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Article
The Effect of Promoters on the Activity of Prepared Zeolite Catalyst in FCC Process

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Abstract

Faujasite type NaY zeolite catalyst was prepared from locally available kaolin, then the prepared NaY zeolite have been modified by exchanging of sodium ion with ammonium to produce NH4Y zeolite. NH4Y zeolite was converted to HY zeolite by ion exchanging with oxalic acid. Zinc and nickel promoters have been added to the prepared HY zeolite catalyst, and the effect of these promoters on the catalytic activity of the prepared HY catalyst was studied in fluid catalytic cracking process using light gas oil as a feedstock. The experimental results show that the promoted catalyst gives higher gas oil conversion and gasoline yield than HY zeolite catalyst at the same reaction temperature and WHSV. It was also found that the promoted catalyst gives gasoline with lesser olefin content and higher aromatics compared with the gasoline produced by HY catalyst.


Article
Naphtha desulfurization by prepare Cu-Ni-zeolite adsorbent

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Abstract

For desulfurization of naphtha, NaY zeolite was prepared from Dewekhala kaolin clay (Al-Anbar region). For the prepared zeolite adsorbent, x-ray diffraction, sodium content, silica to alumina ratio, surface area, bulk density and crushing strength were determined. From the x-ray diffraction of the prepared NaY zeolite and by a comparison with the standard NaY zeolite, it was found that the prepared adsorbent in this work has approximately the same crystal structure as the standard. Adsorption process was done in a laboratory unit at 25 ᵒC and 4.1 h-1 LHSV. The experimental results show that the promoted adsorbent gives higher percentage of sulfur removal (82.15%) after 10 minute and reaching 40.15% after 120 minute. The adsorption capacity is equal 0.167 mmole "S"/ g after 10 minute while it reached up to 0.77 and 0.98 mmole "S"/g at 50 and 120 minute, respectively


Article
Adsorption Study for Trifluralin on Iraqi Zeolite

Author: Zahraa A. Mahmood
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 31-37
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The current work involves the adsorption of trifluralin on the surface of zeolite using UV. spectrophotometer technique to produce quantitative adsorption data at different conditions of contacttime, ionic strength, pH and temperatures. The adsorption phenomenon was examined as a function of temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45) ˚C, and the results showed that the adsorption of trifluralin on surface zeolite increased with increasing temperatures (endothermic process). The basic thermodynamic functions (∆H, ∆G, and ∆S) have also been calculated. The effect of ionic strength on adsorption was also studied by using different concentrations of NaCl solution. It was found that increasing the value of ionic strength, leads to decrease the adsorption quantity of trifluralin on the zeolite surfaces at constant temperature. The quantity of trifluralin that was adsorbed on the zeolite was decreased with increasing the pH of the solution at constant temperature. The kinetic study of adsorption process was studied depending on the following kinetic equations: Lagergren, Morris –Weber and Reichenenberg equations.

تناولت هذه الدراسة امتزاز الترفلان على سطح الزيولايت عند تراكيز مختلفه وقد تم استخدام تقنية مطيافية الاشعة فوق البنفسجية لمعرفة كميات الامتزاز عند ظروف متباينة من الاس الهيدروجيني ودرجة الحرارة والقوة الايونية لمحلول الامتزاز. بينت الدراسة ان امتزاز الترفلان على سطح الزيولايت عند درجات حرارية مختلفة oC(45,40,35,30) يزداد مع زيادة درجة الحرارة اي ان العملية ماصة للحرارة. كما حسبت القيم الثرموديناميكية الاساسية لعملية الامتزاز. ودرس تأ ثير الشده الايونيه في عملية الامتزاز وذلك بأ ستخدام تراكيز مختلفه من ملح كلوريد الصوديوم، ووجد ان كمية الامتزاز تقل بزيادة الشده الايونيه عند ثبوت درجة الحرارة. كما ودرس تأ ثير الداله الحامضيه (pH) في عملية الامتزاز عند ثبوت درجة الحرارة، واظهرت النتائج ان كمية الامتزاز تقل بزيادة الداله الحامضية للمحلول. تمت دراسة حركيات الامتزاز اعتمادا على ثلاث معادلات حركيه هي: معادلات لنكماير و موريس – ويبر و ريجمبرغ.


Article
Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulphide on the Zeolite type A Synthezied from Iraqi Kaoline
امتزاز غاز كبريتيد الهيدروجين على ثلاثة انواع من الزيولايت نوع A محضرة من الكاؤولين العراقي

Authors: Sahar S. Hassan سحر صبيح حسن --- Sameer H. Kareem سمير حكيم كريم --- Jalil R. Ugal جليل رهيف عكال
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 3عدد خاص بموتمر الكيمياء Pages: 1023-1033
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Three types of zeolite A were prepared from Iraqi kaoline which are 3A, 4A and 5A by ion exchange method .They were characterized by XRD and atomic absorption techniques .They were used as adsorbents to examine their applicability for H2S adsorption .The adsorption process was performed in a static form and constant volume system which constructed from stainless steel .The effect of zeolite type and temperature on the adsorption properties of H2S at -5 , 25 and 55 oC was studied .The zeolite type 5A has the highest adsorption value (79.384 µmol/g ) and the three types may be arranged in a sequence toward H2S adsorption as 5 A> 4A>3A .The amount of H2S adsorbed increased as temperature decreased from 55 to -5 for all samples.Langmuir , Frendlich and Toth isotherm equations model were applied for the adsorption data in order to determine the affinity and the heterogeneity of the three adsorbents. The heterogeneity parameters of the model equation applied indicated that 5A sample was more heterogeneous compared to other zeolite types.

حضرت ثلاثة انواع من الزيولايت من الكاؤولين العراقي وهي 3Aو 4Aو5A بطريقة التبادل الايوني ثم شخصت باستخدام تقنيتي حيود الاشعة السينية والامتصاص الذري . استخدمت هذه الانواع كسطوح مازة لمعرفة قدرتها على امتزاز غازكبريتيد الهيدروجينH2S ,حيث اجريت عملية الامتزاز في منظومة مصنوعة من الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ من النوع الساكن وذات حجم معروف مسبقا . تم دراسة تاثير كل من نوع الزيولايت ودرجة الحرارة على الصفات الامتزازية , واظهرت النتائج ان الزيولايت 5A يعطى اعلى كمية امتزاز(79.384 µmol/g ) من بين الانواع الثلاثة والتي يمكن ترتيبها نسبة الى امتزازها لغاز H2S كالاتي:-5A > 4A >3Aوكانت كمية الامتزاز تزداد بنقصان درجة الحرارة من (55 الى º(-5 م لجميع النماذج المستخدمة .تم تطبيق معادلات كل من لنكماير وفرندلش وتوث على نتائج الامتزاز لغرض ايجاد ميل المادة الممتزة تجاه غاز H2S ومدى انتظام السطح.واظهرت المعلمات الدالة على عدم انتظام السطح وان الزيولايت 5A كان الاعلى من بين النماذج الاخرى لا نتظاما.

Keywords

Adsorption --- Zeolite --- H2S --- Iraqi --- Kaoline.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Nay Zeolite for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Rowaida N. Abbas --- Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 19-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Iraqi kaolin was used for the preparation and characterization of NaY zeolite for biodiesel production via esterification reaction. Oleic acid was used usually as a typical simulated feedstock of high acid number for the esterification reaction. The chemical composition for the prepared Nay zeolite is as following: (Ca2.6Na1.K0.1)(Al6.3Si17.7)O48.16H2O, the silica to alumina ratio in the prepared catalyst was found equal to 2.6 and Na2O content was 12.26 wt. %, with relative crystallinity equal to 147.4 % obtained by the X-ray diffraction. The surface area result shows that the prepared catalyst has 330 m2/g. While, the measured pore volume by nitrogen adsorption was equal to 0.35 cm3/ g. SEM images show notable differences between the kaolin crystal and prepared NaY crystal. The effect of NaY zeolite, as a loaded catalyst in the esterification of oleic acid reaction did not show any significant change of oleic acid conversion for catalyst load more than 5 wt. %. The reused NaY zeolite is loses 31 % of its activity because of that the pores are filled with water and other organic molecules and that may cause poisoning the catalyst.


Article
Preparation of Zeolite Type 13X from Locally Available Raw Materials

Authors: Ali.A.Abdulhadi --- Malik Mustafa --- Jalil .R.Ugal
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this work was to prepare zeolite type 13X from locally available kaolin and to study the effects of using some binding materials through the process of agglomeration of this zeolite. This study was focused on using kaolin binder in different weight percents (10,15,25,35 and 45%).Physical and mechanical properties of the agglomerates such as porosity , apparent density , pore volume, crushing strength , loss on attrition , surface area and finally the adsorption capacity had been measured and evaluated .The preparation step was achieved by mixing the reactants consisting of metakaolin , source of silica as ( sodium trisilicate ) and sodium hydroxide . The conditions was temperature of 70° C and time of mixing as 8, 10,24,34,50,65,75 and 80 hours .The zeolite –binder was shaped in the form of cylindrical particles of 2.5 mm in diameter and 4-8 mm long using a suitable experimental technique . It was found that the suitable binder kaolin clay with 25% by weight. This gave the best properties as crushing strength, adsorption capacity and density compared with standard properties of zeolite 13X.


Article
Hydroisomerization of n-Alkane over Zeoilte Supported Catalyst

Authors: Mohamed Kamel --- Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohamed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 3919-3940
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The conversion of nC5-nC7 over 0.32wt%Pt/HY-Zeolite catalyst was studied with temperature range 240-270ºC, liquid hourly space velocity range 1-3h-1, hydrogen to n-alkane mole ratio 8-24 and atmospheric total pressure. The effect of the PH2, PnC5, PnC6, and PnC7 orders on the overall reaction rate was studied. For nC7, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.998 and -0.948 while with respect to nC7 varied between 0.154 and 0.156. For nC6, the reaction order varied between -0.811 and -0.808 while with respect to nC6 varied between 0.332 and 0.337. For nC5, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.652 and -0.620 while the reaction order with respect to nC5 was varied between 0.336 and 0.339. The values of apparent activation energy were obtained and found to be varied between 110 and 111 kJ/mol for nC7, 120 to 122 kJ/mol for nC6, and 145 to 148 kJ/mol for nC5.

تم دراســــة تحول البنتان الأعتيادي ,الهكسان الأعتيادي والهبتان الأعتيـــــادي على العامـــــل المساعد من نــــــوع زيولايت والحاوي على نسبــــة 0.32% وزنا من البلاتين والمحضر بطريقة الترطيب . تم إجراء التجارب بضغط جوي في منظومة مختبريه تحتوي على مفاعل ذو حشوة ثابتة وبدرجـــات حرارة بين 240 -270˚م وباستخدام سرع فراغية بين 1- 3 ســا-1 وبنســـب مولية للهيدروجين إلى البنتان والهكسان والهبتان بين 8 - 24. درس تأثير مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين والبنتان والهكسان والهبتان الأعتيادي بالنسبة لتفاعل الهبتان الأعتيادي لوحظ ان مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.998 و -0.948, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهبتان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.154 و 0.156 . بالنسبة لتفاعل تحول الهكسان الأعتيادي كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.811 و -0.808, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهكسان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.332 و 0.337. بالنسبة لتفاعل تحول البنتان الأعتيادي كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.652 و -0.620, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للبنتان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.336 و 0.339. تم دراسة قيم طاقات التنشيط و وجدت بانها تتراوح بين 110- 111 كيلوجول/مول بالنسبة للهبتان الاعتيادي , 120-122 كيلو جول/مول بالنسبة للهكسان الاعتيادي , و 145 - 148 كيلو جول/مول بالنسبة للبنتان الاعتيادي ,

Keywords

Isomerization --- HY-Zeolite --- Heptane --- Hexane --- Pentane


Article
Differences Between Sodium Metasilicate and Silicic Acid as Silica Source for Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Synthesis by Sol- Gel Method

Authors: Yousif Jawad --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2009 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Zeolite Y nanoparticles were synthesized by sal — gel method Different samples using two silica sources were prepared.Sodium metasilicate (Na2Si03) (48% silica) and silicic acid silica (H2SIO3) (75% silica) were employed as sihca source and aluminum nitrate (Al(N03)3.9H20) was the aluminum source with tetrapropylammonium hydroxide(TPA Of- as templating agent.The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray dW?action, showed the requirement different aging time for complete crystallization to be achieved. Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM) images, showed the particles were in the same range of 30 — 75 nm PT-JR spectroscopy, showed the synthesized samples having the zeolite Y crystal properties. The initial mixing silica to alumina raao (5i02/A was 10, but, sodium metasilicate sample was of 2.55 final ratio, while silicic acid sample have 18.41 and the surface area as tested by BET was of 55587 m2/g from sodium metasilicate sample and 276.3 m2/gfrom silicic acid sample.


Article
A Deactivation Correlation for Platinum Y-Zeolite in n-Hexane Isomerization

Author: Haiyam Mohammed A. Al-Raheem
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 8 Pages: 1451-1462
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The objective of the present work is to realize the kinetic modeling regardingdeactivation of Pt-HY zeolite and monitor the isomerization reaction of n-hexane. Thecatalyst has been prepared with o.4% Pt and evaluated during the isomerization reactionof n-hexane. Based on the results of catalytic investigation, a kinetic model was proposedto deactivate the catalyst by coke formation. The present method provides information onapparent overall kinetics as well as deactivation parameters and would seem to provide arapid method for screening of reaction/deactivation behavior. Accordingly thedeactivation order was found to be 3.72. The obtained correlation of deactivation predictsthe activity pattern under the applied reaction conditions, closely mimics those observedexperimentally, and spans those obtained from empirical correlations.


Article
Enhancement of Iraqi Light Naphtha Octane Number Using Pt Supported HMOR Zeolite Catalyst
تحسين الرقم الاوكتاني للنافثا العراقية الخفيفة باستعمال العامل المساعد Pt المحمل على الزيولايت HMOR

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The hydroconversion of Iraqi light straight run naphtha was studied on zeolite catalyst. 0.3wt.%Pt/HMOR catalyst was prepared locally and used in the present work. The hydroconversion performed on a continuous fixed-bed laboratory reaction unit. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 200 to 350°C, pressure range of 3 to 15 bars, LHSV range of 0.5-2.5h-1, and the hydrogen to naphtha ratio of 300.The results show that the hydroconversion of Iraqi light straight naphtha increases with increase in reaction temperature and decreases with increase in LHSV.High octane number isomers were formed at low temperature of 240°C. The selectivity of hydroisomerization improved by increasing reaction pressure up to 15 bars. Catalyst activity almost stable and independent of time on stream at 15 bar up to 20 h.

تمت دراسة تحول النافثا العراقية باستعمال الزيولايت كعامل مساعد. تم تحضير العامل المساعد 0.3wt.%Pt/HMOR مختبريا واستعماله في البحث الحالي. اجريت تجارب التحول باستعمال وحدة تفاعل مختبرية من نوع الحشوة الثابتة. اجريت التجارب بمدى من درجات الحرارة تراوحت بين 200 الى 350 ºم، وضغط تراوح من 3 الى 15 ضغط جوي، وبسرع فراغية تراوحت من 0.5 الى 2.5 سا-1، وكانت نسبة الهيدروجين الى النافثا 300 كنسبة حجمية.اظهرت النتائج ان التحول للنافثا العراقية الخفيفة يزداد بزيادة درجة الحرارة ويقل بزيادة السرعة الفراغية.تكونت الازمرات ذات الرقم الاوكتاني بدرجة حرارة قليلة عند 240ºم. تحسنت انتقائية تكوين الازمرات باستعمال الهيدروجين بزيادة ضغط التفاعل ولغاية 15 ضغط جوي. كانت فعالية العامل المساعد ثابتة على الدوام بضغط 15 ضغط جوي ولمدة 20 ساعة.

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