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Article
Adherence to the standards of prescription chart among medical practitioners in Kurdistan region
الالتزام بمعايير مخطط الوصفات الطبية بين الممارسين الطبيين في إقليم كوردستان

Authors: Bootan A. Salih --- Rawaz D. Tawfeeq --- Rojgar H. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1356-1360
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Controlling medications safely, effectively and efficiently is essential to the delivery of high-quality care. This study aimed to point up prescription errors such as scientific or brand names, the strength of medications, the age of patients, date of prescriptions, specifying dose, dose interval, dosing frequency and dosage form, through systematic studying a certain number of prescriptions. Methods: This study screened the prescriptions from both of public and private sectors in the governorates of Erbil, Sulaimaniyah and Duhok. Adherence was assessed on the basis of these prescriptions charts. Excel program was utilized to evaluate the data in this study. Results: The study covered a total 283 prescriptions involving 976 medications in Kurdistan region. Only 19% of medications were mentioned as a scientific name and just 2% of prescriptions were written via computer. Direction for use of the medicines was only mentioned for 3% and the duration of treatment was scripted in 11%. Conclusion: Majority of medical practitioners in Kurdistan region are not adhering to the international standards of prescriptions.


Article
ADHERENCE OF CANDIDA ALBICANS TO UROEPITHELIAL CELLS

Authors: Ilham AM Al-Kawaz الهام عبد الواحد الكواز --- Abduladeem YA Al-Barrak عبد العظيم ياسين البراك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 364-370
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundUrinary tract infection (UTI) is usually associated with multiplication of microorganisms in urinary tract followed by adhesion of these organisms to the uroepithelial cells which is considered as the first step for colonization and infection. Adhesion of Candida on the epithelium of the urinary tract stands as the first step in the pathogenesis of Candidiasis. The adhesion process is under the impact of many factors.ObjectiveThis study was designed to determine the susceptibility of uroepithelial cells obtained from patients with different urinary tract diseases, for adherence with Candida albicans in vitro.MethodsForty eight urine samples collected from women attending Medical City Hospital-Baghdad suffering from urinary tract diseases and proved to have Candida growth. Ten urine samples were collected from apparently healthy age matched females and used as a control. The uroepithelial cells of each sample have been collected and incubated with Candida albicans cells and the percentage of uroepithelial cells with an adhered Candida cells (% EC). The mean number of Candida/epithelial cells (C/E) was estimated before and after adherence assay.ResultsKlebsiella infection showed the highest percentage of uroepithelial cells with Candida (%EC), next in frequency was samples with high number of uroepithelial cells, then, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, pus cells, and finally samples with high number of RBCs. This study indicates that receptivity of Candida adhesion to the uroepithelial cells of urinary tract have different affinity depending on the type of modulating factor surrounding these uroepithelial cells.ConclusionFrom the obtained data it can be concluded that urine findings including bacterial growth might modulate epithelial cell surface and increase their receptivity for Candida adherence.Key wordAdherence, Candida albicans, uroepithelial cells.


Article
A Novel Approach to Overcome Adherence Property of Candida albicans

Author: Shama M.J. Saadaldin
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2011 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 115-118
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The study is aimed to introduce a procedure that mimic the adherence of microorganisms to the plastic tube and to assess the suitable solution to irrigate these microorganisms. Candida albicans broth was inoculated into a 30 cm plastic tube for a certain period of time to allow the adherence of microorganism to the inner surface of tube. Tubes were irrigated with distilled water, tap water or different concentrations of sodium chloride (0.1-0.9%). The results showed that the percentage of Candida albicans which adhered to the inner surface of tube ranged between 0.27% and 30% of the initial inoculum. Tap water was superior than distilled water in removing the adherent Candida. Sodium chloride in concentrations 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% completely removed the attached Candida while the other concentrations showed inconsistent results. It concludes that irrigation with water or certain sodium chloride concentrations, which interfere with the fluidity of Candida albicans, is the simple and best method to eliminate the adherent microorganisms

: هدفت الدراسة الى ايجاد طريقه تماثل التصاق فطر المبيضات على بطانة الانابيب البلاستيكية وايجاد افضل المحاليل لازالة التصاق هذه المبيضات.طريقة العمل: تم تمرير مرق فطر المبيضات في انبوب بلاستيكي بطول 30 سنتمتر لمده معينة من الزمن سمح لهذه المبيضات الالتصاق على جدران بطانة الأنبوب. تم غسل الانابيب بالماء المقطر و ماء الحنفيه وبتراكيز مختلفه من كلوريد الصوديوم بنسب تراوحت بين 0،1% و0،9%. تم مراقبة الكثافة البصرية لمرق فطر المبيضات وكذلك محاليل سقي الأنبوب بوساطة مقياس الطيف الضوئي عند طول موجي 620 نانوميتر.النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ان نسبة المبيضات التي التصقت على بطانة الانبوب البلاستيكي تراوحت بين 0.27 و 30% من الجرعة الملقحة. كان سقي ماء الحنفيه افضل من الماء المقطر في ازالة المبيضات الملتصقة، كما لوحظ ان سقي كلوريد الصوديو (تركيز 0.3 % و 0.6% و 0.9 %) أزال المبيضات الملتصقة في جميع النماذج بينما اظهرت التراكيز الاخرى نتائج متباينة. كما واظهرت النتائج انه لا توجد علاقة بين قابليه سقي المحاليل في ازالة التصاق المبيضات وبين جرعة المبيضات الملقحة. الاستنتاج: نستنتج من هذه الدراسه ان طريقة السقي بالماء أو بتراكيز معينة من كلوريد الصوديوم الذي يتداخل مع سيولة المبيضات هي افضل وابسط الطرق لازالة التصاق فطر المبيضات.


Article
The effect of black seed oil extracts on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro)

Authors: Baydaa H. Abd-Awn بيداء عبد عون --- Zainab A. Al-Dhaher زينب الظاهر --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The black seed or Nigella sativa has been used for centuries to promote health and fight disease. Thisplant has a great focus for research due to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and hypotensive effects. Thisstudy was conducted to assess the effect of the black seed oil extract on sensitivity of mutans streptococci and theadherence to tooth surface in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: Four different concentrations of black seed oil extract (1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were preparedusing ethanol as a solvent for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the black seed oil extract against mutansstreptococci isolated from saliva of volunteers and compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate using agar diffusiontest, followed by determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the black seed oil extract.Three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) were used in the adherence study whereby a stainless steel wires werethreaded from one end in the roots of previously cleaned, polished and sterilized first premolars, which were thenimmersed in 10 ml of the agent for 2 minutes, followed by washing with sterilized deionized water. The teeth werethen immersed in 10ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth and inoculated with 2% of bacterial isolates and incubatedaerobically at 370C for seven days. A positive score was given to the microbial growth on wire, teeth and bottleindicating a non-effective treatment and vice versa.Results The study showed inhibition zones for black seed oil extract which were found to be increased as theconcentration of the extract increased. The MBC of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci was 10%.The results also showed that the oil extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of mutans streptococci to toothsurface at a concentration of 10%.Conclusion: The black seed oil extract has a bactericidal effect against mutans streptococci at a concentration of10%, and can inhibit the adherence of these microorganisms to tooth surface


Article
Polymer- Nanoparticles Composites for the Reduction of the Bacterial Adherence to Surfaces

Author: Muna Sabbar AL-Rubiae
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 17-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The medical device is one of the sources of nosocomial infections; the adherence of the bacteria on the surface of this device is the first step in the medical device related infection. In this study nanocomposite of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/titanium oxide nanoparticles (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 wt %) and copolymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/titanium oxide nanoparticles (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 wt %) were used to investigate the ability of the nanocomposite for the reduction of the bacterial adherence to the surfaces. The microorganisms which is used in this study include (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia). After an incubation of microorganisms with nanocomposites for 2 hours, it was found that the adhered bacterial cells were significantly reduced on all of the TiO2-containing nanocomposites in the comparison with control polymer. The reduction is reached to 60.82% with10% TiO2 in ABS for P. aeruginosa. The results of the S. aureus adherence on nanocomposite are revealed a significant reduction in the number of adhered bacteria and reached to 73.71% with 20% TiO2 in PMMA. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticales on the K. pneumonia adherence appeared very clear and the reduction uis reached to 90.04% with 10% TiO2 in ABS.


Article
Neomycin sulfate: A new antifungal and antiadherent agent against Candida albicans cells on heat–cured acrylic resin denture base material. An in vitro study

Authors: Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman --- Nagham H Kassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 139-142
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Neomycin sulfate is an antibacterial agent. In this research, the antifungal and antiadherent effect of neomycin sulfate on Candida albicans that colonize the heatcured acrylic resin denture base material was evaluated. The results showed a significant effect compared with the control group. This effect is similar to the effect of the known antifungal agents (fluconazol and chlorhexidine) and lesser than (nystatin).


Article
The effect of some antifungal agents and chlorhexidine on Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin denture base surface (In vitro study)

Authors: Nagham H Kassab --- Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman --- Tariq Y Kassab–Bashi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2004 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-72
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The adherence of Candida albicans on acrylic resin denture base surface is considered as the first step in the pathogenicity of candida–associated denture stomatitis which is the most prevalent form of oral candidiasis in denture wearers. This study was an in vitro study aimed to evaluate the anifungal effect of fluconazole, nystatin and chlorhexidine and their antiadherent effect on Candida albicans cells that attached on the fitting surface of denture base. It was determined, using broth microdilution method at two concentrations for each drug, and the results were determined using spectrophotometer. All drugs had a highly significant antifungal effect on Candida albicans isolate at their two concentrations. The effect of saliva on the adherence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of denture base was also considered. This study concluded the importance of saliva in increasing the microbial adherence; i.e., the mean number of adherent cells on acrylic resin samples in the absence of saliva was 7.4 + 1.9 cell/mm2 and with the presence of saliva the number was 29.1 + 2.7 cells/mm2. The number of remaining adherent cells was counted using fluortescent microscope. The mean number of remaining cells which adhered on acrylic resin samples after the immersion in first concentration fluconazole, nystatin and chlor-hexidine for one hour respectively were 4, 5 and 2.6 cells/mm2 and for the second concentration/1 hour the numbers were 3.2, 4.1 and 1.7 cells/mm2 compared to the normal number of adherent cell 29.1 + 2.7 at p<0.01.


Article
ADHERENCE OF TYPE 1 FIMBRIATED ESCHERICHIA COLI TO UROEPITHELIAL CELLS OF WOMEN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS
التصاق بكتريا القولون Escherichia coli المهدبة بخمل النمط-1 بالخلايا الطلائية البولية لنساء مصابات بمرض السكري

Author: Rita N. Rammo
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 369-376
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Adherence of type 1 fimbriated Echerichia coli to uroepithelial cells of diabetic and non-diabetic women as well as the inhibition of adherence by the presence of anti-type 1 fimbriae at different dilutions have been studied. One hundred thirty nine isolates were collected from different clinical sources. Ninety isolates were characterized as E. coli by morphological, microscopic and biochemical tests. Sixty one % of the E. coli isolates were identified as being type 1 fimbriated, mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA) and the rest (39%) as being non-type 1 fimbriated, mannose resistant hemaggllutination (MRHA). The number of type 1 fimbriated E. coli adhered to uroepithelial cells isolated from diabetic women (41.04 ± 2.43) was about twice that of control (16.48 ± 2.3). Partially purified type 1 fimbriated E. coli was mixed with Freund's adjuvant (CFA and IFA) and subsequently injected subcutaneously into rabbits via three injections in 2 weeks intervals. Anti-type 1 fimbriae (antibodies ) that had been raised in rabbit blood serum were pre-incubated with type 1 fimbrated E. coli. Inhibition in adherence ranged between 62 to 72 % depending on the dilution of antisera. Moreover, it has been found that low dilution of antisera causes higher inhibition of type 1 fimbriated E. coli to diabetic uroepithelial cells.

تم دراسة التصاق بكتريا Escherichia coli المهدبة بخمل النمط 1 بالخلايا الطلائية البولية الماخوذة من نساء مصابات بالسكري و أخر غير مصابات بالسكري (سيطرة) إضافة الى دراسة تأثير تثبيط الالتصاق بواسطة وجود ضد خمل النمط 1 بتراكيز مختلفة. جمعت 139 عينة من مصادر سريرية مختلفة و شخّص 90 عزلة منها كونها E. coli بواسطة الصفات المظهرية و المجهرية و الكيموحيوية. أظهرت ( 61 %) من عزلات E. coli كونها تحوي على خمل النمط 1 اعتمادا على اختبار التلازن الدموي و حساسيتها للمانوز, و(39 %) على انها لا تعود الى خمل النمط 1 إعتماداً على اختبار التلازن الدموي ومقاومتها للمانوز. وجد بأن عدد بكتريا E. coli الملتصقة بالخلايا الطلائية البولية المعزولة من نساء مصابات بالسكري (04¸41 ±43¸2) هو اكثر من الضعف لحالة عينات السيطرة (8 4¸16 ±3¸2). مزج خمل النمط 1 لبكتريا E. coliالمنقى جزئياً مع مساعد فروند (الكامل و غير الكامل) وحقن تحت جلد الارانب بثلاث حقن بين فترات أمدها أسبوعين. أجري التحضين المسبق لضد خمل النمط 1 (أجسام مضادة) الناشئة في مصل الدم المستحصل من الارانب مع بكتريا E. coli المهدبة بخمل النمط 1. وجد بأن التثبيط في الالتصاق يكون في المدى بين 62 - 72 % إعتماداً على درجة تركيز مصل الضد. فضلاً عن ذلك فقد وجد بأن التركيز الواطيء لمصل الضد يسبب تثبيط أعلى لالتصاق خمل النمط 1 لبكتريا E. coli مع الخلايا الطلائية البولية المتّسمة بالسكري.


Article
Assessment of Patients’ Adherence to Therapeutic Recommendations after Ischemic Heart Diseases in Al-Najaf City
تقييم التزام المرضى بالتوصيات العلاجية بعد الاصابة بامراض القلب الناتجة عن قلة التروية في مدينة النجف

Authors: Diaa Kareem Abd-Ali --- Halima Yusuf Al-Rubaiyee
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 138-148
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) continue to become a global health problem, and affect a millions of people worldwide. Also the cardiovascular diseases affect people at all ages and it's not just a disease of elderly. Objectives To assess of patients adherence to therapeutic recommendations after ischemic heart diseases. And to find out the association between the patients’ demographic and clinical data and their adherence to therapeutic recommendations. Methodology descriptive Study is carried out in Al-Najaf Health Directorate / Al-Sadder Medical City/ Al-Najaf Center for Heart Diseases and Surgery, from June, 5th, 2013 to April, 10th, 2014. A non-probability (purposive sample) of (102) patients with ischemic heart diseases (angina and myocardial infarction), were included in the study. The data are collected through the use of a questionnaire, which consists of three parts one includes Socio-demographic and clinical data form, part two, includes patients adherence to therapeutic recommendations form. The data were described statistically and analyzed through use of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis approaches. Results The study results show that the patients with ischemic heart diseases are fairly adhere to therapeutic recommendations. And there is a significant relationship of the residency, gender, and the patients occupational status on their adherence to therapeutic recommendations.Conclusion, There is a deficient in the patients' adherence to therapeutic recommendations.Recommendations, An intensive comprehensive studies could be conducted to assess the patients adherence to therapeutic recommendations and the factors that may affect such adherence, with a suitable solutions for these factors to improve the level of patients adherence.

خلفية البحث : تستمر أمراض القلب لتصبح مشكلة صحية عالمية, و تؤثر على ملايين الأشخاص في العالم. و كذلك تؤثر أمراض القلب على الأشخاص في جميع الأعمار و هي ليست أمراض تصيب كبار السن فقطالهدف: تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى تقييم التزام المرضى بالتوصيات العلاجية بعد الإصابة بأمراض القلب الناتجة عن قلة التروية. وإيجاد العلاقة بين الخصائص الشخصية والسريرية للمرضى مع مستوى التزام المريض بالتوصيات العلاجية. المنهجية: أجريت دراسة وصفية في مدينة الصدر الطبية / مركز النجف لأمراض و جراحة القلب في محافظة النجف, للفترة من الخامس من حزيران, 2014 ولغاية العاشر من نيسان, 2014. اختيرت عينة غير احتمالية "غرضيه" تكونت من (102) مريض يعاني من أمراض القلب الناتجة عن قلة التروية (الذبحة الصدرية و الجلطة القلبية). وجمعت المعلومات من خلال استخدام الاستبانة المكونة من ثلاثة أجزاء تكون الجزء الأول من البيانات الشخصية و السريرية للمرضى. والجزء الثاني شمل نموذج التزام المرضى بالتوصيات العلاجية. تم وصف و تحليل البيانات باستخدام الإحصاء الوصفي والاستنباطي. النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسة إن المرضى اللذين يعانون من أمراض القلب الناتجة عن قلة التروية ملتزمين بصورة متوسطة بالتوصيات العلاجية . و هنالك علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية للإقامة, الجنس, و الحالة المهنية للمرضى على مدى التزامهم بالتوصيات العلاجية. الاستنتاج: هنالك ضعف بالتزام المرضى بالتوصيات العلاجية. التوصيات:العمل على إقامة دراسات مكثفة و شاملة لتقييم التزام المرضى بالتوصيات العلاجية و العوامل المؤثرة على مدى التزامهم, و إيجاد حلول مناسبة لتلك العوامل لتحسين مستوى التزام المرضى.


Article
Adherence to Treatment among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Erbil City
الالتزام بالعلاج بين المرضى المصابين بالانسداد الرئوي المزمن في مدينة اربيل

Authors: Sarhang Qadir Ibrahim --- Dler Hamad Ismael --- Chnar Salahaddin Qadir
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-40
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is now widely recognized as a major global public health problem. The objective of this study was to assess the level of adherence to treatment among COPD patients and relationship with somevariables in the study.Methodology:A cross sectional study design was undertaken among 75 COPD patients in 2015, to collect the data the questionnaire was used according objective of studythrough interviewing in 20 minutes. Itis including demographic information and adherence to treatment; data wereanalysis by descriptive and inferential statistics Result: The total mean score of adherence to treatment 25.65 ±9.91. Majority of COPD patients was not adherence to treatment 61.3% and a major factor for non-adherence is forgetfulness. There were significant association between level of adherence and age (p=0.019), gender (p=0.018), level of education (p=0.002), readmission to hospital (p=0.011) and cigarette smoking (p= 0.017).Conclusion: Accordingtoresults of the study most of COPD patients were poor adherence in physical exercise and effective cough. In general, more than half of COPD patients were poor adherence to treatment.Recommendation: Nurses should set up a set of standard nursing care activities that promote the understanding of adherence to treatment among COPD patients.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم َ مستوى الاتزام بالعلاج بين المرضى المصابين بالانسداد الرئوي المزمن في مدينةِ أربيل وعلاقته بمتغيرات الدراسة إذ اصبح الان هذا المرض مشكلة صحية واسعة النطاق في أغلب شعوب العالم.المنهجية: دراسة مقطعية اجريت على75 مريض مصاب بالانسداد الرئوي المزمن في عام 2015، ولجمع البيانات تم تصميم استبيان لغرض تحقيق اهداف الدراسة وتم جمع المعلومات من المرضى من خلال المقابلة الشخصية. وشمل الاستبيان على تلك المعلومات الديموغرافية ونموذج الالتزام لعلاج الانسداد الرئوي المزمن وتم تحليل البيانات باستعمال الإحصاء الوصفي والاستنتاجي.النتائج: ان متوسط الدرجات الكلي للالتزام بالعلاج كانت(25.65 ±9.91)إذ ان اغلبية مرضى الانسداد الرئوي المزمن 61.3% لم يلتزموا بالعلاج والعامل الرئيسي لعدم الالتزام هو النسيان. كان هناك علاقة معنوية بين مستوى الالتزام والعمر (P =0.019)، والجنس (P = 0.018) ومستوى التعليم (P = 0.002)، وعدد مرات الدخول الى المستشفى (p= 0.011)، و تدخين السجائر (P = 70.01 ) .الاستنتاج: حسب نتائج الدراسة أن اغلب العينة لمرضى الانسداد الرئوي المزمن كان التزامهم ضعيف للعلاج بإداء الانشطة البدنية والقيام بالسعال بشكل عام اكثر من نصف العينة من المصابين بالإنسداد الرئوي المزمن كانت التزامهم بالعلاج ضعيف.التوصیات: يجب على الممرضات ان تقوم بإعداد مجموعة الانشطة التمريضية المثالية والتي تعزز فهم الالتزام بالعلاج بين مرضى الانسداد الرئوي المزمن.

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