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Article
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE TRACHEAL CAST AND LUNG IN LOCAL BREED CATS Felis Cactus Domesticus.L.
دراسة تشريحية لقالب الرغامي والرئة لقطط السلالة المحلية Domesticus.L s . Felis Cactus

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Abstract

Cast technique includes ten cats (5 male, 5 female) used the polymerizing resin (cold acrylic) to study the bronchial tree and blood vessels. the examination of bronchial tree of the cats (felis catus) Lung is done by using cold resin in order to prepare cast specimens. The diameter of right principal bronchi of cats mean (7.34 mm± 0.36) and diameter of left principal bronchi means (6.07mm 0.36). The right principal bronchi large than left principal. The air flow in right Lung faster than the left. This result is supported by the researcher .These results are obtained from the cast model showing that the pulmonary trunk divides into right and left pulmonary arteries after arising from the right ventricle of heart. The right pulmonary artery the diameter about (4.18 mm) and diameter of left pulmonary artery about (3.40 mm) that the right pulmonary larger than the left pulmonary artery

Keywords

Cast --- Trachea --- Ventricle.


Article
GROSSLY AND MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE TRACHEA AND BRONCHIAL TREE IN THE LOCAL SHEEP ( OVIS ARIS).

Author: Saffia Kareem Wally Al- Umeri
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 145-155
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The trachea of the local sheep is a tubular structure that begins at the cricoid cartilage of the larynx and ends when it bifurcates to form the principle bronchi, composed of series of incomplete rings that were incomplete dorsally present between of them longitudinal folds. The study include twelve specimens divided into four groups grossly, histological study, cast and radiography. The anatomical study include the mean total tracheal length from the first ring to the bifurcation about (25.9 cm) , mean number of cartilaginous rings (48.6), mean number of folds (45), measured the length of trachea from the cricoids cartilage to the trachealis bronchus which enter to the cranial lobe of lung which branches from the trachea in last third before divided into two bronchi right and left each of one enter the lung for respiration also measure diameters of each tracheal ring which deference according the position of rings, which decrease of diameters when direction caudally to the root of lung the rings have different shape in the three parts of the trachea cervical, middle and thoracic the histological study showed the trachea lining pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells, the wall of trachea consist of mucosa, submuosa, hyaline cartilage and adventitia and have large amount of tracheal gland,the trachealis muscle composed of elastic fibers interupted with smooth fibers.The cast of trachea showed the bronchial tree and radiography explain the trachea , bronchi and bronchioles.

Keywords

Trachea --- Radiography --- Rings.


Article
Comparative carbohydrate histochemical study of the trachea of native sheep and goat
دراسة كيميائية نسيجية مقارنة لكربوهيدرات رغامى الأغنام والماعز المحلية

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Abstract

The aim of this work was to explore the different types of carbohydrates histochemically in the trachea of local Awase sheep and to compare it with that of the local black goat. Ten tracheas from each sheep and goat were used for this study. Different histochemical methods were used to explore types and locations of carbohydrates in trachea’s wall of both animals. It was observed that the amount of mucus secreted from the anterior third of trachea was comparatively greater than that of the middle and posterior thirds due to its higher content of tracheal glands and goblet cells. The carbohydrate histochemistry of different constituents of the trachea showed that there was no noticeable difference between the two studied species. However, the glycogen was found in a greater amount in goat's trachea in comparison to sheep. The goblet cells and the mucous secretory units of the trachea showed a considerable amount of carboxylated glycoprotein together with a little amount of other forms of carbohydrates. The mucus that covers the lumen of the trachea contained almost all the carbohydrate substances with the exception of neutral glycoproteins. Chondrocytes contain glycogen, sulphated and neutral glycoproteins but didn't show any form of GAGs, whereas, the territorial matrix of the cartilage contains a mixture of carboxylated and sulphated GAGs with the predominance of the latter, but glycoproteins could not be detected. The interterritorial matrix contained mainly carboxylated glycosaminoglycans together with a little amount of glycoproteins. The columnar cells and the basal surface epithelial cells showed no reaction to any form of carbohydrates.

هدف البحث إلى دراسة الكيمياء النسجية للكربوهيدرات لأجزاء مختلفة من رغامى كل من الأغنام العواسية المحلية والماعز المحلي الأسود في الحالة السوية. أستخدم لهذا الغرض 10 عينات من الرغامى لذكور الأغنام العواسية وعدد مماثل من الرغامى لذكور الماعز الأسود. استخدمت تقنيات الكيمياء النسجية المختلفة للكشف عن أنواع وأماكن وجود المواد الكربوهيدراتية ضمن جدار رغامى في كلا الحيوانين. وتبين أن المخاط المفرز من الثلث الأمامي من الرغامى في كلا الحيوانين كان أكثر مما هو عليه في الثلثين الوسطي والخلفي وذلك لوجود الخلايا الكأسية والغدد الرغامية في الثلث الأمامي بأعداد اكبر مما هي عليه في الثلثين الوسطي والخلفي. كما تبين عدم وجود فرق في محتوى رغامى الأغنام العواسية والماعز الأسود من المواد الكربوهيدراتية ما عدا كمية مادة الكلايكوجين التي ظهرت في رغامى الماعز بكميات اكبر مما هي عليه في رغامى الأغنام. تركزت البروتينات السكرية الكربوكسيلية في الخلايا الكأسية والوحدات الإفرازية المخاطية وبعض الخلايا المصلية والقنوات الإفرازية بينما احتوت الوسادة الغضروفية المحفظية على السكريدات السامينية السكرية بنوعيها، إلا أن النوع الكبريتاتي كان هو الشائع وقد خلت من البروتينات السكرية في حين أظهرت الوسادة الغضروفية البينية احتوائها على السكريدات السامينية السكرية ولاسيما الكربوكسيلية منها وكذلك على كميات قليلة من البروتينات السكرية. لم تظهر الخلايا الظهارية العمودية والخلايا القاعدية أي تفاعل للمواد الكربوهيدارتية.

Keywords

carbohydrate --- histochemical --- trachea --- sheep --- goat


Article
Comparative anatomical and histological study on the trachea of native awasi sheep and black goat
دراسة تشريحية و نسيجية مقارنة للرغامى في الأغنام العواسية والماعز الأسود المحليين

Authors: A. G. Al-Haaik عمار غانم محمد الحائك --- M. H. Abdul-Raheem مؤيد حسن عبد الرحيم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2006 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-21
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To explore the various constituents of the trachea of the local awasi sheep and black goat, gross anatomical, histological and morphometrical studies had been carried out. The study revealed that the average length of the trachea is directly proportional to the number of tracheal rings and it was also noticed that the length, diameter and wall thickness of the trachea of the sheep were greater than those of black goat. These parameters decreased gradually toward the posterior third of the trachea in both species. The free dorsal ends of the tracheal rings of the sheep overlapping each other at the cranial third, but they gradually move a part at the mid – third, and they become again very close to each other and run side to side dorsally to forming a dorsal crest at the caudal third. However, the two free ends of tracheal rings of the goat remain considerably apart throughout the entire length of the trachea forming a (U) shaped configuration. The cartilaginous rings were so oriented that they disposed one beside the other at the ventral and lateral aspects of the tracheal wall. But they overlapping each other at the dorso – lateral aspect of the tracheal wall in both species. Three main cells were detected in the surface epithelium of the trachea of both species (ciliated columnar cells, basal cells and goblet cells), another cell type was restricted to the posterior third of the trachea of both species. The tracheal glands were found to be compound, mixed tubulo – acinar type. The majority of the secretory units were mucous, the others were serous. Most of the tracheal glands occupied the triangular area between the successive tracheal rings particularly at the medial side of the ventral aspect of the trachea. The density of the tracheal glands decreased gradually anterio – coudally in the both studied species. The percentage of goblet cells in the trachea of sheep was greater than that of goat, and decreased gradually toward the lungs in both species.

أظهرت الدراسة الحالية أن رغامى الأغنام اكثر طولاً واكبر قطراً من رغامى الماعز وان معدل طول الرغامى يتناسب طردياً مع عدد الحلقات الغضروفية، كما لوحظ تناقص أقطار الرغامى وسمك الجدار بصورة تدريجية باتجاه أمامي – خلفي في كلا الحيوانين. وعند دراسة شكل المقطع العرضي لرغامى كلا الحيوانين لوحظ أن نهايات الحلقات الغضروفية لرغامى الأغنام كانت متداخلة في الثلث الأمامي من الرغامى ومتباعدة في الثلث الوسطي ومتقاربة جداً في الثلث الخلفي من الرغامى مشكلة عرفاً ظهرياً. أما في الماعز فكانت النهايات متباعدة وظهر شكل المقطع العرضي للرغامى مشابهاً لشكل الحرف (U). تبين أن الحلقات الغضروفية المتتالية كانت مرتبة بشكل تتابعي أو تعاقبي على امتداد طول الرغامى في الجهتين البطنية والجانبية من جدار الرغامى، في حين أنها كانت متداخلة مع بعضها البعض في الجهة الظهرية الجانبية من جدار رغامى كلا الحيوانين.بينت الدراسة وجود ثلاثة أنواع رئيسية من الخلايا في الظهارة السطحية لرغامى الأغنام والماعز وهي الخلايا العمودية المهدبة والخلايا القاعدية والخلايا الكأسية، إضافة إلى نوع آخر من الخلايا اقتصر وجودها في الثلث الخلفي من رغامى الأغنام والماعز. تم تحديد الغدد الرغامية على أنها غدد نبيبية عنبية مركبة تتكون أساسا من وحدات إفرازية مخاطية مع وجود أعداد قليلة من الوحدات الإفرازية المصلية وقد تركز وجود هذه الغدد في الجهة البطنية من جدار الرغامى وخصوصاً في الجزء الأنسي من فسح بين الحلقات الغضروفية ولوحظ أن أعدادها تقل بصورة تدريجية باتجاه أمامي خلفي في كلا الحيوانين. كما لوحظ أن ارتفاع الأهداب وسمك الطبقة المخاطية وسمك الغشاء المرن وسمك العضلة الرغامية كانت في الأغنام أعلى مما هي عليه في الماعز كما أن جميع هذه القياسات تقل بصورة تدريجية باتجاه أمامي – خلفي في كلا الحيوانين. أظهرت الدراسة الحالية أن نسبة الخلايا الكأسية في رغامى الأغنام أعلى مما هي عليه في رغامى الماعز وان هذه النسب تقل بصورة تدريجية باتجاه أمامي – خلفي في كلا الحيوانين.

Keywords

trachea --- native --- awasi sheep --- black goat


Article
LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL REGION IN CHICK EMBRYOS

Authors: Hayder J Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Amal A. Al-Taee امال علي الطائي --- Ali Sh. Al-Araji علي شعلان الراجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 4-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Glycosylation is an important modification involved during embryonic development. Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins; they can be employed as specific probes to localize defined monosaccharide and oligosaccharides on cell surface and on cytoplasmic structures, and in extracellular matrix.Objectives:The lectins (SBA, PNA, WGA, SWGA, UEA-I) binding were used as a sensitive, stable, and easy tool that can provide an extraordinarily sensitive detection for changes glycosylation and carbohydrate expression that may occur during embryogenesis and development of trachea-esophageal region.Methods:Fertilized chick eggs were incubated at 38 °C, embryos were fixed with Bouin’s solution. Sections were treated with fluoresce ineisothiocyanate (FITC) labeledlectins.Results:The histochemical study during the 2ndand 3rddays of development revealed variable tempo-spatial variability of lectin bindings to the mesenchymal tissues and other embryonic structures at the trachea-esophageal region.Conclusions:The lectin bindings could be an indicator for the glycoconjucate changes that play an essential role in developmental phenomenon of trachea-esophageal morphogenesis by marking cellular differentiation, cellular migration, and cellular interactions.Key words:Trachea, esophagus, chick, embryo, lectin, histochemistry.

Keywords

Trachea --- esophagus --- chick --- embryo --- lectin --- histochemistry


Article
Histological and fluorescent microscope studies for evaluation carbon accumulation in trachea and bronchi of birds in polluted area in Wasit province
دراسة نسيجية وباستخدام المجهرالمتالق لتقدير تراكم الكاربون في الرغامي والقصبة الهوائية للطيور في المناطق الملوثة من محافظة واسط

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts.

الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن تراكم الكاربون وتحديد مظهره في مناطق مختلفة لمجموعات من البط باستخدام اصباغ خاصة للكشف عن ترسب جزيئات الكاربون. وكذلك استخدام صبغات الاكردين البرتقالي/ الاثيديوم بروميد للكشف عن الموت المبرمج المبكر والمتأخر(المتقدم) الذي يحصل نتيجة لترسب جزيئات الكاربون في كلا المنطقتين الملوثة (منطقة حقل الاحدب النفطي ومنطقة معامل الطابوق) ولكن حصول الموت المبرمج المتأخر في منطقة معامل الطابوق يكون اكثر مما هو عليه في منطقة حقل الاحدب النفطي. الفحص النسيجي للرغامي يظهر عدم وجود اي مؤشر على تراكم الكاربون في الثلاث مناطق المستخدمه في هذا البحث. بينما في القصبة الهوائية نلاحظ ترسب الكاربون في المناطق الملوثة (منطقة حقل الاحدب النفطي ومنطقة معامل الطابوق) وبكميات مختلقة.


Article
Histological Study of the Trachea In Indigenous Male Turkey (Meleagris gallopava)
دراسة نسجية لرغامي ذكور الديك الرومي المربى محليا (Meleagris gallopava)

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Abstract

The present study was conducted on five healthy indigenous male turkeys at the first year of their age and live weight was (4715 ± 43.3 gm) collected from the center of Diwanyia city, our need to have a base line data on the respiratory system of this abundant species of bird in Iraq. It is expected that this work will provide a pivot for future research and subsequent clinical application as regards the biology of the turkey.After birds preparation the trachea dissected out and washing by normal saline solution (0.9% Nacl), then were fixed immediately in 10% formalin, then get ready for routine histological processing.Trachea was lined by respiratory epithelium (ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium) with simple branched tubular mucous glands and goblet cells. Laminapropria-submucosa of the trachea was supported by hyaline cartilages and comprised of loose connective tissue, with large bundles of collagen fibers.

استخدم في الدراسة الحالية خمسة طيور من الديك الرومي (Meleagris gallopava ) سليمة بعمر سنة واحدة ومتوسط وزن(.(4715 ± 43.3 gm جمعت من مركز مدينة الديوانية. ولحاجتنا أن يكون هنالك قاعدة بيانات للجهاز التنفسي لهذه الفصيلة من الطيور الواسعة الانتشار في العراق. يتوقع إنها ستزود مدار البحث المستقبلي والتطبيقات السريرية اللاحقة لعلم الأحياء في الديك الرومي. بعد تحضير الطيور استخرج ألرغامي وغسل بمحلول الملح الفسلجي , ثم ثبتت مباشرة في 10% من الفورمالين , وبعد ذلك جهز للعمليات النسجية الروتينية. أظهرت النتائج أن ألرغامي مبطن بالطهارة التنفسية ( الظهارة العمودية المطبقة الكاذبة المهدبة) مع الغدد المخاطية الأنبوبية البسيطة و الخلايا الكأسية. الصفيحة الأساسية-التحت المخاطية للرغامي مسندة بالغضروف الزجاجي ومؤلفة من النسيج الضام الرخو مع حزم كبيرة من ألألياف الغراوية.


Article
Anatomical and Morphometric Study of the Trachea in Pied Kingfisher Birds ( Ceryle rudis ).

Author: Nabeel Abd Murad Al-Mamoori
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 15-23
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The present study include eleven of the Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) birds from both sex, the weight and length of body were (98 ± 6.901gm), (32 ± 0.524 cm) respectively. The trachea characterized by a long flexible tube (6.34 ± 0.26 cm) in length and this refer to (49.403%) from the ratio length of respiratory system. It was mostly extend along the right side of the neck ventral to the esophagus and then enter the coelomic cavity. The trachea extend rostrally from the caudal end of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx into the connection between the trachea and syrinx (First tracheosyringeal cartilage ) caudally. The weight of trachea was (0.152 ± 0.018 gm) and this refer to (9.331%) from the weight of respiratory system. The cartilage rings which forming the trachea was oval in shaped and form the basic unit structure of the trachea. The total number of tracheal cartilage rings was (64.2 ± 1.2) and the diameter of the cartilage rings unequal and show a gradual decrease of its connection of the larynx into the syrinx and the mean of perimeter of the trachea connection with larynx was (43.252 ± 1.911 mm), while the connection with syrinx was (22.915 ± 1.152 mm). It can be see two skeletal muscles connected with trachea were trachiolateralis and sternotrachealis muscles.


Article
Anatomical And Morphometric Study Of The Trachea, Primary Bronchi And Lung In Laughing Dove ( Streptopelia Senegalensis(.

Authors: Nabeel Abd Murad Al-Mamoori --- Maha Abdul-Hadi Abdul-Rida Al-Abdula
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 111-119
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

In the current study use ten of the laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) birds from both sexes, the body weight was (102.811±3.599gm). The present study include the morphometric features of the trachea, primary bronchi and lungs. The trachea was appear long flexible tube consist from several number of the cartilage rings closed like (O) shape which refer to the basic unit structure of the trachea. The mean length of the trachea was (6.166±0.176 cm) and this form (66.544 %) from the total length of the respiratory system. The primary bronchi appear as short tubes consist from several number of cartilage rings has (C) shape open from the medial side, connected together by transparent membrane. The length of right and left primary bronchi was ( 5.6 ± 0.4 mm ) ( 6.6 ± 0.2 mm ) and this form (6.043 %) (7.122%) respectively from the total length of the respiratory system. The lungs was pink into light red color, triangular or pyramidal-shaped. Each lung consist from two surfaces costal and visceral surfaces and three borders were lateral, medial and posterior borders. In the costal surface can be seen the lung contain five impressions. The length of the right and left lungs were ( 1.633 ± 0.02 cm ) ( 1.533 ± 0.03 cm ) and this form low percentage from the length of the respiratory system reaches into (17.623 %) and (16.544 %) and the thickness of right and left lungs were (4 ± 0.44 mm) (4.6 ± 0.49 mm), while the weight of the right and left lungs was (0.325 ± 0.032 gm) (0.308 ± 0.018 gm) respectively.

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