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Immunohistochemical evaluation of actin expression in basal cell carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Abstract

Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are generally slow-growing tumours. They have been classified as aggressive (A-BCC) and non-aggressive (NA-BCC).Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity worldwide, this is due to the characteristics of invasion. The microenviroment or stroma of neoplastic tissues plays an active role in tumour progression. Trans-differentiation of fibroblast to myofibroblast is a crucial and early event in tumourigensis. Alterations of contractile tension generated by the actin–myosin complex are of central importance in the development of the phenotype of morphologically transformed neoplastic cells with invasive behavior. Actin is the predominant component of contractile microfillament and it may be associated with increase contractility and invasiveness of tumour cells.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the presence of myofibroblasts in the stroma of basal cell carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, evaluated by the immunohistochemical expression of actin.Materials and methods: Twenty four formalin –fixed, paraffin -embedded tissue blocks (14 cases basal cell carcinoma, 10 cases oral squamous cell carcinoma) were included in this study. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti alpha - smooth muscle actin (α- SMA) monoclonal antibody.

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