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Article
Acute toxicity study of three type of Nerium.oleander leaves of hexane extract in mice
دراسة السمية الحادة لثلاث أنواع من مستخلصات الهكسان لأوراق الدفلة في الفئران

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Abstract

Three types of Nerium.oleander leaves of hexane extract were prepared according the color of their flower, red flower group (RFG), pink flower group (PFG) and white flower group (WFG).After drying in the sunlight, grinding by electrical grinder. Extraction with hexane was done by a soxhlet apparatus for each type the extract of each type was dissolved in propylene glycol which was used to dissolve the extract with the aid of magnetic stirrer mixer for ten minutes. The median lethal dose (LD50) experiment for each type, fifty adult mice of mixed sex were used. They were divided into 5 equal number groups and were given different oral doses as following:-The red flower groups (RFG) received oral doses ranging from 225-425mg&#8260;Kg ,the pink flower group(PFG) received oral doses ranging from 200-400 mg &#8260;Kg while the white flower groups (WFG) received doses ranging from 250- 450 mg&#8260; Kg of body weight. The LD50 was calculated by employing probit method and found to be 325mg/kg for the RFG, 300mg/kg for the PFG and 350mg/kg for the WFG respectively. These results indicate that the toxic constituents of the leaves nearly same since there were no significance differences between LD50 of the three types.

Keywords

Toxicity --- Oleander --- LD50


Article
Preventive Effects of Different Doses of Pentoxyfilline Against CCl4-Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Nada N. Al-Shawi ندى ناجي الشاوي --- Dawser K. Ismael دوسر خليل اسماعيل --- Jameel I. Abd Al-Zahra
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2009 Volume: 18 Issue: 1(Suppl.) Pages: 39-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The liver protective effects of pentoxifylline were studied through pre-treatment of rats with various intraperitoneal (IP) doses (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) 14 days before induction of liver toxicity by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The parameters of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in liver homogenate in addition to histopathological examinations. Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in groups of animals pre-treated with different doses of pentoxifylline (PTX) compared to group of animals intoxicated by CCl4 as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in liver tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Additionally, increasing doses of PTX produce a dose-dependent improvement in liver tissue damage induced by CCl4, as evident histologically by the stained liver sections. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, the hepatoprotective effects of pentoxifylline are dose dependent.

تم دراسة تقييم التأثير الوقائي لجرع متعددة من البنتوكسيفيلين (25، 50، 100 ملغم لكل كيلوغرام من وزن الجسم) داخل الصفاق في الجرذان 14 يوم قبل أستحداث التسمم الكبدي بواسطة رباعي كلوريد الكربون حيث تم قياس الأدلة الخاصة بظاهرة فرط الأكسدة مثل تراكيز MDA , GSH في نسيج الكبد هذا بالاضافة الى دراسة نسيجية بفحص مقاطع من نسيج الكبد المصاب تحت المجهر الضوئي لمتابعة المتغيرات الحاصلة فيه. أظهر تحليل النتائج وجود تحسن ظاهر في معايير فرط الأكسدة من خلال انخفاض معنوي في مستوى MDA وأرتفاع مستوى GSH في نسيج الكبد مقارنة بالمجموعة المصابة الا ان مستويات الأدلة الخاصة بفرط الأكسدة بقيت مختلفة عن مستوياتها في مجموعة السيطرة ، كما أظهرت النتائج التأثير الوقائي للبنتوكسيفيلين من خلال منعه حدوث التأثيرات التلفية والألتهابية التي سببتها الجرعة السامة لرباعي كلوريد الكربون لدى الجرذان. ومن خلال النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها، يمكننا الاستنتاج بوجود علاقة وثيقة بين الجرعة المستخدمة من البنتوكسيفيلين وفعاليته الوقائية ضد التسمم في الكبد.


Article
Effect of Lead Toxicity on Liver of Male Albino Mice Ultrastructural Study
دراسة دقيقة حول تأثير سمية نترات الرصاص على كبد الفئران البيض

Author: Shatha Mahmoud Hasan شذى محمود حسن
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2011 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 214-220
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Lead is a multi targeted toxicant causing effects in different organs of the body. The present ultrastructural study was undertaken on the hepatic tissue of male albino mice.Two groups of male albino mice, 6 animals each were used. The treated group was exposed to 0.25% lead nitrate in drinking water for 4 months,and control group, in comparison with respective control mice. Chronic exposure to subtoxic doses of lead produced ultrastructural alterations in hepatocytes involving mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and nuclei. The present study shows chronic exposure to low subtoxic doses of lead, it can induce adverse subcellular alterations in the hepatic tissues.

تهدف هذه الدراسة بالكشف عن التغيرات التي يمكن ان تحدثها سمية الرصاص في خلايا الفئران البيض. تم تعريض مجموعتين من الفئران البيض كل مجموعه تحوي 6 حيوانات إلى تركيز 25% من نترات الرصاص في مياه الشرب لمدة 4اشهر بينما مجموعة التحكم احتوت على ماء مقطر فقط. لقد أوضحت خلايا الكبد للحيوانات المعاملة بالرصاص وبالمقارنة مع مجموعة التحكم تغيرات شديدة في التراكيب الدقيقة التي تشمل المايتوكندريا والشبكة الاندوبلازمية واللايسوسوم.أظهرت النتائج ان التعرض لتراكيز منخفضة من الرصاص عن طريق مياه الشرب قادرة على احدث تغيرات شديدة في التراكيب الدقيقة لعينات خلايا هذه الأنسجة.


Article
TOXOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF METHAMYL EFFECT ON THE ROCK PIGEONS (CULUMBA LIVIA GADDI)

Author: Dhiaa J. Hamzah* Mohammed A. Abo- Ktifa** Saif S. Rasheed* Bushra H. Faris
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 124-134
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This Study was conducted in animal house in Faculty of veterinary medicine of university of kufa. This study was designated to assess the neuropathy of Organophosphorus pesticide (Methomyl) after long–term administration of low dose in Rock pigeons. The Clinical signs, gross lesions and histopathological assessment of nervous tissue were described. A total of 20 pigeons, 3months old and about 500gaverage body weight pigeons were used in this study. The pigeons were equally divided in to tow groups. The dose was calculated based on study at close pilot at 0.02 ml and gradually lose the dose down to the toxic non-lethal dose. The toxic dose was 0.01 ml. One group was daily administered via oral gavages with 0.01 ml of methomyl; for 21 days where as the other group were leave control withoutadministration. Organophosphorus pesticide treated groups exhibited both muscarinic and nicotinic signs of toxicity.

Keywords

Methomyl --- toxicity --- pigeons.


Article
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDYTO EFFECT OF CODEINE-PARACETAMOLIN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

Author: Aseel Kamel Hameed* Adel J. Hussein** S.K.Majeed
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 167-175
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study performed in twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats for (90) days which divided randomly into four equal groups. Group (1): received normal saline daily. Group (2): received orally codeine-paracetamol(40/2500 mg / kg b.w) daily. Group (3): received orally codeine-paracetamol (80/5000 mg / kg b.w)daily. Group (4): received orally codeine- paracetamol (160 /10000 mg / kg b.w) daily. After end of day (90) of study all animals were sacrificed to do the histopathological and biochemical examinations. The statistical analysis results revealed the body weight effects of codeine-paracetamol toxicity a significant (P≤0.05) decreases of treated group after (90) days of treatment. The histopathological investigation of liver, kidney and brain of treated groups showed centrolobular necrosis, dilation of sinusoids, vaculation of hepatocytes and septal fibrosis of liver while kidney showed vaculation of mesengial cells of glomeruli, necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules and dilation of renal cortical tubules, also brain of treated group showed vaculation of neurons, these changes are appeared mild in group (2), moderated in group (3) and sever in group (4). The statistical analysis results of biochemical investigations of liver and kidney function tests showed a significant (P≤0.05) increases of levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and creatinine respectively in all treated groups which these enzymes increased mildly in group (2), moderately in group (3) and severely in group (4).

Keywords

Paracetamol --- Toxicity --- Necrosis


Article
TOXICITY OF Copper AND Cobalt IN CHICKEN (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICS ASSESSMENT OF BODY WEIGHT AND METAL CONTENT IN TISSUES AFTER METAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
التأثيرات السمية للنحاس والكوبالت المضافة للعلائق على وزن الجسم والاعضاء الداخلية لدجاج اللحم

Author: Salwa A. Abduljaleel
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 71-82
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The toxic influence of dietary copper(Cu) and cobalt (Co) on the accumulation and body weight examined in broiler chicken. This experiment was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of dietary Cu and Co on chicks body weight and organ, content of the tissues of these two metals was also detected. One day age chicks of Gallus gallus domesticus fed diet supplemented with 500, 1000,1500ppm of Cu, second group exposure to 100,500, 1000ppm of Co in feed daily during 4 weeks. The control groups were fed without supplementation of metals. The concentrations of Cu and Co resulted in increased of Cu and Co content in liver, gizzard and muscle. Body weight of chicks was decreased by Cu and Co high concentration treatments. On the other hand, Liver weigh in chicks was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after Cu and Co treatments.

Keywords

Toxicity --- Chicken --- Body weight


Article
An evaluation of mercury hygiene level for dentists in Mosul City

Author: Nawfal A ZAKARIA
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-73
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to observe the level of mercury hygiene for the dentists in Mosul city via a questionnaire given to the 98 dentists selected randomly. The data was collected and percentages were calculated. The results revealed that the dentists had some of good hygienic methods, for example, (80% of dentists were ventilate their clinic, 100% of dentists were use water cooling System during removal of old amalgam restorations), and some of unhygienic methods, for example, (33% of dentists only were uses amalgam capsules, 93% of dentists work without rubber gloves) which increase the possibility of dentists exposure to mercury toxicity. According to this results the dentists should change they manner form unhygienice type to minimize as much as possible the mercury toxicity. Seminars & lectures of continuos education are very important in this field

Keywords

Mercury hygiene --- toxicity --- amalgam


Article
Effect of Grape Seed Extract on the T-2 Toxicity in mice
تأثير مستخلص بذور العنب على سمية الـ ت2 في الفئران

Authors: Dalia A. Abdual shahed داليا عبد الكريم عبد الشهيد --- Oday S. Abbas عدي ستار عباس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Cancer and Medical Genetics المجلة العراقية للسرطان والوراثة الطبية ISSN: 20786123 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecenes mycotoxin family. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were induced in mice by feeding T-2 toxin contaminated wheat. The serum biochemical analysis was observed after 8 weeks by an increase in the plasma activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), where that elevation reached (76.00 IU/L) in G2, in comparison with G3 that the ALT level return back to normal level. While the levels of total protein and albumin appeared no significant change in all groups of study. Serum urea showed a significant increase in the mean serum level of urea (52.70 mg/dl) in G2 whereas the treated with grape seed extract could return back the mean serum level of urea to normal level (38.95 mg/dl). Serum level of total bilirubin was observed increase significantly to reach (0.42 mg/dl) in G2 when compared to third group that the grape seed extract reduce the serum level of total bilirubin to normal level (0.34 mg/dl). There was a significant increase in the mean serum level of creatinine was observed in the T-2 toxin group (0.69 mg/dl) when compared to creatinine level in grape seed extract with T-2 toxin recorded a significant reduction (0.54 mg/dl). Histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections confirmed the serum analysis. These results clearly indicated that T-2 toxin has stressful effects on the hepatic and renal tissues.

سم الـ ت2 هو أحد نواتج الأيض الثانوي للفطريات والذي يقع ضمن عائلة السموم الفطرية الترايكوثسين. تم أستحداث سمية الكبد والكلية في الفئران بعد تغذيتها بالحنطة الملوثة بالسم ولمدة ثمانية أسابيع. بعدها لوحظت نتائج السمية لكلا العضوين من خلال الفحوصات الكيموحيوية فقد تبين ان هناك زيادة معنوية في فعالية أنزيم (ALT) ليصل (76.00 IU/L) في فئران المجموعة الثانية بالمقارنة مع حيوانات المجموعة الثالثة التي عادت فيها فعالية الأنزيم الى مستواه الطبيعي بفعل المعالجة بمستخلص بذور العنب. فيما لم تظهر مستويات البروتين الكلي و الالبومين أي فروقات معنوية في جميع مجاميع التجربة. بينما أظهر مستوى اليوريا ارتفاع معنوي (52.70 mg/dl) في المجموعة المعاملة بالسم وعودته لمستواه الطبيعي في المجموعة الثالثة بعد المعالجة بالمستخلص (38.95 mg/dl). كما وأرتفعت مستويات البليروبين الكلي بشكل معنوي (0.42 mg/dl) في مجموعة السم بالمقارنة مع المجموعة المعالجة بالمستخلص حيث لوحظ انخفاض في مستواه ليصل الى (0.34 mg/dl). وأرتفعت مستويات الكرياتنيين في مصل الفئران المعاملة بالسم الملوث للعليقة لتصل الى (0.69 mg/dl) عند مقارنتها بالفئران المعالجة بالمستخلص (0.54 mg/dl). وأكدت الفحوصات النسيجية للكبد والكلية ماتوصلت اليه نتائج الفحوصات الكيمياحيوية. نستنتج من هذه تأثير الفعال السمي لسم الـ ت2 على كل من كبد وكلية الفئران..


Article
Study Some of the Histopathological Changes of Acute, Subacute and Chronic Lead Acetate Toxicity related to Catalase Activity in Blood of Adult Male Wistar Rats
دراسة بعض التغييرات المرضية النسجية للتسمم الحاد تحت الحاد والمزمن لخلات الرصاص وفاعلية انزيم الكاتلاز في الدم في ذكور الجرذان البالغة

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Abstract

The present work was aimed to study the histopathological changes due to lead acetate intoxication and measure the activity of catalase in the serum of adult male rats. Sixty male rats aged (8) weeks and weight (45-60) gm were divided equally into (4) groups as follows: Group I: Rats served as control (C) and received distilled water for 3 months. Group II: Rats served as experimental and received by gavage lead acetate diluted in distlled water at 100 mg/kg B.W. /day for 1 month. Group III: Rats served as experimental and received by gavage lead acetate diluted in distlled water at 100 mg/kg B.W. /day for 2 month. Group IV: Rats served as experimental and received by gavage lead acetate diluted in distlled water at 100 mg/kg B.W. /day for 3 month. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to estimate serum catalase activity. Specimens from brain, liver, kidneys, urinary bladder and spleen, were dissected out for histopathological examination. Results should time dependent significant decrease in serum catalase activity with toxicopathological changes in the targeted organs, the severity of the changes depend on time of exposure, with hyperplasia of urinary bladder. From the above results, it was concluded that lead acetate intoxication lead to significant decrease in serum catalase activity with toxicopathological changes in the targeted organs, these changes were time dependent.

هدف البحث الحالي الى دراسة التغيرات المرضية النسجية الناجمة عن التسمم الحاد، تحت الحاد والمزمن بخلات الرصاص وقياس فاعلية الكاتالاز في مصل ذكور الجرذان البالغة. استخدم في الدراسة (60) جرذ وبعمر (8) اسابيع واوزان تراوحت بين (45-60) غم حيث قسمت الى اربع مجاميع متساوية وكما يأتي: المجموعة الاولى اعطيت ماء مقطر لمدة ثلاثة اشهر وعدت مجموعة سيطرة، المجموعة الثانية جرعت محلول خلات الرصاص وبتركيز 100ملغم/ كغم/ يوم ولمدة شهر، المجموعة الثالثة جرعت محلول خلات الرصاص وبتركيز 100ملغم/كغم/ يوم ولمدة شهرين، المجموعة الرابعة جرعت محلول خلات الرصاص وبتركيز 100ملغم/ كغم/ يوم ولمدة 3 اشهر. تم جمع عينات الدم من مباشرة وذلك لقياس مقدار الكاتالاز في المصل، كما تم اخذ عينات من الدماغ، الكبد، الكلية، المثانة، الطحال، لغرض اجراء الفحوصات المرضية النسجية. اوضحت النتائج ان هنالك قلة معنوية في فعالية الكاتالاز في المصل اعتمدت على مدة التجريع . اما التغيرات المرضية النسجية فقد ادى التجريع لخلات الرصاص الى تغييرات مرضية سمية وخيمة في الاعضاء المستهدفة تناسبت شدتها طرديا مع مدة التجريع حيث اتسمت ايضا بحصول فرط التنسج في المثانة. يمكن ان يستنتج من النتائج الذكورة اعلاه ان التسمم بخلات الرصاص ادى الى نقصان معنوي في فعالية الكاتالاز في المصل وتغيرات مرضية سمية في الاعضاء الداخلية المستهدفة ازدادت شدتها بزيادة مدة التجريع .


Article
Ameliorative effect of black seed ( Nigella sativa L ) on the toxicity of aluminum in rabbits
التأثير الوقائي للحبة السوداء ( Nigella sativa L ) في التسمم بالألمنيوم في الأرانب

Author: Amira Kamil Mohammed اميرة كامل محمد
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2010 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-116
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study the biological activities of Nigella sativa on limitation and ameliorative detoxification of aluminum were investigated through evaluation of some hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathology. Eighteen mature rabbits were divided equally into three groups. Group 1 was served as a control group; group 2 was administrated orally with distill water both of AlCl3 ( sub lethal dose 200 mg / kg body weight ) and NS in dose of 10 g / liter; group 3 administrated NS only in same dose. The results are revealed significant elevation ( P<0.05 ) in RBCs count, Hb and PCV values in group 3 in comparison with groups 1 & 2; while the WBCs count decreased significantly in group 2 and increased significantly in group 3. serum ALT, AST, AP, creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration were increased significantly in group 2, while; the albumin concentration was decreased significantly in group 2, as well as histological changes in liver and kidney in group 2. These results indicate the protective effect of black seed against AlCl3 induced toxicity in rabbits.
Key words:AlCl3; black seeds; rabbits; toxicity

Keywords

:AlCl3 --- black seeds --- rabbits --- toxicity

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