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Article
Epidemiological study on road traffic accidents in Al-Najaf city during 2011

Author: Salam Jasim Mohammed
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 138-142
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Abstract:Objective: this study was conducted to establish database about road traffic accidents (RTAs)morbidity and mortality and some associated factors in Al-Najaf city.Design: A descriptive study on road traffic accidents injuries and deaths that had been admitted to theemergency unit at Al-Sader teaching hospital during the period from first of January till 31 December2011. The data were collected from the statistics department of Al-Sader teaching hospital and thenanalyzed according to the month, sex and age group.Results: The results of our study included 3438 RTAs that had been admitted to the emergency unitconsisted of 2092 (61%) males and 1346 (39%) females, number of deaths that happen within 24 hoursof admission to emergency unit were 14. The number of deaths among males were 10(71%) andfemales 4(29%). October had the highest road traffic accidents (556) while July had the lowest roadtraffic accidents (72). The age group that was mostly affected was 15-44 years.Conclusion: There was marked increase in the RTA in 4 months (September, October, November andDecember). RTA injuries affected 15-44 year age group more than the other age groups followed by 5-14 year age group. Males were Affected more than females. Deaths were not related to the number ofRTA ( there is no relationship between deaths and the number of crashes but it depends on the severityof the crashes) and this need improving road safety legislations and putting them into action (speedlimits, seatbelt laws, helmet laws) and education of people about the danger of speed and theimportance of seatbelt wearing and proper and rapid hospital care

اجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الصدر التعليمي للفترة من الاول من كانون الثاني ولغاية الحادي والثلاثين من كانون الاول لسنة 2011 لغرض معرفة اعداد الاصابات والوفيات نتيجة حوادث الطرق ووضع قاعدة بيانات لهذه المشكلة.اظهرت هذه الدراسة ان هنالك( 3438) حالة قد تم ادخالها الى وحدة الطوارئ خلال 2011 وكان منها 2092(61%) ذكوراً و 1346(39%) اناثاً. عدد الوفيات التي حصلت خلال 24 ساعة من دخول وحدة الطوارئ كانت 14. عدد وفيات الذكور كان 10(71%) اما عدد وفيات الاناث كان 4(29%). حيث كان تشرين الاول الاكثر عددا من حيث الحوادث(556) اما تموز فهو الاقل عدداُ(72). كما اظهرت الدراسة ان الفئة العمرية الاكثر عرضةً لحوادث الطرق هي (15-44)سنة.هذه الدراسة تشير الى الحاجة الى المزيد من التركيز على المتطلبات التي تؤدي الى منع هذه الحوادث مثل التشريعات اللازمة وضرورة توعية سائقي المركبات بأهمية التقيد بالسرعة وارتداء حزام الامان وكذلك ارتداء واقية الرأس بالنسبة لسائقي الدراجات النارية كذلك توعية المشاة بالمرور من مناطق عبور المشاة, من جهة اخرى يجب التأكيد على التعامل السريع مع الحوادث من خلال الاسعاف الفوري للمصابين في مكان الحادث وعند وصول المصاب الى المستشفى للتقليل من حالات الوفاة.


Article
Analytical study of economic accidents in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq For the period (2010-2016)
دراسة تحليلية إقتصادية للحوادث المرورية في إقليم كوردستان–العراق للمدة (2016-2010)

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Abstract

This study is an intellectual addition in the field of traffic accidents and their economic and social effects, which contributes to combating the phenomenon of traffic accidents in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq. The study concluded that traffic accidents cost social, psychological and economic losses directly and indirectly, and that these losses overlap and cause each other. Moreover, over-speed was the most effective cause of the increase in accidents in the Territory. The trend of the rate of risk to rise, after it was (2.30) in 2010 became (2.63) in 2016, an increase of (14.35%) for the year 2010 and a decrease of (-10.85%) from the previous year. In addition, there was a fluctuation in the accident severity index during the period of study. In 2016, it reached (0.068) an increase of (4.61%) compared to the previous year and a decrease of (23.6%) compared to 2010. The cost or loss of traffic accidents According to the increase in traffic accidents, in 2010 the losses were (21337500) dollars, and these losses (36352800) dollars in 2016, an increase of (70.4%). The total losses were US $ 22,272,300 during the study period.

تشكل هذه الدراسة إضافة فكرية في مجال الحوادث المرورية وآثارها الإقتصادية والإجتماعية الذي يسهم في مكافحة ظاهرة الحوادث المرورية في إقليم كوردستان - العراق. وقد توصلت الدراسة الى أن الحوادث المرورية تكلف خسائر إجتماعية ونفسية وإقتصادية مباشرة وغير مباشرة، وأن هذه الخسائر متداخلة وتسبب بعضها البعض. فضلاً عن ذلك فإن السرعة الزائدة كانت السبب الأكثر تأثيراً في زيادة الحوادث في الإقليم. وكان اتجاه معدل الخطورة إلى الإرتفاع، فبعد أن كان(2.30) في سنة 2010 أصبح(2.63) في سنة 2016 بإرتفاعٍ قدره( 14.35%)عن سنة 2010 وبانخفاض قدره( -10.85% )عن السنة السابقة. فضلا عن ذلك فإن هناك تذبذب في مؤشر حدة الحوادث خلال مدة الدراسة، حيث بلغ سنة 2016 حوالي (0.068) بزيادةٍ قدره( 4.61% )عن السنة السابقة وبإنخفاضٍ قدره( 23.6 -% )مقارنة بسنة 2010. وقد ازدادت التكلفة أو الخسائر المادية للحوادث المرورية تبعاً لزيادة الحوادث المرورية ، ففي سنة 2010 كانت الخسائر (21337500)دولار، وأصبحت هذه الخسائر (36352800) دولار سنة 2016 أي بزيادة قدرها(70.4%). وبلغ المجموع الكلي لهذه الخسائر(222072300) دولار أمريكي خلال مدة الدراسة.


Article
•Head Injuries due to Motorcycle Accidents in Karbala-Iraq Prospective clinical Study

Author: Husam Ghazi Al-Anbari
Journal: Karbala Jorunal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1170-1179
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: Head injury is one of the most important causes of death in trauma, preventive measures are widespread but not applied in all countries, and motorcycle accidents account the major problem in Karbala for the last few years.This study is aiming to compare the incidence, severity, outcome and other factors for each of motorcycle accidents from other causes of head injury in Karbala.Methods: 240 patients sustained head injuries admitted to neurosurgical ward and intensive care unit, from 1st of January till the last of August 2008 in Al- Hussein Teaching Hospital, those patients had been divided into five groups according to the cause of head injury, the following parameters were analyzed, which are age, sex, severity of head injury, other systemic injury, type of treatment, and the outcome of each group.Results: the study showed that patients with motorcycle accidents have the highest incidence (No. = 168, 70%), most of them were young, male, and carry the highest morbidity and mortality.Conclusion: motorcycle accidents account for the highest incidence of head injury in Karbala in 2008 which carry high morbidity and mortality.Recommendation:1. Educate motorcyclist about the preventive measures which should be taken like helmet wearing, limitation of the speed of vehicles.2.Strict traffic laws should be applied.


Article
Comprehension of Posted Highway Traffic Signs in Iraq
قابلية فهم سائقي المركبات للعلامات المرورية المعلقة في العراق

Author: Aodai Abdul-Illah Ismail
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2012 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-70
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Level of posted highway traffic signs (HTSs) comprehension by drivers is used to investigate the effectiveness of the posted HTSs in Iraq. Twenty four HTSs, different characteristics of drivers, and survey with questions of short answer and multiple-choice is selected for this aim. The study results show that there is an increase in the driver comprehension process of HTSs with the increasing of his level of education, level of urbanization of his residence and driving daily practice. Inverse relation occurred with the increasing of driver number of accidents. The results of this research show that it is very important to modify some of the HTSs so as to be easy for comprehending by making it more legible and more appropriateness, also it is recommended to educate drivers to raise there ability to understand the meanings of all the HTSs.

تم استعمال مستوى فهم سائقي المركبات لمعنى العلامات المرورية المعلقة لغرض تحديد كفاءة أداء هذه العلامات.لأجل هذا الغرض تم استعمال 24 علامة مرورية,استبيان لعدة خصائص مختلفة للسائق, و أسئلة من أنواع متعدد الخيارات و الإجابات القصيرة. أظهرت نتائج البحث تباين في مستوى قابلية السائق لفهم العلامات المرورية يرتفع مع ارتفاع كل من المستوى التعليمي, درجة تحضر منطقة السكن لسائق المركبة, و الممارسة لعملية السياقة. تنعكس هذه العلاقة حيث ينخفض مستوى فهم سائقي المركبات لمعنى العلامات المرورية مع ازدياد عدد الحوادث التي ارتكبها. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة انه من المهم جدا تطوير تصميم بعض العلامات الحالية لتكون أكثر وضوحا و تناسبا مع المعنى المراد منها. مع التوصية بتطوير العلامات المرورية لتكون أسهل فهما , بجعلها أكثر وضوحا وتناسبا مع المفهوم المراد منها. كذلك التوصية بتثقيف سائقي المركبات لرفع قدراتهم على فهم المعنى المراد من جميع العلامات المرورية.الكلمات الدالة: العلامات المرورية, الحوادث, قابلية الفهم, مستوى التعليم.


Article
CASUALTIES AND DEATHS FROM ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN DOHUK, IRAQ
الاصابات و الوفيات من حوادث الطرق في دهوك , العراق

Author: MOWAFAK M. NAKSHABANDI موافق محمد نقشبندي
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: eISSN: 20717334/ pISSN: 20717326 Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-22
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground Motor vehicle injuries have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. In developing countries, however, the impact of such injuries is rapidly increasing due to the increased passenger car ownership and low compliance to safety measures. In Iraq, as well as in other neighbouring countries, high rates of serious Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) have been reported. Aims The aim of the present study is to study the pattern of RTAs crashes, injuries and fatalities in Dohuk city, Kurdistan region in Iraq and to investigate any possible increase after 2003. Methods The study was conducted in Dohuk for a 2 year period 2003-2004. The data was collected from two main sources. The first was the emergency hospital in Dohuk. Information regarding age, gender, type and site of injury and clinical outcome were obtained from the statistical office of the hospital. The other source of data collection was the Directorate of Dohuk Traffic Police. Results The study revealed increases in RTAs casualties and fatalities (14.3% and 66.3% respectively) during the year 2004 in comparison with 2003. Fractures in different parts of the body constituted the majority of injuries. The most common types were skull fractures (31.9%) followed by lower limb fractures (23.3%). The study documented a total increase in the number of registered cars during 2003 – 2004 (132.2%) with a difference of (32.9%) for the year 2004 over that of 2003. Conclusion There have been increases in both casualties and fatalities due to RTAs in parallel with an increase in the number of imported second hand cars. Fractures of different parts of the body constituted the majority of injuries with evident male preponderance all through.


Article
Risk Factors and Pattern of Injuries in Motorcycle Accidents in Holy Karbala

Authors: Mustafa Waleed --- Mahdi.Abdul-Sahib --- Saad I. Al-Ghabban*,
Journal: Karbala Jorunal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1552-1560
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Background: Worldwide, the morbidity and mortality among motorcyclists involved in roadtraffic accidents is high. In Iraq, since 2003, there have been an increasing number ofmotorcycles in the streets; this phenomenon was particularly noticed in the Province of HolyKarbala.Objective: To shed light on the risk factors and pattern of injuries in motorcycle accidents inHoly Karbala.Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional, study.Setting: Al-Husain teaching hospital in Holy Karbala in Iraq, from 7th November 2010 to17th February 2011.Patients and Methods: This study involved all injured motorcyclists involved in road trafficaccidents who were admitted to the emergency department and their mortalities which werereferred to the medico-legal department (N=456). The information collected includedpersonal identification data, the person’s position on the motorcycle during the event, inaddition, the type and site of injury and the outcome of the victims were reported.Results: The mean age (± standard deviation) of the subjects was (24 ± 10.12 years); Morethan one quarter (25.7%) of the injured motorcyclists (26.1% of drivers and 22.7% of pillionpassengers) were within 15-19 years of age. Most of the drivers (61.7%) had low level ofeducation; 53.9% were smokers, 2.9% were alcoholics and 32.7% had history of previousaccidents of whom 35 (11.5% of them) had more than one accident. The lower limb was thecommonest site of injury (61.8% of patients); the upper limb and the head were the secondand third leading site of injury (26.1 % and 23.7% respectively). About half of the patients(49.8%) complained of fractures. More than quarter of the cases (25.6%) needed admission tothe wards or the intensive care unit. The case fatality rate was found to be 5%.Conclusions: Teenagers motorcycle drivers are the most commonly affected category inmotorcycle accidents. Lower limb injuries represent the commonest site and fracturesrepresent the commonest form of injury among motorcyclists involved in road trafficaccidents. A considerable proportion of cases need inpatient medical care. Head injuries werethe predominant cause of deaths


Article
Assessment of workplace hazards among working children in al amen city, Baghdad

Author: Ali Abd Ali Sahb Al Saidi علي عبد علي الساعدي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-20
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: One out of six children in the world today is involved in child labor, doing work that is damaging to his or her mental, physical and emotional development.Objective: Assessment of some health problems among the studied working children. Method; A cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Amen Primary Health Care (PHCC) during the period from January to August 2009, a sample of 6048 children were selected randomly(3218girls and2866 boys age between 5-17 years ) and interviewed to collect information using a structured questionnaire form, information related to different aspects of child labor prevention were included in the form as well as a general medical examination and laboratory assessment. Results:. The frequency of child labor was 10.95% among the children study, and the detection of work related illnesses among working children was observed in 402 working children(60.36%).While work related accidents was 264(39.63%).Both sexes showed difference in frequency of labor (77% boys and 23% girls).there was association between malnutrition and child labor(x2=64.11 ,df=1,p-value<0.05)also such a association with smoking habit (x2=98.53,df=1,p-value <0.05) .The highest frequency of child labor (32%)was found among 15-17 years age group of boys. While the highest frequency of child labor (11.71%)was found among 9-11 years age group of girls. Out of 666 working children there are 26 child with lead poisoning(3.90%).Conclusion: Child labor can induce many health problems among the studied working children


Article
Occupational Safety in the state Company for Refractors (An Analytical Study)
السلامة المهنية في الشركة العامة لصناعة الحراريات (دراسة تحليلية)

Author: Abid J. Al Kubaisi
Journal: AL-Anbar University journal of Economic and Administration Sciences مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الاقتصادية والادارية ISSN: 19988141 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 Issue: 7 Pages: 335-345
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Work accidents considered as an important problem that the state Co. for Refractories faces .This study aims to know the most import and factors that cause work accident inthis company through studying and analizing this problem in this Co. depending on sampling included (40) accidents forms for the period 1998-2002 .This research discussed the nature of work accidents in this Co. and their year number . Also Showed distribution of work accidents according to :-Departments , type of accident , its location Human body , age and education level . Finally conclusion and recommendation the researcher belives that they will contribute to build effective safety program for this company help to pervert work accidents

تعد ظاهرة حوادث العمل احدى المشاكل التي تعاني منها الشركة العامة لصناعة الحراريات.لذلك فأن هذه الدراسة تهدف الى التعرف على أهم العوامل ذات العلاقة بحوادث العمل من خلال دراسة وتحليل أصابات العمل في هذه الشركة بأعتماد المسح الميداني ومن خلال استمارة تقرير الحوادث المعدة لهذا العرض والبالغة(40)حالة للسنوات 1998-2002،للتعرف على طبيعة هذه الاصابات وعددها السنوي وتوزيعها بحسب اقسام الشركة وبحسب نوع الاصابة وموقعها من الجسم والسبب المباشر لحدوثها ،وكذلك حسب فئات العمر والمستوى التعليمي وقد تم استخلاص استنتاجات معينة بصدد هذه المشكلة يمكن في ضوئها تقديم التوصيات والمعالجات التي يمكن ان تسهم في وضع برنامج للسلامة المهنية في الشركة ،واعتماد الاجراءات الكفلية للحد من هذه الحوادث والاصابات


Article
MEDICO-LEGAL STUDY OF NON-FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES

Author: Nagi A Abdulla ناجي عبد الوهاب عبد الله
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 135-143
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Road traffic accidents are global problems, which represent one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide leading to unpleasant results on individuals, their families and their society.Objective:To study the incidence of road traffic accidents in relation to socio-demographic factors, and to find out the patterns and distribution of the resulting injuries.Method:This study included (375) victims of road traffic accidents whom were brought to the casualty room in AL-Gamhoria Teaching Hospital in Aden-Yemen for medical and legal evaluation during the period from 1st January up to 31 December 2010. Information collected consisted of personal identification data, and accident characteristics that were obtained from patients, close relatives, and other available persons who were present at the time of incidence.Results:Only 140 (37.4%) of victims were hospitalized. 32% of road traffic accidents (RTAs) was observed among those aged 21-30 years with predominance of male (82.9%). The illiterates were the victims in 38.7%, students (48%), and single (60%). Most of cases from middle and lower socio-economic classes (53.3% and 40%, respectively). Pedestrians (38.5%) and passengers (35.7%) were the victims in most of cases. Light motor vehicle was involved in 61.5%. Sideway and hit and run were the most common types of collisions seen in (33.3% and 30.2%, of all cases respectively). Most of the accidents occurred between 12.01pm to 06.00pm. Most of the accidents occurred during summer season, mainly in the weekend. Multiple superficial injuries like abrasions, contusions, and lacerations wee the commonest pattern of injuries. Limb injuries were the most (46.5%) followed by the head (26.4%). Conclusion:The middle aged group males were more common involved in road accidents. The pedestrians were mostly affected. The Injuries were mostly caused by light motor vehicles than other vehicles. Accidents were more common in the summer season and during weekend, in afternoon hours. Multiple superficial injuries were the commonest injury, and the head and limbs were the most common site of injuries among victims of non-fatal road traffic accidents.Key words:Non-fatal, road traffic accidents, injury patterns and distribution.


Article
دراسة مشاكل الزحام المروري قرب مدارس مدينة الحلة (حالات منتخبة)

Authors: ميعاد طه ياسين --- هناء محمد محان
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-203
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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This search starts by describing the problems and review the factors that increase the risk of traffic congestion near schools and give an idea of the status of traffic near schools selected for the study of the importance of its location in the center of the city of Hilla, namely, (Ibn Hayyan School, Al Gemhoriah primary School, Al Hilla Secondary School, Khansa Secondary School, Al Marefa primary School) and then select Find a series of questions posed to each of the parants of students and schools departments, shops and residents of the area adjacent to the schools and the traffic departments helped to analyze problems at the region and construct a set of proposals to improve the performance of traffic near the region of each school. It is through knowledge of the responses to the questions was to develop a methodology to evaluate and improve the traffic situation was the work of the program in Visual Basic "6" language (Traffic Safety Software (TSS)) is considered as a guide to determine the level of performance congestion near any school through the introduction of data represents reality traffic near the school selected. . Traffic congestion near the school means congestion and disruption of traffic in the streets near the school, which usually coincides with the reach of students to and from school. However, most research that the vast majority of the problems of traffic congestion near schools occur near primary and middle schools, Basic focus of this research is to find out the reasons for and the extent of the seriousness and ways to solve these problems for these schools too to apply the appropriate solution for a wide of other educational institutions.

يبدأ هذا البحث بوصف المشاكل واستعراض العوامل التي تزيد من مخاطر الزحام المروري قرب المدارس وإعطاء صورة عن وضع المرور قرب مدارس مختارة للدراسة لأهمية موقعها في مركز مدينة الحله وهي (مدرسة ابن حيان و الجمهورية الابتدائية و اعدادية الحلة و اعدادية الخنساءو المعرفة الابتدائية) ثم حدد البحث سلسله من الأسئلة التي طرحت على ذوي الطلاب وإدارات المدارس والمحلات وسكان المنطقة المجاورة للمدارس ودائرة المرور ساعدت على تحليل المشاكل في الموقع وبناء مجموعة مقترحات لتحسين الأداء المروري قرب موقع كل مدرسة. ومن معرفة الردود على الاسئلة تم وضع منهجية لتقييم وتحسين الوضع المروري تمثلت بعمل برنامج بلغة الفيجوال بيسك"6"(برنامج السلامه المرورية (TSS) Traffic Safety (Software يعد دليلا لمعرفة مستوى الاداء المروري قرب أي مدرسة بوساطة ادخال بيانات تمثل واقع المرور قرب المدرسة المختارة. الزحام المروري قرب المدرسة يعني الزحمة وتعطل السير في الشوارع بالقرب من المدرسة عادة ما يتزامن مع نقل الطلاب من المدرسة واليها. تشير أغلب البحوث الى أن الغالبية العظمى من مشاكل الزحام المروري قرب المدارس تحدث قرب المدارس الابتدائية والمتوسطة،فالبؤرة الاساسية لهذا البحث هي معرفة اسباب هذه المشاكل ومدى خطورتها وطرائق علاجها لهذه المدارس غاية ان يطبق الحل المناسب على مجموعة واسعة من المؤسسات التعليمية الاخرى.

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