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Article
Interaction between the Existing and the New Constructed Tunnels
التداخل بين النفق الموجود والانفاق الحديثة الانشاء

Author: Nahla M. Salim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 19 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 120-135
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The effect of construction new tunnel on nearby tunnel was investigated using finite element software program SIGMA/W. Two methods of excavation were used, one using one stage in construction of tunnels and the other using eight stages of excavation. The analysis also carried out to study the effect of nearby tunnel on existing tunnel by varying the pillar width (W), using W equal to 3, 5, 7 and 12 m. The results show that, using stages in construction of tunnel has no significant effect comparing with one stage. The study indicates that there is significant effect of position of new tunnel on the existing tunnel.

تم دراسة تأثير انشاء نفق جديد على نفق موجود باستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة وباستخدام برنامج سكما SIGMA/ W) ( لقد تم استخدام طريقتين للحفر اولا الحفر بمرحلة واحدة والطريقة الاخرى با استخدام ثمانية مراحل للحفر. كما تم دراسة تأثير موقع النفق الجديد عن النفق القديم من خلال تغير (w) ( هي المسافة بين حافة النفق القديم والنفق الجديد ) حيث تم استخدام اربع قيم وهي 3, 5, 7 و12 متر . ان النتائج اظهرت عدم وجود اي تاثير من استخدام مراحل متعددة للحفر مقارنة مع مرحلة واحدة . والدراسة اعطت مؤشر بانه موقع النفق الجديد له تأثير كبير على النفق القديم.


Article
Effect of Horizontal Distance of Tunnel on the Subsidence Of the Surface Building
تأثير المسافة الافقية لموقع النفق على هبوط الأبنية السطحية

Authors: Moataz A. Al-Obaydi د. معتز عبد الجبار العبيدي --- Ali A. Hussien علي عبد الامير حسين
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Pages: 53-64
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

In urban areas, tunneling may induce ground movements which distort and damage overlying buildings and services founded on different geological formations.The objective of this study is to examine the effect of horizontal distance between the center of tunnel and the surface buildings. The study has been achieved using3D-FEM with the aid of PLAXIS 3D Tunnel code. The parametric studies including the horizontal distance between centerline of tunnel and the center of loaded area by taking five different distances that as ratios of distance to tunnel diameter(X/D= 0, 1, 3, 7 and 10). Three different geological formations have been selected that clay, sand and rock. In addition, three type of surface loadings have been adopted that greenfield, uniform pressure and piles.The results show that the surface subsidence decreasing with the increasing in the horizontal distance between the centerline of tunnel and the center of surface load. The maximum subsidence occurs when the center of tunnel sited under the edge of building (uniform pressure or piles), i.e. when (X/D=1). Then, the effect of tunnel vanished when it is at a distance of (3D) from the building. The greatest effect of the distance observed in case of pile group in sandy soil by increasing of (52%) in settlement over the unloaded one. The subsidence being uniform when the centerline of tunnel coincides with the center of building (X/D=0), while a differential subsidence has been obtained when the distance increases, i.e. X/D > 0.

حفر الانفاق في المدن وتحت المنشأت السطحية المستندة على أنواع مختلفة من الاساسات وفي تكوينات جيولوجية مختلفةيؤدي الى ظهور مشاكل مصاحبة لحفر تلك الانفاق ومنها الهبوط السطحي للأبنية والخدمات العامة. يهدف البحث الى دراسة تاثير المسافة الافقية بين مركز النفق ومركز الابنية السطحية باستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة (3D-FEM) وبأعتماد برنامج جاهز (PLAXIS 3D Tunnel). شملت الدراسة عدد من المتغيرات وفي مقدمتها تغير المسافة الافقية بين مركز النفق ومركز الابنية السطحية حيث تم اخذ خمسة مسافات افقية وهي (X/D=0, 1, 3, 7and 10) كنسبة المسافة الى قطر النفق، كما تم اختيار ثلاث تكوينات جيولوجية هي (تربة طينية و رملية وصخور) واستخدمت ثلاث حالات من التحميل على سطح الارض وهي (ارض طبيعية بدون احمال، احمال منتظمة، واحمال الركائز).اظهرت النتائج انهبزيادة المسافة الافقية بين مركز النفق ومركز المساحة تحت الدراسة يقل معها الهبوط السطحي وخصوصاً في حالة وجود احمال سطحية. إن أقصى هبوط سطحي يكون عندما يكون مركز النفق تحت حافة المنشآت (أحمال منتظمة واحمال الركائز) أي عند المسافة (X/D = 1) ويقل بعد ذلك ليتلاشى تأثيره عندما يكون مركز النفق على مسافة (3D) من مركز المنشآت، يكون اكبر تأثير في حالة الركائز بتربة رملية وبزيادة قدرها (52%) في الهبوط السطحي عن حالة بدون احمال. يكون الهبوط السطحي منتظماً عند تطابق مركز النفق مع مركز المنشآت السطحية (X/D=0)، ويظهر هبوط متباين عند زيادة المسافة الافقية عندما تكون قيمة X/D اكبر من صفر.

Keywords

Tunnel --- Settlement --- PLAXIS --- Finite Element


Article
COMPLICATIONS OF SURGERY FOR CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

Authors: Avadis A Muradian --- Kareem Jasim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 82-85
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The carpal tunnel release is usually a curative treatment for the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), but not without complications, it may ranges from wound infection to nerve laceration. Study population included 150 patients (157 wrists) who had surgery for CTS. Patients were observed for the outcome and associated problems during and after operative procedure. Thirty seven wrists (23%) developed complications, these complications were; intraoperative in 7 wrists, early postoperative (within first 2 weeks) in 10, and late postoperative (after 2 weeks) in 20.This finding indicates that failure or complications following surgical release may occur, and in some situations may relate to the dissection or operating surgeon


Article
Job related carpal tunnel syndrome

Author: Zuhair Gheni Abd Ali
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 83-86
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

This study include 60 patient had carpal tunnel syndrome signs and symptoms, treated by surgical release of the tunnel after the failure of the conservative measures from the period January 2010-October 2013 in Al Najaf city, 40 patients were female and 20 patients were male, mean age between 20-60 years, female occupation either farmer, cosmetic job mainly female hair clipper, computer worker, male occupation either farmer, industrials or driller peoples. The treatment program started by taking good history from the patients all those 60 patient included under this study feel their symptoms during performing their job or after that by some time, the symptoms appear more often in the hand used more often to perform the job.The most common symptoms include numbness, tingling, burning, weakened grip or pain that may extend from the fingers to the shoulder. Symptoms occur during performing the job or after that by some time. The second step is the clinical examination by performing the program of look, feel and move so we look for the near muscle atrophy, diminished sensation in the distribution of the median nerve, weak hand and finger grip, positive Tinels signs, phalen test and pressure provocative test. Third step is NCS all those patients perform to them nerve conduction study before their surgical release.

Keywords

Carpal tunnel --- Numbness --- Tingling --- NCS


Article
Intraoperative Steroid Irrigation in Carpal Tunnel

Author: Sabah Hassan Naji صباح حسن ناجي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 108-110
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy of the upper limb due to compression of the median nerve at the wrist. Objectives: to test the benefit of steroid irrigation of the wound to alleviate the post operative pain. Methods: Forty patients had carpal tunnel release were divided into two groups with and without steroid irrigation. Results: Forty patients 38 female and 2 male with forty CTS had open surgical release were studied for postoperative pain at the wrist area. Group 1 (patients treated with surgery alone) and group 2 (patients treated with surgery and steroid).In group1, 11 patients (55%) had persistent agonizing pain at the ulnar side of the wrist not responding to analgesic. In group2 none of the patients experienced such type of pain. Conclusion: Steroid irrigation has beneficial effect on post operative pain with no added drawbacks.


Article
DRAG COEFFICIENT REDUCTION IN CYLINDRICAL BODIES USING A DOWNSTREAM WAVY FIN
تخفيض معامل السحب للاجسام الاسطوانية باستخدام زعنفة موجية

Author: kamal Mohammed Ali كمال محمد علي
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 6 Pages: 25-32
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

An investigation was performed to show how drag force and hence drag coefficient will be reduced when using a wavy shape fin attached to the trailing edge of a cylindrical body fitted normally in air stream of an open loop blower type wind tunnel.Using wavy fin attached to cylinder body to offset any probable flow separation which may be occurred when using straight fins. Drag force measured by using momentum equation between upstream and downstream to the cylinder , this done by measuring differential pressure at a ( 10 *10 ) mesh of points chosen upstream and downstream . Work was done by testing the cylinder with no fin first then attaching straight fin and finally by attaching wavy fin in order to make result comparable.Investigation was done in sub-critical flow regime with variable air speeds which creates of (Re) from ( 4*10³ and 16*10³ ) with seven increments, and with 10 cm cylinder diameter and 10 cm straight fin width i.e. ( L/d = 1 ) and apparent ratio of 0.5 . Results are then compared with that of no fin and with straight fin .Results show that to a certain limit of (Re) there is a considerable reduction in drag coef. compared with straight and no fin cylinder then it tends to decrease and become constant beyond that limit ,and there is a high reduction at low Reynolds number

هذا البحث يظهر كيف أن قوة السحب(Fd) وبالتالي معامل السحب (Cd) ستنخفض باستخدام زعنفة على شكل موجة مثبتة عند الطرف الخلفي لجسم أسطواني مثبت بشكل عمودي على مجرى الهواء في مجرى هوائي من النوع المفتوح النافخ للهواء . تستخدم هذه الزعنفة المثبتة على جسم الأسطوانة لغرض التخلص من أي انفصال في الجريان يمكن احتماله والذي لوحظ وجوده عند استخدام زعنفة مسطحة. في هذا البحث تم قياس قوة السحب باستخدام معادلة الزخم بين طرفي الأسطوانة وهذا يتأتى عن طريق قياس فرق الضغط في (10*10) نقطة موزعة أمام وخلف الأسطوانة. هذا العمل نفذ باستخدام أسطوانة بدون زعنفة أولا ثم باستخدام نفس الأسطوانة ولكن باستخدام زعنفة مستقيمة وأخير باستخدام نفس الأسطوانة ولكن مع زعنفة على شكل موجة جيبية حتى يمكن مقارنة النتائج بشكل أدق.هذا البحث أجري عند منطقة (الجريان تحت الحرج) مع تغير في سرعة الهواء والتي تنتج رقم رينولد 0.4*10≤ Re ≤1.6*10)) مع 7 زيادات. الزعنفة المستقيمة طولها 10سم وزعنفة موجية طولها 10سم أيضا وقطر أسطوانة 10سم أي أن(L ∕ D=1)ومعامل الظهور يساوي 0,5 .النتائج بعد ذلك قورنت مع تلك الأسطوانة الخالية من الزعانف وكذلك مع تلك التي تحتوي على زعنفة مسطحة. وجد أنه إلى حد معين من رقم رينولد هناك تغير واضح وملحوظ في معامل السحب مقارنة مع الأسطوانتين الأولى والثانية بعد ذلك التناقص يصبح ثابتا وأن هناك تخفيض كبير في معامل السحب عند رقم رينولد الواطئ .


Article
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A cross - Sectional Study in 928 Patients in Iraq
متلازمه النفق الرسغي : دراسه مقطعيه ل 928 حاله مرضيه في العراق

Author: Hikmet kadum Abbas حكمت كاظم عباس
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-26
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the median nerve and results in pain, tingling and numbness in the wrist and hand. It is a common condition in general practice. Objectives: This study was done to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of CTS. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on Carpal tunnel syndrome [CTS] cases diagnosed over a 14 years period, from May 1998 to May 2012 by the researcher. All data regarding the age at presentation, gender, pregnancy, hypertension, DM, salty food, response to conservative treatment, response to surgical treatment, a total number of 928 cases were included in this study. Results; Among the 928 CTS patients; there were (0.107%) below 15 years,( 25.64%) from 15-30 years, (50.75%) from 31-45 years, (20.68%) from 46-60 years, and (2.80%) above 60.According to gender distribution, there were (0.969%) male,( 99.03%) female. In this study there were (13.27%) pregnant,( 86.72%) not pregnant, (5.92%) hypertensive,( 94.07%) not hypertensive, (8.40 %) diabetic,( 91.59%) not diabetic, (44.40%) eating salty food, (55.60%) not eating salty food .According to response to treatment, (58.72%) respond to conservative treatment,( 41.27%) not respond to conservative treatment, (94.51%) good response to surgical treatment,( 5.48%) not respond to surgical treatment.Conclusions: This study showed1. The predominant age of patients [females] 31-45 years.2. The ratio of female /male is far higher than in other places of the world.3. The prevalence of pregnant women with CTS is less than other studies.4. There is some statistical significant association between CTS and consuming salty food.5. Surgical treatment is highly successful.Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve, Entrapment neuropathy.

الخلفيه: متلازمه النفق الرسغي مصطلح يطلق على حاله تصيب العصب الاوسط اثناء دخوله الرسغ مما يؤدي الى ظهور الم وتنمل وخدر في اليد وهي حاله شائعه.الاهداف: دراسه وبائيه المتلازمه عند المرضى في العراق.طريقه البحث: دراسه مقطعيه على حالات جمعت خلال 14 سنه بلغ عددها928حاله وتم دراسه المتغيرات التاليه: العمر و الجنس, الحمل, ارتفاع ضغط الدم, ملح الطعام, الاستجابه للعلاج التحفظي , الاستجابه للعلاج الجراحي.النتائج:من بين 928 حاله درست تبين ان 50,75% بعمر 31-45سنه بينما 20,68% من 46-60 سنه ونادر الحدوث في الاعمار اقل من 15 واكثر من 60, نسبه اصابه النساء الى الرجال 99الى 1.عدد المصابات اثناء الحمل 13,27% ,المصابات مع ارتفاع الضغط 6%,داء السكر 9% , 44,40 %يتناولون نسبه عاليه من ملح الطعام ,58,72 %استجابو للعلاج التحفظي ,94,5 %استجابو بصوره جيده للعلاج الجراحي.الاستنتاجات:1- نسبه الاصابه عند النساء اعلى بكثير من الرجال مقارنه بالبحوث الاخرى. 2-اعلى نسبة اصابة عند النساء في الثلاثينات حتى منتصف الاربعينات . 3 -.نسبة الاصابة عند الحوامل اقل مما موجود في البحوث الاخرى.4-هنالك علاقة احصائية مؤكدة عن زيادة الاصابات وتناول ملح الطعام بكثرة. 5- العلاج الجراحي له نسبة نجاح عالي .


Article
Assessment of therapeutic efficacy of topical application of steroid in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS

Author: Kamal A. M. Al- Yasiry
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2012 Volume: 5 no 1 Issue: 11 Pages: 1219-1223
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Abstract Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy with high incidence rates of the upper limb, occurring due to compression of the median nerve at the wrist (1). Aim: is to determine the therapeutic effect of topical steroid application as an alternative therapy for surgical and local injection of steroids.Method: 30 female patients ranging were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups; 10 of them were selected as control group and 20 of them were selected to test our therapy (topical Clobetasol ointment). EMG and NCS were done before and after the therapy to determine the success of the proposed drug.Results: There was a significant result both clinically and by EMG and NCS finding after 30 days of treatment in which about 80% of patient were approximately free of pain after treatment as a clinical assessment with a significant EMG and NCS finding at P <0.05. Conclusion: topical skin application over carpal tunnel is of a great value as an alternative conservative treatment for CTS.


Article
Electrophysiological response to local steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome
الإستجابة الكهروفسيولوجية للزرق الموضعي بالسترويد في متلازمة النفق الرسغي

Authors: Muna M. Ahmad منى منير أحمد --- Mahmood A. Aljumaily محمود عبد الجميلي --- Mohammed I. S. Sabaawi محمد عيسى سليمان السبعاوي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2013 Volume: 39 Issue: 2 Pages: 118-122
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy. Local steroid injections are used for its treatment, which is usually associated with improvement in different electrophysiologic parameters of the median nerve. However, evidence for its efficacy has not been established in our community.Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in electrophysiological parameters after local steroid injection for mild and moderate idiopathic CTS.Material and methods: The study is a prospective clinical trial assessing the electrophysiological parameters following local steroid injection (Depomedrol-80 mg methylprednisolone acetate) in the treatment of mild and moderate idiopathic CTS. The study was carried out in Mosul Teaching Hospitals during a period from December 2010 to December 2011. The total number of patients was 54 (46 females and 8 males), their mean age was 36.13 ± 9.32 years. Patients with idiopathic CTS were included after clinical confirmation of diagnosis electro-physiologically at preinjection, and electro physiological evaluation repeated 1 and 6 months after local steroid injection.Results: All electrophysiological parameters showed significant improvement (P value is < 0.05) one month after injection except sensory nerve action potential. All median nerve electrophysiological parameters in 6 months post injection showed no significant changes except, compound motor action potential, motor nerve conduction velocity, and sensory nerve action potential which showed significant deterioration (P value is < 0.05). All electrophysiological parameters showed significant deterioration (P value is < 0.05) in comparing results of one month and 6 months after injection.Conclusion: Local steroid injection for CTS provides transient improvement in electrophysiological parameters while causes deterioration in these parameters 6 months after injection. Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, steroid injection electrophysiology.

الخلاصةالخلفية: متلازمة النفق الرسغي حالة شائعة والزرق الموضعي بالستيرويد يستخدم في علاجها وعادة ما يرتبط بتحسن في المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجيوية للعصب الوسطي ومع هذا فان دلائل فعاليته لم تثبت في مجتمعنا.الأهداف: تهدف الدراسة لتقييم التغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية بعد الزرق الموضعي للستيرويدات في متلازمة النفق الرسغي الخفيفة والمتوسطة.المواد وطريقة العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة السريرية لتقييم المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية بعد زرق 80 ملغم من المثيل بردنزولون استيت في معالجة متلازمة النفق الرسغي الخفيفة والمتوسطة غير المعالجين سابقا. أجريت الدراسة في مستشفيات الموصل التعليمية من كانون الأول 2010 إلى كانون الأول 2011. كان العدد الكلي للمرضى 54 منهم 46 أنثى وكان معدل أعمارهم 36 سنة. شمل بالدراسة مرضى متلازمة النفق الرسغي الخفيفة والمتوسطة بعد تأكيد التشخيص كهروفسيولوجيا للأعصاب وتمت إعادة الفحص كهروفسيولوجيا للعصب الوسطي والزندي بعد شهر و 6 أشهر من زرق الستيرويد الموضعي. النتائج: كل المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية أظهرت فرقا معنويا بعد شهر من الزرق الموضعي للستيرويدات عدا الفعل الجهدي الحسي العصبي. وبعد ستة أشهر تبين وجود تدهور في بعض المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية عند المقارنة مع ما قبل الزرق الموضعي للستيرويدات. عند المقارنة بين النتائج بعد شهر من الزرق الموضعي للستيرويد وبعد 6 أشهر من الزرق الموضعي للستيرويد المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية أظهرت فرقا معنويا بشكل تدهور في كل المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية. الخلاصة: الزرق الموضعي للستيرويدات في متلازمة النفق الرسغي يؤدي إلى تحسن مؤقت في المتغيرات الكهروفسيولوجية بينما يسبب تدهور في أكثر هذه المتغيرات بعد 6 أشهر من الزرق.


Article
Nerve conductive study in women with carpel tunnel syndrome in Tikrit city

Author: Umer T. Ismael
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 172-178
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common upper limb compression neuropathies. CTS account for approximately 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. An estimated one million adults from the United States (annually) have CTS requiring medical treatment. The aim of the study is to investigate to compare the normal values of median nerve of normal healthy women (distal latency, amplitude & conduction velocity) with the same values of median nerve in women with carpel tunnel syndrome. The study was conducted as a case series study for Iraqi volunteers and patients attended to rheumatology department - neurophysiology unit at Tikrit teaching hospital (TTH) at the period from the 1st of December 2010 to the 1st of August 2011. Forty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (40.315 ± 10.324 years) to compare with the CTS female patients. Thirty eight female patients with mean age group of (40.55 ± 10.230 years) with CTS affect them in right hand diagnosed by rheumatologist and neurologist then referred to nerve conductive study (NCS) and EMG unit at TTH. The NCS was done by using NIHON KOHDEN / Neuropack S1 EMG / EP Measuring System MEB-9400 MODEL 2009. There are no significance differences between control subjects & CTS patients regarding age, body mass index. Also, there are no significance difference between normal control subjects & CTS patients in regard to upper limb length, arm circumference, index finger length (IFL), index finger circumference and wrist circumference. In regard to motor activity of median nerve, there is significance increase in distal latency time of median nerve of CTS patients (5.632 ± 1.791 msec) on compare to normal control subjects (3.540 ± 0.622 msec). Also, the amplitude of action potential of motor activity of median nerve is higher in control subjects (9.217 ± 0.509 mv) in compare to CTS patients motor activity of amplitude of (6.530 ± 1.937 mv). The difference between median nerve motor amplitude is significance at ( p<0.01) between patients and controls. Moreover the conduction velocity in CTS patients of median motor (58.354 ± 1.789 m/sec) is significance lower (p<0.01) in compare to motor conduction values of median nerve in normal control subjects (53.744 ± 4.232 m/sec). However, in regard to sensory activity of median nerve in right hand of both normal control subjects and CTS patients. The latency period in CTS patients is delayed (3.414 ± 1.606 msec) in compare to normal subjects (2.761 ± 0.344 msec). While, the amplitude of action potential of the sensory activity of median nerve is significantly lower (p< 0.01) in compare to normal subjects. Also, the conduction velocity of sensory activity of median nerve of CTS patients is significantly lower (38.357 ± 4.357 m/sec) on compare to conduction velocity of sensory activity of median nerve of normal subjects (48.236 ± 2.545 m/sec). The present study concludes that: The present study showed abnormal values NCS of median nerve at CTS patients as compare to normal healthy women of same age. The present study recommend that;- Using median nerve ultrasonography as diagnostic tools to confirm or exclude CTS & minimize false positive results.

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