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Article
Study the Effect of Welding Parameters on the Residual Stresses Induced by Submerged Arc Welding process

Authors: Samir Ali Amin --- Sadeq Hussein Bakhy --- Fouad Ali Abdullah
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 4 Pages: 945-951
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Welding residual stress has influences on fatigue, fracture, and corrosion. It is therefore important to explore the welding factors effect on the residual stresses. In this work, four welding factors (current, arc voltage, welding travel speed and included angle) were used to weld low carbon steel (ASTM A516 Grade 60).The experiments included welding of (60) pieces with dimensions of (300 x 150) mm and 10 mm thickness that were conducted based on the design matrix founded by using design of experiment (DOE) software (DESIGN EXPERT 10) with response surface methodology (RSM) technique. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method was used to measure the residual stress, which was then modeled and optimized in terms of the welding factors using (RSM) technique. The data showed that the welding travel speed and arc voltage have a significant influence on the residual stress. It was found that the optimum solution for minimum residual stress was at 450 Amp welding current, 34 volt arc voltage, 38 cpm welding speed, and 60⁰ included angle. Where, the optimum value of residual stress was (-88.4 MPa). Finally, the predicted and experimental results of residual stress were in agreement with a maximum error of 1.8%.

تؤثر الأجهادات المتبقية المتولدة من عملية اللحام على كل من الكلل والتآكل والكسر الميكانيكي. لذلك فمن المهم دراسة تأثير عوامل اللحام على تولد الاجهادات المتبقية. في هذه الدراسة تم تم دراسة حالة الاجهادات المتبقية المتولدة من اللحام بطريقة القوس المغمور لصلب واطيء الكاربون نوع (A516 Gr 60), حيث تم استخدام اربعة عوامل لحام هي التيار والفولطية وسرعة اللحام وزاوية اخدود اللحام, ان ابعاد القطع المعدنية المعدة للحام هي (300x150x10 mm). تم بعد ذلك قياس الاجهادات المتبقية المتولدة بطريقة حيود الاشعة السينية (XRD) ثم عمل موديل رياضي وحساب القيمة المثلى بوصفها دالة لعوامل اللحام المستخدمة بواسطة تقنية تصميم التجارب (DOE) مع منهجية الاستجابة السطحية (RSM). حيث اظهرت النتائج ان التأثير الاكبر على تولد الاجهادات المتبقية كان لفولطية القوس وسرعة اللحام, كذلك وجد ان الظروف المثلى التي تعطي اقل اجهادات متبقية هي (450 Amperes, 34 Volt, 38 cpm and 60⁰ Included Angle) حيث تكون القيمة المثلى للاجهادات المتبقية عند هذه الظروف هي (-88.4). واخيراً كان هنالك توافق كبير بين النتائج المتوقعة والعملية للاجهادات المتبقية مع نسبة خطاء قليلة جداً لا تتجاوز 1.8%.

Keywords

: SAW --- Residual Stress --- Welding parameters --- DOE --- RSM


Article
Influence of SAW Welding Parameters on Microhardness of Steel A516-Gr60

Authors: Sadeq H. Bakhy --- Samir A. Amin --- Fouad A. Abdullah
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1039-1047
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process is generally used for industries, such as petroleum storage tanks, pressure vessels, and structural components.Good mechanical properties of welded joint lead to crack-free strong joints. In this research, included angle, current, welding travel speed and arc voltage were utilized as welding parameters to weld ASTM A516 Grade 60 (low carbon steel). The experiments were carried out according to a design matrix that established by DOE (Version10) with RSM technique. Microhardness of welded samples was measured by a Digital Microhardness Tester, and then RSM technique was used to model and optimize the microhardness based on the welding parameters. The results showed that the including angle and welding current have a great effect on the microhardness. The optimum solution for minimum microhardness was found at 450 Amp welding current, 38 cpm welding speed, 34-volt arc voltage and included angle of 60⁰. The optimum value of microhardness was (186.7 HV). Eventually, the experimental and predicted results of microhardness were found in good agreement with 4.6%. maximum error.

Keywords

SAW --- Microhardness --- Welding parameters --- DOE --- RSM


Article
Study of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Plate SA-516 Gr. 70 Welded by SAW Using V-Shape Joint Design

Authors: Samir A. Amin --- Mohannad Y. Hanna --- Abdulaziz S. Khider
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2020 Volume: 38 Issue: 2 part (A) Engineering Pages: 152-156
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion type welding and it isconsidered one of the most important welding types due to its inherentcapabilities of high welding speed, high deposition rate, welding largethickness plates owing to its deep penetration characteristic and manyother advantages. In this study, the goal was to investigate the effect ofwelding parameters, namely (welding current and welding speed) as wellas the joint design on the mechanical properties (yield stress, bendingforce on the face of the weldment and hardness of the weld metal.Experiments were conducted employing Design of Expert (DOE) softwareand Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. The experimentswere conducted by welding ASME SA-516 Gr. 70 steel plate withdimension (300 mm × 150 mm × 10 mm) depending upon the design matrixdeveloped via the DOE. Results manifested that the optimum processparameters for maximum yield stress, maximum bending force andminimum hardness were at (425 amps) welding current and (35 cm/min)welding speed, where the arc voltage was held constant at (37 volts). Theoptimum values for the yield stress, bending force and hardness were(474.447 MPa, 36.997 kN and 150 HV), respectively. Finally, it was foundthat the predicted and experimental results of yield stress, bending forceand hardness agree very well according to the ultimate error (1.05%,1.92%, and 4.25 %), respectively


Article
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR LOW CARBON STEEL SHEET

Author: Kamal Abdulkareem Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 14-22
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most efficient fusion welding processes which known as a thermo – electric process used in joining metal by a combination of adjustable parameters (heat, pressure and time), it is high speed, flexible and highly productive process. It is extensively used for many industrial purposes in particular in the automotive industry. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of welding nugget area on the tensile strength of the resistance spot welded joints, the present discussion deals with effect of the parameters of resistance spot welding process (current, time, electrode force) on nugget formation and on failure load of the spot weld joints (the relation between nugget size and strength with input parameters). The test material of the specimens which used in this study is low carbon steel. The mechanical performance (peak load, failure mode) of the welded joints was determined by tensile testing, the testing results were analyzed which were obvious the effectiveness and the necessaries of the suitable or proper welding parameters for the strength of the spot weld joints.


Article
Modeling of Bending Properties of Stainless Steel 304 Sheets Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Process
نمذجة خواص الانحناء لصفائح الصلب المقاوم للصدأ 304 الملحومة بعملية لحام التنكستن مع الغاز الخامل

Author: Ali Hussein Alwan علي حسين علوان
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 10-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this research, the effects of both current and argon gas pressure on the bending properties of welded joints were studied. Using the possible ranges of welding gas pressures and currents, Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) of stainless steel (304) sheet was used to obtain their influence on the maximum bending force of the (TIG) welded joints. Design of experiment (DOE) ‘version 10' was used to determine the design matrix of experiments depending on the used levels of the input factors. Response surface methodology (RSM) technique was used to obtain an empirical mathematical model for the maximum bending force as a function of welding parameters (Current and Argon gas pressure). Also, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to verify the adequacy of the resulted model statistically.

في هذا البحث، تم دراسة تأثير كل من ضغط غاز الأركون والتيار على خواص الانحناء للوصلات الملحومة. باستخدام المديات الممكنة لضغوط وتيارات غاز اللحام ، تم استخدام لحام غاز التنغستن الخامل (TIG) للفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ (304) لايجاد تأثيره على أقصى قوة انحناء للمفاصل الملحومة بلحام (TIG). تم استخدام برنامج تصميم التجارب (DOE)، الإصدار العاشر لتحديد مصفوفة تصميم التجارب بالاعتماد على المديات المستخدمة لعوامل الادخال وتم استخدام تقنية منهجية سطح الاستجابة (RSM) للحصول على نموذج رياضي تجريبي للاستجابة لقوة الانحناء القصوى بوصفها دالة لعوامل اللحام (التيار وضغط غاز الأركون) وتم أيضاً أستخدام تحليل التباين (ANOVA) للتحقق إحصائياً من ملائمة النموذج الناتج.


Article
Investigation Parameters of Resistance Spot Welding For AA1050 Aluminum Alloy Sheets
أستقصاء متغيرات لحام مقاومة النقطة لصفائح سبيكة الالمنيوم AA1050

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Abstract

The parameters of resistance spot welding (RSW) performed on low strength commercial aluminum sheets are investigated experimentally, the performance requirements and weldability issues were driven the choice of a specific aluminum alloy that was AA1050. RSW aluminum alloys has a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld comparing with welding steel alloys sheet, due to the higher thermal conductivity, higher thermal expansion, narrow plastic temperature range, and lower electrical resistivity. Much effort has been devoted to the study of describing the relation between the parameters of the process (welding current, welding time, and electrode force) and weld strength. Shear-tensile strength tests were performed to indicate the weld quality. A weld lobe diagrams were constructed to evaluate the weldability of three sheet thicknesses of this alloy. Most appropriate welding time and electrode force are 5 cycles and 1.75-2.25 kN respectively. The ranges of the weldability are 14-28, 18-30, and 22-32 kA for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet thicknesses respectively. A statistical regression analysis was used to demonstrate the relationship of the process parameters and the strength of the weldments. Two empirical equations for each thickness were proposed to estimate the shear tensile strength of the weldments, one for quadratic and the other linear relationship between the process parameters and the strength. There are no significant differences between the equations when applied to the available data.

تم التحري عملياً عن مًتغيرات لحام المقاومة النقطي على الصفائح المصنوعة من الالمنيوم التجاري واطئ القوة، ولمتطلبات الأداء وقابلية اللحام وجودته اختيرت سبيكة الالمنيوم AA1050. للحام المقاومة النقطي لسبائك الالمنيوم مشكلة كبيرة في استقرارية جودة اللحام من لحام ولحام آخر مقارنة بلحام صفائح سبائك الفولاذ، وذلك للموصلية الحرارية والتمدد الحراري العاليين، قصر المدى الحراري اللدن، والمقاومة الكهربائية المنخفضة لسبائك لالمنيوم عن سبائك الفولاذ. كُرس الكثير من الجهد لدراسة العلاقة بين متغيرات عملية اللحام ( تيار اللحام، زمن اللحام، وقوة ضغط الاقطاب) مع قوة الملحومات. أُجريت فحوصات القوة (قص شد) لبيان جودة اللحام. شكلت مخططات متغيرات اللحام Lobe Diagram لتقييم قابلية اللحام ولثلاثة مقاطع من صفائح سبيكة الالمنيوم المذكورة. أفضل حالة لزمن اللحام هي 5 دورات وقوة ضغط الاقطاب هي 1.75 ــ 2.25 كيلو نيوتن. مدى قابلية اللحام هي 14- 28 ، 18- 30 ، و 22 - 32 كيلو أمبير للصفائح 0.6 ، 1.0 ، و 1.5 ملم على التوالي. تم استخدام تحليل الانحدار الاحصائي لتوضيح العلاقة بين متغيرات عملية اللحام ومتانة قوة الملحومات. تم اقتراح اثنين من المعادلات التجريبية لكل سمك لتخمين متانة قوة اللحام العلاقة الاولى من الدرجة الثانية والاخرى علاقة خطية بين متغيرات عملية اللحام ومتانة قوة الملحومات. وظهر عدم وجود فروقات جوهرية بين العلاقة الخطية والدرجة الثانية عند تطبيقها على البيانات المتاحة.


Article
Study of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Plate SA-516 Gr. 70 Welded by SAW Using Square-Shape Joint Design

Authors: MohannadYousif Hanna --- Samir Ali Amin --- Abdulaziz Saud Khider
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2019 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 363-378
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion type welding and it is considered as one of the most important welding types due to its inherent capabilities of high welding speed, high deposition rate, welding large thickness plates owing to its deep penetration characteristic and many other advantages. In this study, the goal was to investigate the effect of welding parameters, namely (welding current and welding speed) as well as the joint design on the mechanical properties (yield stress, bending force on the face of the weldment and hardness of the weld metal. Experiments were conducted employing Design of Experiment (DOE) software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. The experiments were performed by welding (26) pieces of ASME SA-516 Gr. 70 steel plate with dimensions of (300 mm × 150 mm × 10 mm) to produce (13) specimens depending upon the design matrix developed via the DOE. Results manifested that the optimum process parameters for maximum yield stress, maximum bending force and minimum hardness were (202.659 MPa, 21.662 KN and 139.232 HV), respectively at (425 amps) welding current and (35 cm/min) welding speed, where the arc voltage was held constant at (37 volts). Finally, it was found that the predicted and experimental results of yield stress, bending force and hardness agree very well according to the ultimate error (1.5%, 1.3%, and 3.4 %), respectively.

[1] I. Gowrisankar, A. K. Bhaduri, V. Seetharaman, D. D. N. Verma, and D. R. G. Achar, “Effect of the Number of Passes on the Structure and Properties of Submerged Arc Welds of AISI Type 316L Stainless Steel,” Weld. J., pp. 147–154, 1987.[2] D. M. Viano, N. U. Ahmed, and G. O. Schumann, “Influence of Heat Input and Travel Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Double Tandem Submerged Arc High Strength Low Alloy Steel Weldments,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2000.[3] A. M. Paniagua-Mercado, V. M. López-Hirata, and M. L. Saucedo Muñoz, “Influence of the Chemical Composition of Flux on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Submerged-Arc Welds,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 346–351, 2005.[4] K. Prasad and D. K. Dwivedi, “Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Submerged Arc Welded 1.25Cr-0.5Mo Steel Joints,” Mater. Manuf. Process., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 463–468, 2008.[5] A. Harish, S. Kulwant, and S. Sanjay, “Cooling Rate Effect on Microhardness for SAW Welded Mild Steel Plate,” Int. J. Theor. Appl. Res. Mech. Eng., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 71–77, 2013.[6] R. Kumar, H. K Arya, and S. RK, “Experimental Determination of Cooling Rate and its Effect on Microhardness in Submerged Arc Welding of Mild Steel Plate (Grade c-25 as per IS 1570),” Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 03, no. 02, 2014.[7] N. Singh, Karun, S. Kumar, and D. Singh, “Investigating the Effect of Saw Parameters on Hardness of Weld Metal,” Int. J. Adv. Ind. Eng., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 68–74, 2015.[8] S. A. Amin, S. H. Bakhy, and F. A. Abdullah, “Study the Effect of Welding Parameters on the Residual Stresses Induced by Submerged Arc Welding process,” Al-Nahrain J. Eng. Sci., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 945–951, 2017.[9] S. H. Bakhy, S. A. Amin, and F. A. Abdullah, “Influence of SAW Welding Parameters on Microhardness of Steel A516-Gr60,” Eng. Technol. J., vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1039–1047, 2018.[10] ASME, ASME, BPVC, Sec.II: Materials, Part A: Ferrous Material Specificatios (SA-451 to End). The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2015.[11] ASME, ASME, BPVC, Sec. II: Materials, Part C: Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrods and Filler Metals. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2015.[12] Askanyak company, “Eczacıbaşı - Lincoln Electric ASKAYNAK ® Products.” www.askanyak.com.tr.[13] ASME, ASME, BPVC, Section VIII, Division 1: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. 2015.دراسة الخواص الميكانيكية للصلب الكربوني(SA-516 Gr. 70) الملحوم بالقوس المغمور بأستخدام تصميم وصلة لحام مربعة الشكل مهند يوسف حنا سمير علي امين عبد العزيز سعود خضرقسم الهندسة الميكانيكية، الجامعة التكنولوجية، بغداد، العراق abdulaziz.saud87@gmail.comalrabiee2002@yahoo.commohannad_hanna@yahoo.comالخلاصةان لحام القوس المغمور هو لحام انصهاري من حيث النوع ويعتبر أحد عمليات اللحام المهمة لقابلياته الذاتية من حيث سرعة اللحام، معدل الترسيب العالي، ولحام الواح ذات سمك كبير بسبب خاصية النفاذية العميقة وفوائد متعددة اخرى. تهدف هذه الدراسة الى التحقق من تأثير عوامل اللحام (تيار اللحام وسرعة اللحام) بالإضافة الى تصميم وصلة اللحام على الخواص الميكانيكية (اجهاد الخضوع، قوة الحني على وجه الملحومة وصلادة مادة منطقة اللحام). اجريت التجارب باستخدام برنامج تصميم التجارب (DOE) وتقنية طريقة الاستجابة السطحية (RSM). انجزت التجارب بلحام (26) قطعة من لوح سبيكة الصلب نوع (ASME SA-516 Gr. 70) بأبعاد (300 ملم x150 ملم x 10 ملم) لتصنيع (13) عينة ملحومة اعتمادا على مصفوفة التصميم الناتجة من برنامج تصميم التجارب. اظهرت النتائج بأن العوامل المثلى لعملية اللحام لأقصى اجهاد خضوع، أقصى قوة حني وأدنى صلادة هي (202.659ميكا باسكال، 21.662كيلو نيوتن، و139.232 صلادةفيكرية) على التوالي عند تيار لحام (425 أمبير) وسرعة لحام (35 سم/ دقيقة) مع بقاء فولتية القوس ثابت عند (37 فولت). أخيرا، وجد ان النتائج المتنبأة والعملية لاجهاد الخضوع وقوة الحني والصلادة في توافق جيد مع اقصى مقدار خطأ (1.5%، 1.3% و3.4%) على التوالي.

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