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Article
Association Between Testicular Microlithiasis and Infertility

Author: Waleed Nassar Jaffal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 280-283
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is an uncommon condition, usually brought to attention when some other condition is being investigated. There have been reports suggesting a link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular dysfunction and tumors.OBJECTIVE:To study the association between testicular microlithiasis and male infertility.MATERIALS AND METHODS:From January 2010 to January 2011, 140 patients with different scrotal lesions presented to urologic consultation department at Al-Ramadi teaching hospital were included in this prospective study, all patients were examined by gray scale and doppler ultrasonograghy, their age ranges from 15 to 55 years. All cases of microlithiasis were recorded and complete information obtained from each patient. Seminal fluid analysis (SFA) was done for each patient with microlithiasis.RESULTS:The age of patients ranges from 15 to 55 years (mean 34.6). Of 140 patients, 6 patients had microlithiasis (4.28%). Of 6 patients with microlithiasis, 5 patients were married and infertile and one of them had varicocele and one patient had testicular atrophy. One patient was unmarried but has varicocele and abnormal seminal fluid analysis.CONCLUSION:There is strong association between testicular microlithiasis and infertility. Hypospermatogenesis in patients with TM may relate to both the degree of testicular dysgenesis and the presence or absence of concomitant scrotal pathology (eg, scrotal varicocele and testicular atrophy


Article
The Role of Ultrasonography in Infantile Hypertrophied Pyloric Stenosis

Author: Mohammed S. Al-Alawee
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the different parameters used in the diagnosis of infantile hypertrophied pyloric stenosis (pyloric canal length, muscle thickness and pyloric canal diameter).METHODS:The study group consisted of 29 patients presented with projectile vomiting, 28 patients were diagnosed as pyloric stenosis and only one patient with pylorospasm using linear probe 7.5-10 MHz.RESULTS:The male infants were 23 (82%) and, the female infants were 5 (18%) with male to female ratio of 4.5:1. The age ranged between 18 days and 90 days with a mean of 34.2 days. The age at presentation mostly was between 20-39 days (67.8%). Family history was positive in 5 patients (17.8%). In 16 patients (57.1%) the parents were relative while in 12 (42.8%) patients the parents were not relative. The length of the canal ranged from 15mm to 26mm with a mean of 19.13mm. The muscle thickness ranged from 3-8 mm with a mean of 5.8mm. The diameter of the canal ranged from 11mm to 17mm with a mean of 13.8mm. Only one patient (3.6%) had associated congenital abnormality which was ectopic kidney. And only one patient had pylorospasm.CONCLUSION:The length of the pyloric canal was the most reliable measurement in the diagnosis of infantile hypertrophied pyloric stenosis.


Article
Ultrasound versus Plain Radiography in the Detection of Pneumoperitoneum
الأمواج فوق الصوتية مقابــل الأشعة البسيطة في اكتشاف استرواح البطن الهوائي

Author: Ibtesam K.S. Al-Shadydy د.ابتسام الشديدي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-68
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Objective: To compare plain radiography with ultrasonography in the detection of pneumoperitoneum.Methods: A total of 72 patients with suspected hollow viscus perforation were studied. All patients had ultrasonography, upright chest radiography and left lateral decubitus abdominal radiography examination. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy of upright chest and abdominal radiography were compared with that of abdominal ultrasonography.Results: Sixty eight patients underwent laparotomy; 66 patients had hollow viscus perforations, (if we include four patients had perforated appendicitis) and two had acute cholecystitis. In the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum, ultrasonography had improved sensitivity (90 versus 75 percent), negative predictive value (36 versus 18 percent), and accuracy (88 versus 74 percent), and similar specificity (both 50 percent), and positive predictive value (95 versus 93 percent) compared with plain radiography.Conclusion: Ultrasonography is more sensitive than plain radiography in the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum.Key words: Ultrasonography, Radiography, Pneumoperitoneum.

الملخص:الهدف : لمقارنة الأشعة البسيطة مع الأمواج فوق الصوتية (السونار) في اكتشاف استرواح البطن الهوائي.الطرق: أثنان وسبعون مريضاً محتمل اصابتهم بأضرار في الأمعاء تم دراستهم. جميع المرضى اجريت لهم الأمواج فوق الصوتية للبطن وإشعة الصدر في وضع الوقوف وأشعة البطن الجانبية في وضع النوم. نسبة الحساسية والتخصص، نسبة التنبؤ الإيجابي والسلبي ونسبة الدقة في أشعة البطن قورنت بنتائج الأمواج فوق الصوتية للبطن. النتائج: ثمان وستون مريضاً تم إجراء التداخل الجراحي عليهم، اثنان وستون كانت النتائج بسبب أضرار في الأمعاء ، أربعة مرضى بسبب انثقاب الزائدة الدودية واثنان بسبب التهاب المرارة الحاد. في حالة تشخيص استرواح البطن الهوائي، الأمواج فوق الصوتية لها درجة أفضل من ناحية الحساسية [ (90) إلى (75) بالمائة] التنبؤ السلبي [ (36) إلى (18) بالمائة] نفس درجة التخصص [ (50) بالمائة] والتنبؤ الإيجابي [ (95) إلى (93) بالمائة] مقارنة بالأشعة البسيطة للبطن.الاستنتاج: الأشعة فوق الصوتية للبطن أكثر حساسية من الأشعة البسيطة في تشخيص استرواح البطن الهوائي.


Article
The Role of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: A Prospective Study

Authors: Mumtaz Khudhur Hanna --- Zuhair Bashir Kamal --- Laith Naif Hindosh --- Wisam Abdullteef Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 226-229
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis of acute appendicitis is a common and crucial problem in general surgery, as the mortality and morbidity increase from 3 – 15 folds if appendix is perforated. Graded compression ultrasonography is one of the new diagnostic techniques that were introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy and consequently the clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the current study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis.METHODS: One hundred-eighty patients admitted to the general surgical ward at Al Kindy Teaching Hospital from 1 June 2009 to 28 Feb. 2010. All patients were complaining of right iliac fossa pain and tenderness with a suspicion of acute appendicitis, a clinical assessment done for them by using modified Alvarado score (only patients with Alvarado score 5 and below were included). All patients were investigated by WBC count and general urine analysis. When the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was clinically equivocal, an abdominal ultrasound performed within 4 hours of admission. A dilated, Non- compressible appendix greater than 6 mm diameter, and edema and asymmetry of the appendicular wall were considered positive for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix on histopathological examination with positive ultrasonographic findings was considered false positive result. RESULTS: The findings according to histopathological examination shows that 160 cases were true positive cases,14 cases were found to be true negative , 1 cases was false positive and 5 cases were false negative cases.:Ultrasonography yielded a sensitivity rate of 96% and specificity rate of 93%.CONCLUSION:Ultrasound by graded compression technique provides highly accurate, sensitive and specific test for clinically equivocal acute appendicitis. .


Article
ULTRASONOGRAPHIY OF THE EYE IN SHEEP
التشريح الفوق الصوتي للعين في الأغنام

Author: Sameer Ahmed Abid Al-Redah Eman E. D. Al-Hacham Hassaneen Ali Al-Sharoot
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 321-328
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The intent of this study were to explain the normal anatomy of Iraqi sheep eye by using the ultrasonography. Ocular ultrasonographic inspection were achieved on 15 young sheep (8-12 months) from local breed. ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 7.5 MHz linear probe in the sagittal plane. The results of this study showed that the Axial Globe Length (AGL) was (20.05 mm), Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD) was (1.85 mm), Vitreous Chamber Depth (VCD) was (9.82 mm), Scleroretinal Rim Thickness (SRT) was (1.07 mm), Lens Thickness (LT) was (8.95 mm) and Corneal Thickness (CT) was (1.14 mm) respectively. The values of the dimensions of the normal eye components which obtained from this study by using ultrasonography give excellent guide to practitioners in the evaluation of ocular diseases in sheep.

Keywords

Ultrasonography --- Sheep --- Eye .


Article
Early Post-Operative Ultrasonographic Appearance of Implanted Mesh for Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair

Author: Falah D Salih
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 2674-2679
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Mesh herniorrhaphy (open method or through laparoscopic approach) is a common surgical procedure. Identification of the mesh is necessary when abdominal ultrasound is performed. Scanty studies had been involved in the Ultrasonographic appearance of mesh in the early post-operative period. Aim: to assess the ultrasonographic appearance of polypropylene meshes used for anterior abdominal wall hernia repair.Patients and methods: Sixty five patients with different types of anterior abdominal wall hernias (epigastric, umbilical, inguinal and incisional) treated with mesh herniorrhaphy, were examined with ultrasound in the early post-operative period. Ultrasonographic appearance of the mesh including visibility of the mesh, regularity, twinkling and posterior acoustic shadowing were assessed.Results: Sixty five patients were examined and most of them were males. All meshes were visible. Most meshes were wavy and showed posterior acoustic shadowing. Twinkling was rare. Conclusion: Ultrasound is very useful in identification of the meshes implanted for hernia repair within the early post-operative period and can identify all implanted meshes.

Keywords

ultrasonography --- hernia --- mesh


Article
Chronic testicular pain a clinico-pathological study

Author: Abdul Salaam Al-Masri عبد السلام المصري
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 41-45
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the clinico-pathological spectrum and treatment of chronic testicular pain patients.
Methods: A prospective and descriptive case series study, conducted at the out-patient clinic of the department of urology at Al Jumhoury teaching hospital in Mosul, between Jan2000 and Dec 2005. The parameters analyzed include; character of the pain, onset, and duration, patient’s age, occupation, past surgical and medical history, the clinical examination, the investigations and treatment.
Results: Forty five patients were studied, their age ranged from (16 – 68) years, twenty (44%) patients were under the age of 30 years, ten (22%) patients were between (31 - 45) years, and fifteen (34%) patients were above (46) years of age.
The presenting symptom was chronic scrotal pain for more than three months, which is differing in its onset, duration and description. The pain was mainly at the left side, eight (18%) patients had positive clinical findings, 17(38%) patients had positive ultrasonographic pathological findings.
The treatment ranged from psychological (reassurance), physical (antibiotic with chronic analgesia) to surgical intervention for those with positive lesion proved by physical examination and investigations.
Conclusion: Chronic testicular pain patients remain as dilemma to the general practitioners and frustrating clinical problem for urologists.

Key words: Chronic testicular pain, ultrasonography, Varicocele.


Article
The Value of Routine Scrotal Color Doppler Ultrasonography in the infertile male

Authors: Hayder M. AL-Aridy --- Hayder Q . AL-Mosawi --- Hayder Abd Aun
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 14 Pages: 111-122
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Clinical assessment of scrotal contents in patients with infertility has relied mainly on physical examination.Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) is generally not performed as a routine examination. However, physical examination might miss many abnormalities readily detected by US, including testicular tumor and testicular microlithiasis (TM). We assessed the value of scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography as a routine examination in infertile men compared with findings by physical examination.Scrotal Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed in 314 infertile men with a mean age of (25±5.4) years to detect intrascrotal abnormalities. Findings were compared with those of physical examination.Intrascrotal abnormalities were detected by ultrasonography in 86.6% of patients. Of 374 abnormalities, 31% were undetected by physical examination. Left varicocele was found in 234 patients (74%); testicular microlithiasis in 10 (3.1%);epididymal cyst in 23 (7.3%); right varicocele in 7(2.2%); and testicular cysts in 2 (0.6%). One occurrence (0.3%) was found for testicular tumor, hypoechoic small testicles in 11(3.2%), and hydrocele in 45(14.3%).Compared to ultrasonography, sensitivity in detecting left varicocele by physical examination was 77%. Sensitivity of physical examination in detecting left varicocele compared with to US was decreased as grade of left varicocele decreased.The routine Color Doppler ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing scrotal abnormalities in infertile men,frequently detecting non-palpable lesions that were missed by physical examination.

التقييم السريري لمحتويات كيس الصفن لدى مرضى العقم غالبا ما تعتمد على الفحص السريري حيث ان فحص الدوبلر الملون بالموجات فوق الصوتية لا يجرى بشكل روتيني لهم مما قد يؤدي الى عدم تشخيص الكثير من الحالات المرضية و التي تكون سببا مباشرا للعقم الذي يعانون منه. في بحثنا هذا قمنا بتقييم دور الفحص بالموجات فوق الصوتية لكيس الصفن و محتوياته كفحص روتيني لجميع المرضى الذين يعانون من العقم مقارنين النتائج بتلك التي نحصل عليها بواسطة الفحص السريري التقليدي. لقد شمل البحث 314 شخصا مصابا بالعقم حيث تم كشف حوالي 374 مشكلة مرضية لديهم بواسطة فحص الموجات فوق الصوتية في حين ان 31% من هذة المشاكل لم يتم كشفها بواسطة الفحص السريري و التي هي غالبا ما تكون دوالي الخصية من الدرجة البسيطة ,قيلة مائية,اكياس البربخ ,اورام الخصية الصغيرة اضافة الى ان الفحص السريري لا يمكنه التنبؤ بطبيعة نسيج الخصية. الفحص الروتيني بواسطة الامواج فوق الصوتية لكيس الخصية لدى مرضى العقم هو ذو قيمة عالية في تحديد الكثير من الامراض التي لا يمكن للفحص السريري الكشف عنها.


Article
The value of ultrasound in diagnosing acute appendicitis
قيمة الموجات فوق الصوتية في تشخيص التهاب الزائدة الدودية الحاد

Author: Baha'a Mushref Abdulsalam بهاء مشرف
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2013 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 353-358
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Objectives: Acute appendicitis considered one of the causes of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is usually straight forward in typical cases, but this is not true in atypical cases. This study is to assess the value of ultrasound modality in diagnosing acute appendicitis. Methods: From January 2009 to January 2012 in Al-Ramadi teaching hospital, 196 patients were included in this study, 10 patients were excluded, and 186 examined by ultrasound, after adequate clinical assessment, for their signs and symptoms that suggestive of acute appendicitis. Age groups were 6-75 years, Mean age 33.5 years, with 105(54%) males, and 91(46%) females. Results: 186 patients could be explained, and examined by ultrasound, with mean age of 33.5 years, the diagnosis had established in 34 patients. The false positive was three cases, and false negative was six cases, this means that the ultrasound had failed in these nine cases. The sensitivity is 81.8%, the specificity is 98%. 90% and 96.2% are the positive and negative predictive values respectively. The diagnostic accuracy is 95.5%. The P-value is الأهداف : التهاب الزائدة الدودية الحاد يعتبر واحدا من أسباب البطن الحادة . التشخيص عادة ما يكون على التوالي إلى الأمام في الحالات النموذجية ، ولكن هذا ليس صحيحا في حالات شاذة . هذه الدراسة هو تقييم قيمة طريقة الموجات فوق الصوتية في تشخيص التهاب الزائدة الدودية الحاد . الأساليب: خلال الفترة من يناير 2009 إلى يناير 2012 في مدينة الرمادي تعليم المستشفى ، أدرجت 196 مريضا في هذه الدراسة ، تم استبعاد 10 مريضا ، و 186 فحص بواسطة الموجات فوق الصوتية ، وبعد التقييم السريري الكافي، بحثا عن علامات و الأعراض التي توحي التهاب الزائدة الدودية الحاد . وكانت الفئات العمرية 6-75 سنة، متوسط ​​العمر 33.5 سنة، مع 105 ( 54 ٪ ) من الذكور ، و 91 ( 46 ٪ ) إناث.النتائج : يمكن تفسير 186 مريضا ، و فحص بواسطة الموجات فوق الصوتية ، مع متوسط ​​عمر 33.5 سنة، وكان التشخيص أنشئت في 34 مريضا . كانت إيجابية كاذبة ثلاث حالات ، و كانت سلبية كاذبة ست حالات ، وهذا يعني أن الموجات فوق الصوتية قد فشلت في هذه الحالات التسع. وحساسية هو 81.8 ٪، و خصوصية 98 ٪ . 90 ٪ و 96.2 ٪ هي القيم التنبؤية الإيجابية والسلبية على التوالي. دقة التشخيص هو 95.5 ٪ . و القيمة P هو < o.o1 .الاستنتاج : إن الموجات فوق الصوتية هو أداة قيمة التحقيق المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب الزائدة الدودية الحاد يشتبه ، جنبا إلى جنب مع مع الفحص البدني السليم .


Article
The Value of Ultrasound in Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis

Author: Baha'a Mushref Abdulsalam
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 185-191
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Acute appendicitis considered one of the causes of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is usually straight forward in typical cases, but this is not true in atypical cases. This study is to assess the value of ultrasound modality in diagnosing acute appendicitis. From January 2009 to January 2012 in Al-Ramadi teaching hospital, 196 patients were included in this study, 10 patients were excluded, and 186 examined by ultrasound, after adequate clinical assessment, for their signs and symptoms that suggestive of acute appendicitis. Age groups were 6-75 years, Mean age 33.5 years, with 105(54%) males, and 91(46%) females. 186 patients could be explained, and examined by ultrasound, with mean age of 33.5 years, the diagnosis had established in 34 patients. The false positive was three cases, and false negative was six cases, this means that the ultrasound had failed in these nine cases. The sensitivity is 81.8%, the specificity is 98%. 90% and 96.2% are the positive and negative predictive values respectively. The diagnostic accuracy is 95.5%. The P-value is

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