELISA may be a suitable test for diagnosis acute brucellosis.Keywords: Brucellosis, ELISA, Tube Agglutination.


Article
Experimental Study of The Effect of Addition of Calming Section on The Heat Transfer Process In A Uniformly Heated Inclined Tube
دراسة عملية لتأثير أضافة أنبوب المدخل على عملية أنتقال الحرارة في أنبوب مائل مسخن بصورة منتظمة

Authors: Nasser F. Hussain --- Abdulhassan A. Karamallah --- Akeel A. Mohammed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 15 Pages: 5123-5137
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Experimental research has been conducted for combined convection to study the local and average heat transfer for hydrodynamically fully developed (the value of L/D of calming section was 22.2) and thermally developing laminar air flow in a uniformly heated inclined tube. The study covered a wide range of Richardson number (Ri) from 0.08 to 2.5, Reynolds number from (518 to 2041), and Rayleigh number from (2.4~105to 3.9~105), with different angles of inclination {ƒ¿= 00 (horizontal), }300, }600, }900 (vertical)} where the minus sign refers to opposing flow and plus sign refers to aiding flow. An empirical correlations were made for the average Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number and Reynolds number for all angles of tube inclinationand compared with another correlations from previous works. Results show that the heat transfer process for low Richardson number is better than that for high Richardson number and the values of average Nusselt number (Nu ) increase as Peclet number (Pe) increases for the same Rayleigh number.

تم أجراء بحث تجريبي للحمل المختلط لدراسة انتقال الحرارة لجريان هواء طباقي تام التشكيل والنامي حراريا في أنبوب (L/D= هيدروديناميكيا (نسبة الطول إلى القطر لأنبوب المدخل هي 22.2 (Re) من ( 0.08 إلى 2.5 ), عدد (Ri) مائل مسخن بصورة منتظمة. غطت الدراسة مدى واسع لعدد 3.9 ), مع زوايا ميلان مختلفة { 00 × 2.4 إلى 105 × من 105 (Ra) من ( 518 إلى 2041 ), وعدد900 ± (عمودي)} حيث الإشارة السالبة تشير إلى الجريان المعاكس والإشارة , ±600,± (أفقي), 300 الموجبة تشير إلى الجريان المساعد. تم التوصل إلى علاقات تجريبية لتغير معدل عدد نسلت بدلالة لكل زوايا ميلان الأنبوب وتم مقارنتها مع معادلات أخرى من أعمال سابقة. (Re) و عدد (Ra) عددمنخفض تكون أفضل مما هو عليه عند عدد (Ri) بينت النتائج أن عملية انتقال الحرارة عند عدد .(Ra) لنفس عدد (Pe) عالي وقيم معدل عدد نسلت تزداد بزيادة عدد (Ri)


Article
Selective versus Routine use of Nasogastric Tube Following Abdominal Surgery

Author: Muqdad F. Abdul-Kareem Ph.D
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 327-341
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Routine use of nasogastric tubes, after abdominal operations, is intended to hasten the return of bowel function, prevent pulmonary complications, diminish the risk of anastomotic leakage, increase patient comfort and shorten hospital stay.Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of routine nasogastric decompression after abdominal surgery, in achieving each of the above goals.Patients and methods: Two hundred and twelve patients having abdominal operations of any type, emergency and elective have been reviewed prospectively over a period of three years (December 2004_December 2007) in Baghdad teaching hospital, they were randomized to receive a nasogastric tube and keep it in place until intestinal function have been returned, and those receiving no tube or immediately removed following operation. Excluded from the study, were laparoscopic surgeries , gastric and duodenal surgeries.Results: 1- Earlier return of bowel function and shorter hospital stay in the non tube group. 2-No significant statistical differences concerning the occurrence of postoperative vomiting, pulmonary complications, and anastamotic leakage. 3-There was significant discomfort in the tube group.Conclusions:Routine nasogastric decompression does not accomplish any of its intended goals and so should be abandoned in favor of selective use of nasogastric tube


Article
ENTERAL TUBE FEEDING AFTER SURGERY FOR UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES

Authors: Hashim S Khayat --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Talaat S Shani
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-72
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Patients with major upper gastrointestinal (UGI) resections that were made nil by mouth for 7-10 days postoperatively with pre-existing weight loss and depleted energy reserves in addition to increased metabolic rate needs nutritional support which serves to shorten the postoperative recovery phase and minimizes the number of complications. This may be supplemented by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) which is not available in our hospitals for over a decade. This problem led us to use a feeding jejunostomy tube after major resections for UGI malignancies.This is a prospective study conducted between May 1999 and December 2004 at First Surgical Unit, Basrah General Hospital. The study aimed to examine the efficacy of Enteral Tube Feeding (ETF) as a method of nutritional support in patients with major resections for UGI malignancies.A total of 76 patients, 42 males and 34 females. Mean age, 50 years (range, 27-72 years) underwent major UGI resections for gastric(64), oesophageal (10) and pancreatic(2) malignancies. ETF lasted for 12-41 days with diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort were the major complications in 14 and 8 patients respectively. .Diarrhoeal tolerance was established in 12 out of 14 patients and controlled in the other two by antidiarrhoeal drugs. There were improved body weight and serum albumin level after ETF and no septic complications or related mortality. ETF is a safe, feasible, cost effective, with few controllable complications rendering it a satisfactory alternative to total parenteral nutrition.

Keywords

ENTERAL --- TUBE --- FEEDING


Article
ENTERAL TUBE FEEDING AFTER SURGERY FOR UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIESIVE STUDY0

Authors: Hashim S Khayat --- Jasim D Saud --- Jawad R. Khersani --- Talaat S Shani
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 67-72
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Patients with major upper gastrointestinal (UGI) resections that were made nil by mouth for 7-10 days postoperatively with pre-existing weight loss and depleted energy reserves in addition to increased metabolic rate needs nutritional support which serves to shorten the postoperative recovery phase and minimizes the number of complications. This may be supplemented by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) which is not available in our hospitals for over a decade. This problem led us to use a feeding jejunostomy tube after major resections for UGI malignancies.This is a prospective study conducted between May 1999 and December 2004 at First Surgical Unit, Basrah General Hospital. The study aimed to examine the efficacy of Enteral Tube Feeding (ETF) as a method of nutritional support in patients with major resections for UGI malignancies.A total of 76 patients, 42 males and 34 females. Mean age, 50 years (range, 27-72 years) underwent major UGI resections for gastric(64), oesophageal (10) and pancreatic(2) malignancies. ETF lasted for 12-41 days with diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort were the major complications in 14 and 8 patients respectively. .Diarrhoeal tolerance was established in 12 out of 14 patients and controlled in the other two by antidiarrhoeal drugs. There were improved body weight and serum albumin level after ETF and no septic complications or related mortality. ETF is a safe, feasible, cost effective, with few controllable complications rendering it a satisfactory alternative to total parenteral nutrition.

Keywords

ENTERAL --- TUBE --- FEEDING --- MALIGNANCIESE


Article
PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GENITAL ORGANS OF FEMALE ALBINO MICE AFTER TREATMENT WITH PENTOXIFYLLINE

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Abstract

BackgroundLittle to our knowledge has been attempting to show the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on ovulation or oogenesis. In a few studies of man with asthenospermia oral treatment with PTX produced significant increase in sperm concentration and motility.ObjectiveStudy the effect of PTX on ovulation and oogenesis in albino mice.MethodsSixty albino mice randomly divided into 6 equal groups: Group 1 received tap water and considered as a control group. Group 2 treated with 16 mg of PTX/Kg/BW/daily for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4, 5, and 6 treated with same dose for 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks respectively. Post-mortem examination done according to the time of treatment and the reproductive systems were excised and processed for light microscopic examination.ResultPTX administration causes an increase in the diameter of the ovary and in the total number of ovarian follicles and their diameters especially Graafian and secondary follicles. In addition, highly significant increase in the numbers of corpus lutea especially in those groups treated for longer time was noticed. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of uterine and oviduct epithelial lining due to hyperplasia and an increase in the diameter of endometrial glands and oviducts was demonstrated.ConclusionsWe concluded that administration of PTX has a significant effect on the female genital organs especially if given in small doses for 10 weeks. This will definitely influence reproduction and litter size manifested after mating with untreated males.Key wordsPentoxifylline, ovary, uterus, fallopian tube

Keywords

Pentoxifylline --- ovary --- uterus --- fallopian tube


Article
Heat Rejection From Horizontal Tube Through Heat Valve
طرح الحرارة من أنبوب أفقي خلال صمام حراري

Author: Ali D.Salman
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 13 Pages: 2229-2251
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This study presents experimental work to construct a non- conventionalthermosyphon where it is consists of three parts, which include the evaporator,adiabatic and condenser sections all of these parts are arranged radially in parallel toconstruct the heat valve (HV). Heat valve used to evacuate heat from horizontal copperelectrical heater tube by working fluid which is(distilled water, methanol, ethanol) withdifferent filling ratio 66.6% and 83.3%. Working fluid evacuate heat from copperevaporator towards condenser where a change in phase mechanism make insure toincrease the heat performance of HV. Thin stainless steel mesh grid coated evaporatorto translate heat to the working fluid at the case of high evaporation of working fluid,while a very thin of aluminum fins are fixed to the condenser surface to extended it andconstruct the finned heat valve(FHV) with a high level thermal performance whereheat reject in short time and make insure to condensate the working fluid’s vapor andthat lead to low level of temperature in evaporator. The results refer to the highthermal performance of FHV where a low temperature in evaporator with low heatstorage because the short distance between condenser and evaporator with a high ratiobetween area of them .Result refer to the effect of working fluid type with simpleeffect in filling ratio.

من خلال هذه الدراسة العملية تم بناء ثرموسايفون غير تقليدي حيث المناطق الثلاث الأساسية(مبخر، أديباتي،المكثف) مرتبه بشكل قطري على التوازي وليس على التوالي كما في الثيرموسايفونالتقليدي لتكوين الصمام الحراري. استخدم الصمام لإزالة الحرارة من مسخن كهربائي بهيئة أنبوبنحاسي أفقي وباستخدام كل من الايثانول، الميثانول والماء المقطر كمائع عامل وبنسب ملء مختلفة%83.3 )،حيث إن المائع العامل يعمل على نقل الحرارة من المبخر (الأنبوب النحاسي ) ،%66.6 عن طريق الحمل ثنائي الطور نتيجة التغيير ألطوري للمائع العامل والذي يضمن كفاءة حرارية عاليةللصمام الحراري . كما تم استخدام شبكه معدنية في غاية الدقة ومصنعه من الفولاذ تغطي المبخرلتوصيل الحرارة للمائع العامل في حال نسب التبخر العالي للمائع العامل، ولرفع الأداء الحراريللصمام الحراري تمت زعنفة المكثف بزعانف رقيقة السمك مصنعه من الألمنيوم لزيادة ألمساحهالسطحية للمكثف من جهة الهواء ومن ثم تأمين طرح الحرارة بشكل سريع وضمان تكثيف المائعالعامل لضمان تبريد أسرع للمبخر.أشارت النتائج إلى أن استخدام الصمام الحراري المزعنف والذي تكون فيه المسافة بين المبخروالمكثف قريبة جدا ومتقابلة إشعاعيا كما أن مساحة المكثف المزعنف اكبر بكثير من المبخر مماأدى إلى طرح الحرارة بشكل سريع (تقليل الحرارة ألمخزونه) والذي أدى بدوره إلى خفض في درجةحرارة المبخر أي أن أداءه الحراري عالي، كما أشارت الدراسة إلى تأثير ملحوظ في تغيير نوعالمائع العامل للصمام الحراري المزعنف مع تأثير بسيط لنسبة الملء.


Article
STUDY THE BIOCHEMICL EFFECT OF GUM ARABIC IN LIVER INJURY AND BLOOD SERUM OF MICE INDUCE BY GENTAMICIN
دراسة تأثير الكيموحيوي للصمغ العربي في أكباد ومصل الدم لذكور الفئران المصابة بالتسمم الكبدي المحدث بالمضاد الحيوي جنتاميسين

Author: Ghassan F. Alubaidy غسان فتحي محمد العبيدي
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 243-252
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Forty adult male Bulb/c mice weighing between 25-30 GM reared in wire cages wererandomly divided into four groups (10 mice each group). Group (G1) received the regular mice diet and (1 ml/kg Saline p.o.) for 8 days maintained as a control group. Group (G2) treated daily intra peritoneal (i.p) injection of gentamicin (40m g/kg bwt /day) for 8 days. In group (G3) received Gum Arabic (GA) (10 gm /kg bwt /day) for 8 days orally by using stomach tube. Group (G4) is received gentamicin (40 mg/ kg bwt /day) (i.p) plus (10gm /kg bwt / day) orally of Gum Arabic for 8 days. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting 12-24 hours for determination some biochemical marker including AST, ALT and ALP activities, creatinin, uric acid , urea and total bilirubin in serum . Assay the total protein, Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA, ribonucleic acid RNA in liver tissue of mice.The results revealed that treatment with gentamicin (G2) increased in AST, ALT and ALP activities in serum, creatinine, uric acid, urea and total bilirubin value in serum also there are elevation the level of DNA, RNA and total protein in liver tissue when a compared with the control group (G1).Treatment of GA along with gentamicin (G4) and administration of GA alone (G3) decreased in the level of serum creatinine, serum uric acid, serum urea and serum total bilirubin , the level of DNA, RNA and total protein in liver tissue also decrease, as compared to the gentamicin treated group (G2) but not reach in both groups(G3,G4) to normal level as in control group.In conclusion Gum Arabic exhibit hepatoprotective activities probably through free radical scavenging properties. Altered level of hepatic markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP with gentamicin exposure was reversed towards normalization with Gum Arabic. Similarly, biochemical parameters were also restored by Gum Arabic. Bioactive of Gum Arabic ameliorated the oxidative damage and had increased the regenerative and reparative capacity of liver.

Keywords

Gentamicin --- Stomach tube --- Uric acid

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