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Article
THMs Reduction In Water Treatment Plant by Using Chlorine Dioxied as Disinfectant

Authors: Alaa Husaeen Al-Fatlawi --- Noor Alaa Abd Al-Hussein
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-29
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has attracted the attention of both researchers and professionals, because of the harmful effects of these substances on human health. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an alternative to chlorine because it is an oxidizing agent rather than a chlorinating agent, and therefore, will not form chlorinated disinfection byproducts such as THMs under typical water treatment conditions.The study was conducted to determine the capability of ClO2 on the formation of THMs, and coliform bacteria. A small-scale pilot plant of a compact model is designed and constructed at Environmental Engineering Department laboratory (Babylon University).It is simple to operate and made of galvanized iron and locally available materials.Raw-water source is synthesized water preparation from tap water with average characteristics (pH 8.1, Turbidity 3.04 NTU, Alkalinity 150 mg/L as CaCO3, Temperature 17.5oC). Tap water was first passed through a tank and predetermined the concentration of turbidity and total organic carbon. Turbidity and TOC adjustment of water were finally performed by addition of natural clay screened for 200 μm containing leaves and stems of plants and other organic carbon to change the amount of turbidity and TOC of water. Characterizing of synthesized water was done at the Environmental lab of Babylon University. These characteristics are turbidity 27 NTU, alkalinity 140 mg/L as CaCO3, pH 8.22, temperature 28 oC, and total organic carbon 1.4 mg/L Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs), and their compounds and varieties of water quality parameters were monitored in the pilot plant, by the addition of different doses of chlorine dioxide and alum to synthesized water pipe entering the pilot plant and monitoring THMs concentration. The synthesizedand finished water quality parameters included; Hydrogen ion concentration, Temperature, Turbidity, Total Trihalomethane concentration.(HS – GC - ECD) with Gas chromatography analysis techniques were used to measure the THMs concentrations. It was noticed that TTHMs concentration increases as temperature, and turbidity increase,and average TTHM levels detected in all runes not exceed the USEPA’s Stage I limit of 80 μg/L while it exceeded the limits in stage II for all sampling measurements.


Article
Improve Coagulation Process To Control The Disinfection By- Products In Water Treatment Plant
تحسين عملية التخثير للسيطرة على النواتج العرضية لعملية التعقيم بالكلور في محطات معالجة المياه

Author: Alaa H. Wadie Al-Fatlawi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3228-3240
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper describes a laboratory study comparing three coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferric sulfate) to determine which coagulant would not only remove NOM but DBP precursors as well. Experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of three coagulants in removing DBPs precursors from raw water samples. The results show that the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) which is mean NOM here, was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but ferric chloride, and ferric sulfate have no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum and ferric sulfate at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 30%, 37%, and 45% by ferric sulfate, alum, and ferric chloride respectively. The range of TOC removal rates obtained using ferric sulfate (18-48%), (14-50%) for alum, and (21-59%) for ferric chloride. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process.Fair removals of turbidity were observed (86%) for ferric chloride, (78%) for alum, and 65% for ferric sulfate. Mean TOC removal using alum was determined to be 61% and much more than results of water coagulation by ferric sulfate which was reported to be 53% in experiments performed for treating Euphrates river water.Among the Trihalomethanes compounds, chloroform was the common detected Trihalomethanes in the samples collected from Euphrates Riverwere generally below the guideline values, but some samples displayed levels which exceeded the level of WHO Standards for chlorinated compounds. Based on preliminary jar test experiments, ferric chloride at concentrations of 20-30 mg/L was found as an efficient coagulant for disinfection by- products and turbidity reduction.

يهدف البحث لدراسة افضل الظروف التشغيلية التي تؤدي الى اعلى كفاءة للمفاعل في تكسير وازالة المواد العضويةالسامة (صبغة المثيل البنفسجية) في المياه الملوثة. المفاعل الشمسي يتكون من لوحة مسطحة من زجاج شفافةعديمة اللون بابعاد((1000x750 x 4 mm . قاعدة المفاعل مصنعة من الالمنيوم . هذا التصميم يسمح لضوء الدخول الى طبقة السائل من اي اتجاه تقريبا ومن ثم الانعكاس من على طبقة الالمنيوم . تم دراسة تاثير المتغيرات التشغيلية المختلفة على سلوك المفاعل في ازالة الصبغة مثل تركيز المادة العضوية من 10 الى50 ملغم/لتر, تركيز العامل المساعد النانوي (TiO2) من 200 الى 800ملغم/لتر, تركيز (H2O2) من 200 الى 1000 ملغم/لتر, حامضية المحلول (pH) من 5 الى 9, تدفق جريان المحلول من 0.3 الى 2 لتر/دقيقة . وجد ان افضل الظروف التشغيلية التي تؤدي الى اعلى كفاءة للمفاعل هي عندما يكون تركيز العامل المساعد 400ملغم/لتر, تدفق جريان المحلول 0.5 لتر/دقيقة, تركيز العامل المؤكسد 400ملغم/لتر وحامضية المحلول (pH) هي 5. تم الحصول على نسبة ازالة 95.27% بعد ساعة واحدة من التشغيل ونسبة ازالة99.95% بعد ثلاث ساعات من التشغيل عند افضل الظروف التشغيلية . ثم تم تحليل المياه الناتجة باستخدام FTIR,UV- spectrophotometer. حيث ان تحليل النتائج أكدت أن المياه المنتجة من نظام مفاعل الشمسي يمكن إعادة تدويرها وإعادة استخدامها بأمان.

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