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Article
Urine Cytology in Patients withLong Standing Dialysis

Authors: Liqaa R Mousa --- Mutaz A.Al-Qazzaz --- Yarub I Kattab
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dialysis is in common use to treat patients with end stage renal failure .However longstanding dialysis harboring some cellular changes in various body fluids. This study was conducted in order to detect these changes in urine.
Objective: The study was conducted to detect cellular changes in urine of patients with longstanding dialysis.
Method: Fifty-three urine samples were examined cytologically obtained from patients with longstanding dialysis during 6 months period. Freshly voided midstream urine samples were taken . Samples were centrifuged and 2 to 3 drops of sediments were smeared on 2 glass slides and fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol then stained with Hand E stain to be evaluated.
Results: Gross physical examination of all urine samples were neither purulent nor hemorrhagic .Microscopically there was increased exfoliation of urothelial cells except in 9 cases. No significant cytological atypia were seen in all urine samples. Excessive exfoliation in the absence of significant inflammation, hemorrhage and cytological atypia compared with control group.
Conclusion: The study revealed that some cytological changes do occur in the urothelial cells of patients with longstanding dialysis. These changes need further attention and study to disclose their causes.
Key words: Urine cytology, dialysis.

Keywords

Urine cytology --- dialysis


Article
An appraisal of urine cytology in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

Author: Tariq Mohamed Zeki * Msc (path) د. طارق محمد زكي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 2 Pages: 261-264
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Summary:Background: Urine cytology has an acceptable sensitivity, & specificity that justifies its use in the current diagnostic protocol.In Iraq transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) constitute about 62.1 % of bladder cancer (which ranks the third according to the results of Iraqi Cancer Registry 1995-1997). Urine cytology used in the primarydiagnosis, follow up, and in the screening programs of asymptomatic but high-risk patients.Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 93 patients, diagnosed or clinically suspected to have TCC of the urinary bladder attending to the Urological department in AL- Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, and Baghdad Medical City. During the period from July 2004to July 2005. 76 were males & 17 were females.Urine cytological examination was done to those patients using two types of stain (hematoxylin and eosin, and papanicoloau stain) to detect malignant cells with the identification of the degree of differentiation, if possible, the cytological findings were correlated with the histopathological findings. And the cytological findings compared regarding each type of stain.Results:. Mean age of the patients was 59 year. Male:female ratio was 4.4:1. Main clinical presentation was hematuria (45.8%) of the total.Urine cytological examination has a sensitivity of 87.7%, specificity of 100% with an overall accuracy of 78% in the detection of TCC of urinary bladder. The main chief complaint of patients with TCC was haematuriawitch constitute 45.8% of the total. The percentage of high¬grade cases in urine cytology was higher than that in histopathology.the percentage of cases of TCC diagnosed by papanicoloau stain was more than that diagnosed by H & E (73.24% by pap stain versus 70.42% by H&E).Conclusion: Urine cytology has an acceptable sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy in the diagnosis of TCC of urinary bladder, and it offers a good chance for determination of the grade of the tumor especially in high grade tumor. Pap stain was better in the diagnosis of TCC.Keywords: Urine cytology, bladder cancer,


Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRENT ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF UROPATHOGENS: EVALUATION OF EMPIRICAL TREATMENT
الخلاصة دراسة مقارنة لنمط المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية في جراثيم المجاري البولية : تقييم استخدام العلاج الاولي

Authors: AHMED M. SALIH احمد محمد صالح --- NADIA A. AL-DERZI نادية الدرزي
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2009 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-91
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background Urinary tract infection is a common disease in the community. There is a huge problem in management of these cases in general practice, which mainly attributed to misdiagnosis and misuse of empirical therapy. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of uropathogens in Northern Iraq together with their in vitro susceptibility profiles to antimicrobial agents Methods The study included urine samples submitted for culture and antibiotic susceptibility examination for inpatient and outpatient cases. Mosul samples were from inpatient admitted to Al-Salam teaching hospital for a one year period of 2005. Duhok samples were from outpatients sent to the Laboratory of one of the two main private hospital in the city for a one year period of 2006. All samples were tested microbiologically by standard procedures and cultured quantitatively. Colony count was estimated after overnight incubation at 35°C. Results A total of 1692 and 842 samples were sent for urine culture for inpatient and out patient cases of which 31% and 60.6% of them showed a significant bacteruria respectively. Escherichia coli was the commonest bacteria isolated represented above 40% of total isolates in both groups. The other main bacterial isolates from inpatients were Klebsiella spp. 18.9%, Staphylococcus. aureus 8.6%, Psendomonas aeruginosa 7.0% and Proteus spp 6.5%, while in out patients were; according to frequency, Proteus spp. 30.7%, Enterococcus. fecalis 7.8% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus 7.4%. The study showed a high emerging resistance for most commonly used antibiotics in general practice; with overall increase in antibiotic resistance profile mainly among inpatients. Empirical treatment was chosen as a general guideline for treating urinary tract infections in the North of Iraq. Conclusions The data provide much needed information on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance amongst pathogens currently causing UTI in hospitals and community in the North of Iraq

الخلفية: يعتبر خمج الجهاز البولي من الامراض الشائعة في المجتمع. هنالك مشكلة كبيرة في علاج هذه الحالات في الممارسة الطبية العامة والتي تعزى اساسا الى عدم دقة التشخيص وسوء استخدام العلاج الاولي للحالات المسببه للاتهابالهدف : هدفت الدراسة الى قياس نسبة انتشار الجراثيم المجاري البولية في شمال العراق مع قياس نسية مقاومتها للمضادات الحيوية المستخدمة.طريقة البحث: شملت الدراسة نماذج الادرار المرسلة لغرض الزرع وقياس الحساسية الدوائية للمرضى الراقدين في مستشفى السلام في مدينة الموصل خلال سنة 2005 والمرضى المراجعين للعيادة الخارجية في واحدة من المستشفيين الخاصين في مدينة دهوك لعام 2006. تم فحص جميع النماذج باستخدام الطرق القياسيه للزرع و التشخيص و لحساسية الدوائية. تم قياس عدد المستعمرات بعد الحضن بدرجة 35 درجة مئوية. النتائج: تم ارسال 1692 و 842 نموذج ادرار لغرض الزرع من المرضى الداخلين في المستشفى ومرضى العيادة الخارجية وقد اظهرت النتائج ان 31% و 60.6% منهم نمو قياسي لخمج المجاري البويلة علي التوالي. شكلت نسبة جرثومة ال E.coli اكثر من 40% من العزلات في كلا المجموعتين. كانت اهم العزلات الراقدين في المستشفى هي: Klebsiella spp 18.6%، Staph. Aureus 8.6%، Pseudomonas spp. 7.0%، Proteus 6.5%. بينما كانت عزلات مرضى العيادة الخارجية: 30.7% Proteus spp.،7.8% Enterococcus spp.،Staph. Saprophticus 7.4%. اظهرت الدراسة ظهور نسية مقاومة عالية للمضادات المستخدمة بصورة واسعة في الممارسة الطبية العامة مع زيادة كبيرة خاصة للمرضى الراقدين في المستشفى. تم اقترح العلاج الذي يحبذ استخدامه كخط اول لعلاج خمج المجاري البولية للمارسة العامة في شمال العراق.الاستنتاجات: اظهرت الدراسة معلومات مهمة حول الانتشار الفقطي للمقاومة الدوائية لجراثيم المسببة للخمج البولي في المجتمع شمال العراق.


Article
Prevalence of Alkaptonuria among group of patients with low back pain in Erbil

Author: Khalid A.O. AL-Dabbagh
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 78-89
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Article
Possibilities of urolithiasis crystallodiagnostics
احتمالية التشخيص لحصاة المثانة البولية

Authors: A.K. Martusevich أ.ك. مارتوسثفش --- L.M. Kozlova ل.م. كوزلافو
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2017 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Nowadays, one of the most common groups of diseases in veterinary medicine is the urinary system pathology. Urolithiasis is widespread disease, could be found in many species, including cats, dogs, rabbits, guinea-pigs, turtles etc. Despite the large scale of this pathology in animal world, there are some challenges with diagnostic process and diagnosis’s verification. The aim of our study is estimation of diagnostic value of advanced urine tesiocrystalloscopy in urolithiasis (by the example of cats). We studied crystallogenic and initiated properties of 24 healthy cats and 32 animals with urolithiasis. Own and initiated crystallogenesis of the urine specimens was studied. For teziographic test we used sodium chloride solution (0.45%, 0.9%, 3% consequently), hydrochloric acid solution (0.1H) and sodium hydroxide (0.1H) as a crystal-forming substances. We used the original criterions to estimate crystalloscopic and tezigraphic facias. As the main parameters structure index (SI), crystallizability (Cr), facia's destruction degree (FDD) and edge belt intensity (EB) were used to describe free crystallogenesis, and main tezigraphic coefficient (Q), belt coefficient (B) and FDD were used for the comparative tezigraphy data. Results showed that Cat’s urine in normal conditions has moderate crystallogenic activity, but in urolithiasis it acquires high level of crystallizing, with intermedium value of structure index, and significant destruction of crystal-forming elements. A similar changes of physical-chemical biomedium properties are detected during analysis of tezigraphic microslides of urines of cats with urolithiasis, that was prepared using 0.9% sodium chloride as basis substance. In conclusion, we fixed that tesiocristalloscopic „pattern“ of cats’ urine in urolithiasis significantly transforms into activation of crystal formation and increasing of biomedium’s initiating potential. So, the investigation of free or initialized urine crystallization in urolithiasis has diagnostic value.

في الوقت الحاضر، تعتبر امراض الجهاز البولي واحدة من المجموعات الأكثر شيوعا من الأمراض في الطب البيطري وان حصاة الجهاز البولي من اكثرالامرض واسعة الانتشار، ويمكن العثور عليه في العديد من الأنواع، بما في ذلك القطط والكلاب والأرانب وخنازير غينيا والسلاحف الخ وهي تشكل نسبة كبيرة في عالم الحيوان، وهناك بعض التحديات قي عملية التشخيص والتحقق من التشخيص. والهدف من دراستنا هو تقدير القيمة التشخيصيةtesiocrystalloscopy in urolithiasis في القطط. قمنا بدراسة الخصائص البلورية في 24 قط سليم و32 قط يعاني من الحصاة البولية حيث تم دراسة البلورات الخاصة والتى بدأت في عينات البول. في اختبار teziographic استخدمنا محلول كلوريد الصوديوم (0,45٪، 0,9٪، 3٪ على التوالي)، محلول حمض الهيدروكلوريك (H0,1) وهيدروكسيد الصوديوم (H0,1) كمواد تشكيل الكريستال. استخدمنا المعايير الأصلية لتقدير فاسالوس تيزيغرافيك البلورية. كما تم استخدام مؤشر هيكل المعلمات الرئيسية (سي)، بلورة (كر)، درجة تدمير فاسيا (فد) وشدة الحافة الحافة (إب) لوصف التبلور الحر، ومعامل تيزيغرافيك الرئيسي (س)، معامل الحزام (B) و فد استخدمت لبيانات المقارنات. أظهرت النتائج ان بول القطط يكون متوسط النشاط البلوري في القطط السليمة في حين كان البول في القطط المصابة بالحصى بمستوى بلوري عالي مع قيمة متوسطة في موشر الهيكل (structure index) مع تحطيم معنوي للعناصر المكونة للكرستال نفس التغيرات الفيزيائية والكيميائية لصفات البيوميدم شوهدت عند تحليل تيزيكرافك مايكروسلايد للبول في القطط المصابة بحصى الجهاز البولي والذي تم تحضبوم باستخدام 0,9 % ملح صوديم كلورايد كقاعدة. يستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان التيستوكرستالوسكوبك في القطط المصابة بحصاة الكلية ذو قيمة معنوية وعلية فان التقصي عن البلورات الحرة ذو قيمة تشخيصية عالية.


Article
Use of chromogenic Agar in detection of urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial Susceptibility

Authors: Shaymaa L. Salman --- Rana M. Abdullah --- Arwa M. Abdullah
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: HROM agar Orientation is a chromogenic medium used for the detection and differentiation of Gram’s negative and Gram’s positive pathogenic microorganisms in urine samples.
Evaluation of CHROM agar Orientation for identification of urinary pathogens and susceptibility determinations in comparison to the ordinary media used.
Patients and Methods: A total of 375 midstream urine sample collected from patients with urinary tract infection (UTIs). CHROM agar Orientation, blood agar and macConkey agar media were used for direct inoculation.
Results: CHROM agar Orientation succeeded in detecting all the urine pathogens that were detected by the reference media, and antimicrobial Susceptibility tests were performed directly from primary isolates in all cases without the need for subcultures.Conclusion: HROM agar Orientation medium excellent detection of urinary pathogens and antimicrobial Susceptibility tests without the need for subcultures. Therefore, can replace the standard primary plating media used in routine diagnosis of urinary tract infection.


Article
Urinary Mercury concentrations associated chewing gum in students of Faculty of Dentistry

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury concentration instudents after chewing gum for certain period of time. Sixteen students from facultyof dentistry had used chewing gum for five hours a day for seven days. Urine samplecollected 24 h before and after the experimental time. Total mercury in urine (U-Hg)was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS).t-test was used for the comparison of mercury before and after chewing gum. Anon significant difference was found after chewing than before chewing gum.


Article
HEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND URINALYSIS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN GERMAN SHEPHERD DOG.
دراسة التغييرات الدمية والكيموحيوية وتحليل البول لتشخيص التهاب المسالك البولية والتهاب الحويضة والكلية في الكلاب البوليسية ا (German shepherd)

Author: Hassan M. Jasim حسان محمد جاسم
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 37-46
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the hematological and biochemical alteration in German shepherd dogs suffering from bacterial urinary tract infection in Diwanyia City Police Dogs division. The total number of examined cases was 7 cases and three bacterial isolates were detected from urine samples. Of the isolated strains 5 (71.42%) were identified as E.coli, 2 (28.57%) identified as mixed infection with E.coli and Streptococcus spp. Infected animals showed hematuria, fever, depression, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and restlessness. Physical examination of the infected urine showed turbidity and red coloration, furthermore chemical examination indicated the presence of RBCs (hematuria +4), bilirubin, Urobilinogen, leukocytes (+2), protein (+2), nitrate (+1) and the specific gravity is 1.030, glucose was negative in all cases. Crystals (amorphous), epithelial cells and casts of different types have been detected in the microscopic examination of the urine. Moreover results also indicated increase in creatinine and urea values, however there was a decrease in the concentration of K+ (potassium) in serum in case (No.5), mild increase in GGT values in the cases (No.5, 3 and 6) have been indicated. On the other hand triglyceride value showed increase in case (No.3) comparing with other cases. The results revealed that the Hb rates have been increased in case (No.5) compared to the other cases. The results revealed that the percentage of bacteriuria in the affected dogs was (57.14%).

أجش ذَ اىذساسخ اىحبى خُ ى ؼَشفخ اىزغ شُاد اىذ خٍُ واىن بَُح ىُ خَ ف جٍ ىَػخ اىنلاة اىجىى سُ خُ اىز رؼب اىزهبة اى سَبىل اىجىى خُ اىجشثى ف ذٍ خَْ اىذ ىَا خُّ قس اىنلاة اىجىى سُ خُ. مب جٍ ىَع اىحبلاد اىز ر فحصهب ه ( 7 (ار ر ػضه ثلاس سلالاد جشثى خٍُ ػ بُْد اىجىه . جٍ ىَع اىحبلاد ر رحذ ذَ خ سَ ػضلاد الاشش نَ بُBas.J.Vet.Res.Vol.11,No2,201244اىقىىى خُّ ) 71.42 ٪( , وػضىز ػجبسح ػ ػذوي شٍزشمخ ث الاشش نَ بُ اىقىىى خُّ و اى نَىساد اىؼ قْىد خَ( 28.57 )٪ . اىؼلا بٍد اىسش شَ خَ اىز ىىحظذ ػي اىنلاة اى صَبثخ ه ث يُخ د ىٍ خَ واىح والامزئبة وآلا ف اىجط وفقذا اىشه خُ وػذ اىشاحخ . ومشف رحي وُ اىجىه اىف ضُ بَئ ا اىجىه ػنش و ىى هّ ظبسة اى اىح شَح فعلاػ رىل فأ اىزحي وُ اىن بَُئ ىيجىه مشف ػ رىاجذ اىج يُ شُوث ,ُِ واى ىُسوث يُ ىُْج ,ُِ اىنش بَد اىجطُ )+ 2 ( واىجشور +( 2 (,و اى زْشاد (+1) ,ومب ذّ اىنثبفخ اى ىْػ خُ ىيجىه ) 1,030 (, ف ح ى زَأثش سٍزىي اىجيىمىص ف ج غَُاىحبلاد . ومشف اىفحص اى جَهش ىيجىه احزىاء اىجىه ػي ثيىساد ) زٍؼذدح الاشنبه(, و ػي اىخلا بَ اىظهبس خَ .وأظهشد اىفحىصبد اىذ خٍُ ص بَدح ف ق اىنش بَر ,ُُِْ واى ىُس بَ, ث بَُْ اظهشد ػذ وجىد فشوقبد ف ق حب طٍاىجىى لُ ث اىح ىُا بّد اى صَبثخ, ف ح مب ه بْك ا خّفبض ف رشم ضُ ػ صْش اىجىربس ىُ ف صٍو اىذ ف اىحبىخسق ) 5( , ف ح لا ضَاه ظ اى ؼَذه اىطج ؼُ ف حبلاد أخشي, مزىل اوظحذ اى زْبئج وجىد ص اٌدح ف ق خ شَُح GGT ف اىحبلاد سق ) 3 و 5 و 6 (, ف ح ى رزغ شُ ف ثق خُ اىحبلاد الأخشي . وأظهشد اىق ص بَدحاىذهى اىثلاث خُ ف حبىخ سق ) 3 ( ثبى قَبس خّ غٍ اىحبلاد الأخشي . مشفذ سٍزى بَد اىسنش ف حبلاد )سق 5 و 3 )ا خّفبظه ثشنو غف فُ قٍبس خّ غٍ ثق خُ اىحبلاد وأظهشد اىقٌُ ALT و AST ػذ وجىد فشوق ث ج غَُ اىحبلاد,وم بَ أظهشد اى زْبئج وجىد ص بَدح ف ؼٍذلاد خعبة اىذ ف حبىخ سق (5) ثبى قَبس خّ غٍ اىحبلاد أخشي. أظهشداى زْبئج أ سّجخ رجشث اىجىه )واىز رؼ وجىد اىجنزش بَ ف اىجىه زّ جُخ الاصبثخ اىجنز شُ خَ ىي سَبىل اىجىى خُ وى سُ زّ جُخريىثهب اث بْء اىج غَ( ف اىنلاة اى صَبثخ 57.14 ٪


Article
Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Baquba- Diyala Province

Authors: Sawsan Talib Salman سوسن طالب سلمان --- Nadhim Ghazal Noaman ناظم غزال نعمان --- Anfal Shakir Motib انفال شاكر متعب
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Pregnancy causes many changes in the pregnant women, due to mechanical and hormonal changes which lead to ureteral dilatation and urinary stasis which contribute to the  increased risk of developing urinary tract infection. Subject and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in antenatal care clinic from March during October 2012 to study the epidemiology of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Results: out of 200 pregnant women who were included (24%) and (14%) with ≤20 years old age group were asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively, and (56%), (64%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic in age group 21-30 years old , while in those ≥ 31 years age group was (20%) and (22%) asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively. The asymptomatic bacteriuria was (77%) and it was higher among 31-40 weeks of gestation than other weeks of gestations (p= 0.006).The nulliparous was (27%) asymptomatic and (21%) symptomatic, where para1- para3 was (56%) asymptomatic and (65%) symptomatic and para4 and above was (17%) asymptomatic and (14%) symptomatic. Escherichia coli was (42.3%) more than other species.Conclusion: Urinary tract infections is a public health problem, Routine urine culture test should be performed on all antenatal asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women to identify unsuspected infection.


Article
Urinary level of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-9) as a biomarker in cystitis and schistosomal chronic cystitis patients

Author: Huda Sadoon Jassim AL-Biaty
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-55
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Cystitis means inflammation of the bladder, specifically inflammation of bladder wall. Evaluating the level of urinary MMP-9 as a prognostic biomarker in cystitis (schistosomal and non schistosomal) was the aim of the study. Urine samples and bladder biopsies were collected from 50 cystitis patients who were included schistosomal chronic cystitis and non schistosomal cystitis and also from 38 healthy individuals as control. Urinary concentration of MMP-9 was measured by ELISA technique. Specificity and sensitivity of marker were also calculated. The results showed that MMP-9 urinary level was significantly increased in cystitis patients (3842.90pg/ml) compared to healthy (634.80pg/ml), there was a significant differences in the mean levels of urine MMP-9 for different age groups of patients, but non-significant between females and males. MMP-9 was elevated in both schistosomal chronic cystitis and non-schistosomal cystitis patients and this elevation of marker was higher in schistosomal chronic cystitis but with non-significant, also urine MMP-9 showed significant increase in males than females schistosomal cystitis, and statistical differences between age groups. Matrix Metalloproteinase was specific (87.47%) and was more sensitive (93.22 %) in cystitis patients. We concluded that MMP-9 has a role in inflammation processes of cystitis.

Keywords

MMP-9 --- Cystitis --- Schistosoma --- Inflammation --- Urine --- Biopsy

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