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Article
Estimation of the level of homocysteine and vitamin B12 in serum of patients with hypothyroidism
تقدير مستوى الهوموسستين وفيتامين B12 في مصل دم المرضى المصابين بقصور الغدة الدرقية

Authors: Asala Adnan Otla اصالة عدنان عطلة --- Nadia Ahmed Saleh نادية احمد صالح
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2019 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 70-73
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

In this study, homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels were measured in patients with hypothyroidism in Salahdin Governorate. The study was conducted at the Tigris Educational Hospital in Tikrit. Blood samples were taken from patients with hypothyroidism (40 cases) with thyroid deficiency and 30 healthy (non-infected) subjects. Their ages ranged between 25-35 years. The study found that there was a significant increase p<0.05 in the homocysteine level compared to the healthy Individuals as control group. The study also showed a significant decrease in the level of vitamin B12 for patients p <0.05 compared to healthy individuals .

تم في هذه الدراسة قياس تركيز الهوموسستين وقياس فيتامينB12 لدى المرضى المصابين بقصور الغدة الدرقية في محافظة صلاح الدين. حيث اجريت الدراسة في مستشفى دجلة التعليمي في تكريت, وقد قسمت عينات الدراسة الى40 حالة مرضية مصابين بقصور في الغدة الدرقية و 30 عينة من الاصحاء (الاشخاص الغير مصابين) وتركزت اعمارهم بين (25-35) سنة. وقد توصلت الدراسة الى ان هناك ارتفاع معنوي عند مستوى احتمالية p<0.05 في مستوى الهوموسستين مقارنة بالأصحاء كما اظهرت الدراسة ان هناك انخفاض معنوي في مستوى B12 للمرضى عند مستوى احتمالية p<0.05مقارنة بالأصحاء

Keywords

Homocysteine --- vitamin B12


Article
The Effect of Chronic liver diseases on homocysteine and vitamin B12 in patients serum

Author: Essam F. Al-Jumaily * BSc, PhD د. عصام الجميلي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 399-402
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur containing amino acid that is formed as an intermediary in methionine metabolism. Raised plasma homocysteine levels, which may contribute to the increased risk of chronic liver disease. Patients and Methods: Sixty two patients with chronic liver disease and 26 healthy individuals were included as normal controls for the study. The HPLC system was used for the determination of Hcy and vitamin B12. Results: A highly significant Hcy concentrations were noted in all patients with cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis or liver mass. There was a trendency towards higher Hcy concentrations in more advanced stages of liver disease. The study showed that the concentrations of total Hcy were significantly higher in the patients than in the normal control group, irrespective of the age or gender. Mean serum concentration of vitamin B12 were significantly increased in cirrhotic patients and those with liver cancer compared to the control subjects and chronic hepatitis symptomatic patients. Conclusion: The serum levels of both homocystein (Hcy) and vit. B12 were significantly increased in cirrhotic patients and those with liver cancer compared to chronic hepatitis symptomatic patients.Key words: chronic liver disease, homocysteine, vitamin B12.


Article
The Role of Some B Vitamins in Methionine-Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia in Male Rabbits

Authors: Ali A. Al-Beer --- Haydar H. Al-Shalah --- Abdul-Razzak Abdul-Latif
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1539-1545
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

ackground: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with an increased risk ofatherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folicacid are essential components in the metabolism of homocysteine.Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, andthe combination of them in the prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia.Methods: Thirty six male local rabbits were used in the study. Methionine was given torabbits to induce a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Rabbits were divided randomly into 6groups (6 rabbits in each group) as the following: control group: they were maintained onstandard chow only; methionine only group: they were maintained on methionine only; B6group: they were maintained on methionine and vitamin B6; B12 group: they weremaintained on methionine and vitamin B12; folic acid group: they were maintained onmethionine and folic acid; multivitamins group: they were maintained on methionine,vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid.Results: Multivitamins group showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in homo-cysteinelevels at day 30 in comparison with day 0 and there are no significant differences (P>0.05) inhomocysteine levels at day 30 between multivitamins group and control group. At day 30 andday 60, serum homocysteine levels in multivitamins group were significantly (P<0.05) lowerthan serum homocysteine levels in folic acid group.Conclusion: Multivitamin combination composed of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acidreduces the hyperhomocysteinemic effect of methionine and it is better than folic acid alone,while folic acid is better than vitamin B6 or vitamin B12 when they used alone.


Article
Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 in Patients with Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Author: Anwar Noori Al-Basam, Duja Hasan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 242-247
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant condition of cervix. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been associated in the development of premalignant and malignant changes in the cervix. Folate and vitamin B12 can potentially influence carcinogenesis through its effect on DNA synthesis or methylation.OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A case-control study conducted in Baghdad Teaching Hospital from the 1stof Dec 2014 to the 31st of Dec 2015 whereas 60 patients participated in the current study and divided in two groups: cases whose pap smears showed cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and controls whose pap smear was normal).RESULTS: Mean age of cases was 33.6±4.9 years; prevalent age group was 30-40 years (76.7%). No significant difference was observed between cases and controls regarding age (P=0.5), educational level (P =0.6) and oral contraceptive pills (P=0.4), but a significant association was found between cases and controls regarding parity and smoking (0.01 and 0.003) respectively. Moreover significant association was found between both groups of the study regarding to the folic acid deficiency (P <0.001)and vitamin B12 deficiency (P=0.01). Human Papilloma virus was higher among cases than controls but it is still not significant (p=0.2). CONCLUSION:There is significant association between folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, smoking and parity with the cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.


Article
Homocysteine ,Folic acid ,Vitamin B12 and Pyridoxine : Effects on Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle –Thalassemia

Authors: Sawsan Sati' Abbas --- Najat Abul –Razak --- Noor Mustafa --- Razeqa Abd Ali
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 473-479
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Hemoglubiopathies include sickle cell anemia and the Thalassemia . S/ β0- Thalassemia have a clinical course similar to HbSS. Elevated concentration of Homocysteine contribute to thrombosis , a frequent event in sickle cell anemia . Vitamin B12, Pyridoxine , and folic acid deficiencies lead to dangerous increase in plasma Homocysteine.OBJECTIVE:1- To test whether children with sickle cell anemia and Sickle cell – Thalassemia have elevated concentration of serum Homocysteine with diminished level of folate, B6, B12.2- To determine whether hyperomocysteinaemia has a correlation with the frequency of Vaso-occlusive crisis.PATIENTS AND METHOD:A case- control study was carried over a period of one year from Jan.- Dec. 2010 inclusive, 30 patients were collected from the Thalassemia centre in Ibn –AL-Baldy Hospital together with healthy 30 cases, age and sex matched ,were taken from AL- Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital. Venous blood sample were aspirated from both groups to estimate serum Homocysteine, Folic acid, B12 and B6 level. Statistical analysis was done, using the student T-test ( P. value < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant) . Pearson correlation analysis was performed.RESULTS :The age of the patients range between (5-29) years, the majority of the patients were between ( 10 -19 ) years , 10 cases ( 38 .46 %). More than one half were male ,16 cases ( 61.54 %) . Sickle cell – Thalassemia constitute 20 cases (76.93%). Vaso-occlusive crisis was mainly involving the large joints, 15 cases (57.69 %). Mild attacks constitute more than half of the patients, 16 cases (61.54 %).Homocysteine level was higher in the patients group compared with control group with a mean and standard deviation of (44.52 ± 23.008) and (18.65 ± 4.56)μmol/L respectively . Folic acid level was lower, B12 level was higher, B6 level was lower in the patients group compared with control group with a mean and standard deviation of (11.32± 3.23) and (14.71 ± 3.39)ng /ml, (172.57± 61.34) and (103.45 ± 30.45)pg /ml, (4.43± 3.93) and (10.23 ± 2.30) ng/ml respectively, the results were statistically not significant, P. value > 0.05. Significant inverse correlation was found between Homocysteine level and B6 level. A strong positive correlation between Homocysteine level and the frequency of Vaso-occlusive crisis was found.CONCLUSION:Patients with sickle cell disease have high serum level of Homocysteine with low level of folic acid and pyridoxine. This Hyperomocysteinaemia is significantly inversely correlated with pyridoxine deficiency , but positively correlated with the frequency of Vaso-occlusive crisis.


Article
Homocysteine ,Folic acid ,Vitamin B12 and Pyridoxine : Effects on Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle –Thalassemia

Authors: Sawsan Sati' --- Najat Abul –Razak --- Noor Mustafa --- Razeqa Abd Ali
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 473-479
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Hemoglubiopathies include sickle cell anemia and the Thalassemia . S/ β0- Thalassemia have aclinical course similar to HbSS. Elevated concentration of Homocysteine contribute to thrombosis , afrequent event in sickle cell anemia . Vitamin B12, Pyridoxine , and folic acid deficiencies lead todangerous increase in plasma Homocysteine.OBJECTIVE:1- To test whether children with sickle cell anemia and Sickle cell – Thalassemia have elevatedconcentration of serum Homocysteine with diminished level of folate, B6, B12.2- To determine whether hyperomocysteinaemia has a correlation with the frequency of Vasoocclusivecrisis.PATIENTS AND METHOD:A case- control study was carried over a period of one year from Jan.- Dec. 2010 inclusive, 30patients were collected from the Thalassemia centre in Ibn –AL-Baldy Hospital together withhealthy 30 cases, age and sex matched ,were taken from AL- Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital.Venous blood sample were aspirated from both groups to estimate serum Homocysteine, Folic acid,B12 and B6 level. Statistical analysis was done, using the student T-test ( P. value < 0.05 is consideredas statistically significant) . Pearson correlation analysis was performed.RESULTS :The age of the patients range between (5-29) years, the majority of the patients were between ( 10 -19 ) years , 10 cases ( 38 .46 %). More than one half were male ,16 cases ( 61.54 %) . Sickle cell –Thalassemia constitute 20 cases (76.93%). Vaso-occlusive crisis was mainly involving the largejoints, 15 cases (57.69 %). Mild attacks constitute more than half of the patients, 16 cases (61.54%).Homocysteine level was higher in the patients group compared with control group with a meanand standard deviation of (44.52 ± 23.008) and (18.65 ± 4.56)μmol/L respectively . Folic acid levelwas lower, B12 level was higher, B6 level was lower in the patients group compared with controlgroup with a mean and standard deviation of (11.32± 3.23) and (14.71 ± 3.39)ng /ml, (172.57±61.34) and (103.45 ± 30.45)pg /ml, (4.43± 3.93) and (10.23 ± 2.30) ng/ml respectively, the resultswere statistically not significant, P. value > 0.05. Significant inverse correlation was found betweenHomocysteine level and B6 level. A strong positive correlation between Homocysteine level and thefrequency of Vaso-occlusive crisis was found.CONCLUSION:Patients with sickle cell disease have high serum level of Homocysteine with low level of folic acidand pyridoxine. This Hyperomocysteinaemia is significantly inversely correlated with pyridoxinedeficiency , but positively correlated with the frequency of Vaso-occlusive crisis


Article
Study of role of folic acid and vitamin B12 on physiological traits and some biochemical blood parameters of pregnant Awassi ewes and its lambs during the gestation and parturition and their lambs from lambing to weaning
دراسة دور حامض الفوليك وفيتامين B12 في الصفات الفسيولوجية وبعض المعايير الكيموحيوية للدم في النعاج العواسية أثناء الحمل والولادة وحملانها الرضيعة من الولادة الى الفطام .

Author: Suhad J.H.AL-Jabor سهاد جميل هادي الجبر
Journal: Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science مجلة الفرات للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 38752072 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 76-85
Publisher: Al-kasim University جامعة القاسم الخضراء

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Abstract

This study was conducted in a civil farm of Tagia area in Hilla city. 24 of pregnant Awassi ewes with sucking lambs were used . Ewes were about 3 years old with average live weight of 43-44 kg at the beginning of the experiment .The animals were randomly distributed into four equal groups (6 ewes per each group). Ewes were fed concentrate diet in addition 6 hours/day on grass pastures. This study was lasted from the 3rd month of gestation until weaning of their lambs .Ewes and their lambs were dosed vitamins (B9 and B12) during gestation and lactation. Treatments include the first group (control group) vitamins were not offered to animals. In the second treatment animals were dosed with 5 mg of folic acid (vitamin B9) , in the third treatment animals were dosed with 225 IU of B12 vitamin ,and in the fourth treatment animals were dosed with mixture of both vitamins (B9 and B12) .As for ewes lambs ,the first during suckling period were not dosed with any vitamins (control) . while in the second treatment were dosed with 1 mg of folic acid ,in third treatment lambs were dosed with 125 IU of vitamin B12, and in fourth treatments lambs were dosed with mixture of two vitamins during the suckling period. The statistical analysis of results revealed significant differences (P≤0.05) in the average of body temperature of ewes and suckling lambs between among treatments and highly significant differences (P≤0.01) on respiratory rate and heart pulse per minute among different treatments of ewes and suckling lambs. Results also showed mathematical important in viability rate improved of ewes and suckling lambs among vitamins treatment as compared with control group. Blood parameters showed significant increase (P≤0.05) in the means corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and the accounts of lymphocytes and high significant increase (P≤0.01) in the means of the accounts of red blood cells (RBC) , white blood cells (WBC) , haemoglobin level (Hb), PCV , mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the blood samples of ewes and lambs that treated with folic acid and vitamin B12 as compared with the control treatment . it was concluded that offering folic acid and vitamin B12 signficantly improved the physiological viability traits and blood biochemical characteristics.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في أحدى المزارع الأهلية بمنطقة التاجية التابعة إلى مدينة الحلة. وأستخدم في هذه الدراسة 24 نعجة عواسية مع حملانها وقد بلغ عمر الأمهات 3 سنوات ومعدل وزنها في بداية التجربة 43 - 44 كغم. وزعت هذه الحيوانات عشوائيا إلى أربع مجاميع متساوية بالعدد (6 نعجة في كل مجموعة) .غذيت النعاج على عليقة مركزة موحدة إضافة إلى السماح لها بالرعي اليومي على الحشائش لمدة ستة ساعات يوميا .وقد استمرت التجربة من الأشهر الثلاثة الأخيرة من الحمل لغاية فطام الحملان. وقد جرعت النعاج أثناء الحمل والحملان اثناء الرضاعة بالفيتامينات (B9 و B12 ) وتضمنت المعاملات على المعاملة الأولى (مجموعة السيطرة) التي لم تقدم فيه الفيتامينات بينما جرعت حيوانات المجموعة الثانية بحامض الفوليك فيتامين B9 بتركيز 5 ملغم وجرعت حيوانات المجموعة الثالثة 225 وحدة دولية من فيتامين B12 ,جرعت حيوانات المجموعة الرابعة بخليط من الفيتامينين (B9 و B12 ) اما بالنسبة للحملان فقد جرعت خلال فترة الرضاعة عن طريق الفم بتركيز 1 ملغم من حامض الفوليك في المعاملة الثانية , وفي المعاملة الثالثة جرعت الحملان 125 وحدة دولية من فيتامين B12 والمعاملة الرابعة جرعت بخليط من الفيتامينين بالإضافة إلى معاملة السيطرة (المجموعة الأولى) التي لم يقدم لها الفيتامينين .وأشارت نتائج التحليل الإحصائي وجود فروق معنوية (P≤0.05) في درجة حرارة جسم النعاج والحملان الرضيعة بين المعاملات وفروق عالية المعنوية (P≤0.01) في معدلات ضربات القلب وسرعة التنفس في الدقيقة الواحدة بين المعاملات في النعاج والحملان الرضيعة, كما لوحظ تحسن حسابي في نسبة حيوية النعاج والحملان الرضيعة بين معاملات الفيتامينات مقارنة عن معاملة السيطرة .اما بالنسبة للصفات الدموية فقد أظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (P≤0.05) في متوسط هيموكلوبين الكرية MCH وعدد الخلايا اللمفاوية lymphocytes مع زيادة عالية المعنوية (P≤0.01) في متوسط عدد كريات الدم الحمر RBC وخلايا الدم البيض WBC ومستوى خضاب الدم Hb وحجم كريات الدم المرصوصة PCV ومعدل تركيز هيموكلوبين الكرية MCHC في عينات دم النعاج والحملان المعاملة بحامض الفوليك وفيتامين B12 مقارنة مع معاملة السيطرة . يستنتج من الدراسة ان تقديم حامض الفوليك وفيتامين B12 ادى الى تحسن معنوي في المظاهر الحيوية الفسلجية والصفات الكيموحيوية للدم .


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt(II) with Mordant Blue 9 -Application to Vitamin B12 (Injections and Powder)
التقدير الطيفي لفلز الكوبلت (II) مع كاشف الموردنات الأزرق 9- التطبيق على فيتامين B12 (الباودر والإبر)

Authors: Saddalah T. Sulaiman سعد الله توفيق سليمان --- Tamathir A. Hamoudi تماضر عباس خمودي
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2018 Volume: 27 Issue: 3E Pages: 93-102
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cobalt with Mordant Blue 9 in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to form an intense violet-colored chelate which exhibits maximum absorption at 586 nm at pH 3. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range of 0.004 -1 ppm with a molar absorptivity 3.97×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell’s sensitivity index of 1.484 ng.cm-2, while LOD (limit of dedication), LOQ (limit of quantitation) are found to be 4.006 ng/ml (n=10) and 13.353 ng/ml (n=10), respectively. The method has been applied for determination of Co(II) in pharmaceutical preparations.

طورت طريقة طيفية لتقدير الكوبلت تعتمد على تفاعل الكوبلت مع كاشف Mordant blue 9 لتكوين معقد كيليتي بنفسجي اللون (بوجود CTAB كمادة فعالة سطحيا) والذي أعطى أعلى امتصاص عند طول موجي 586 نانوميتر عند pH 3وكانت حدود تطبيق قانون بير في مدى التركيز - 0.004 جزء بالمليون من الكوبلت وكانت الامتصاصية المولارية 104 لتر.مول-1.سم-1 ودلالة ساندل للحساسية 1.484 نانوغرام/سم2 و حد الكشف 4.006 نانوغرام/مل (n=10) والحد الكمي 13.353 نانوغرام/مل(n=10). وقد تم تطبيق الطريقة وبنجاح في تقدير الكوبلت في مستحضرات صيدلانية مختلفة.


Article
Effect of Different Levels of Iron and Vitamin B12 Injection on Production Performance and some Physiological Characteristics of Blood in Awassi Lamb
تأثير حقن مستويات مختلفة من الحديد وفيتامين B12 في الأداء الانتاجي وبعض صفات الدم الفسلجية في الحملان العواسية

Authors: Wasem K. Ahmad وسيم خالد احمد --- Wissam J. Mohammed وسام جاسم محمد --- Mohammed S. Abrahem محمد سالم ابراهيم
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 A Pages: 55-60
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study was conducted on 15 Awassi lambs with an average weight 11kg and with average age (1 month) these lambs were randomly divided into three groups, (5 animal/ group) 1st group as control, The 2nd group was injected subcutaneously once every ten days with Iron and vitamin B12 (4.54 mg/kg body weight/a living animal, 4.54 mg/kg body weight / a living animal) respectively, the 3rd group lambs were injected with iron and vitamin B12 (9.09 mg /kg body weight /a living animal 9.09 mg/kg body weight /a living animal) respectively. The results showed a significant effect (p<0.05) for 2nd and 3rd group compared with control group in (red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, Glucose, Triglyceride, body weight) and the result show the 3rd group had a significant effect (p<0.05) compared with control group in (packed cell volume) there was no significant effect (p<0.05) between the groups in (Albumin, globulin and total protein concentration, in conclusion The enhancing of iron level and vitamin B12 led to improvement, body weight and some blood characteristics in awassi lambs.

تم اجراء هذه الدراسة باستخدام 15 حملاً عواسياً بمعدل وزن 11 كغم وبعمر شهر واحد، وزعت هذه الحملان عشوائيا الى ثلاث مجاميع وبواقع (5 حيوان/ مجموعة) المجموعة الاولى عدت كمجموعة سيطرة والثانية حقنت تحت الجلد مرة واحدة كل عشرة ايام بعنصر الحديد وفيتامين B12 (بتركيز 4.54 ملغم/ كغم وزن / حيوان حي و 4.54 مايكروغرام/ كغم وزن/ حيوان حي) على التوالي، والمجموعة الثالثة حقنت بعنصر الحديد وفيتامين B12 بتركيز(9.09 ملغم/ كغم وزن/ حيوان حي و 9.09 مايكروغرام/ كغم وزن/ حيوان حي) على التوالي، أظهرت النتائج ارتفاعا معنويا (P  0.05) للمجموعتين الثانية والثالثة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة في عدد كريات الدم الحمر، تركيز هيموكلوبين الدم، تركيز الكلوكوز، تركيز الكليسريدات الثلاثية في مصل الدم وأوزان الحيوانات. وأظهرت مجموعة المعاملة الثالثة ارتفاعا معنويا (P  0.05) مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة في حجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة، ولم توجد أية فروقات معنوية بين المجاميع في تركيز البروتين الكلي وتركيز الالبومين و تركيز الكلوبيولين في مصل الدم. وبشكل عام ان تعزيز عنصر الحديد وفيتامين B12 ادى الى زيادة وزن الجسم وتحسين بعض صفات الدم للحملان العواسية.

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