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Article
Assessment of bone marrow angiogenesis using F VIII-related antigen and its relationship to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in multiple myeloma.

Author: Subh S. AL- Mudallal صبح المدلل
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 180-185
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant clonal expansion of plasma cells. Previous studies had demonstrated that both bone marrow angiogenesis as measured by microvessel density (MVD) and PCNA were increased in variety of malignant disorders, including multiple myeloma. Objective: Assessment of angiogenesis in bone marrow of MM patients by using immunohistochemical stain to measure microvessel density (MVD) using factor VIII –related antigen and to evaluate the expression of PCNA antigen in plasma cells of MM bone marrow sections . Also to find the correlation between these two parameters and between them and the percentage of plasma cells infiltration in bone marrow of MM.
Patients, materials andmethods:This retrospective study was conducted from May2007 toJaunary 2008 on 37 bone marrow biopsies diagnosed as multiple myeloma, along with 10 age matched control subjects who had reactive plasmacytosis of less than 10% in their bone marrow. The cases were retrieved from recording archive files of Department of Pathology in the Teaching Laboratory of Medical City Hospital, laboratory of Al- Yarmouk hospital and AL-Yarmouk National Center of Haematology.Three sections were taken from each formalin fixed paraffin embedded bone marrow trephine biopsy of MM and of control cases. One representative section was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), while the other two sections were stained immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen as an endothelial cell marker, and for PCNA as an indicator of the proliferative state of myeloma cells All stained sections were examined by light microscopy and the mean vessel density (MVD) was estimated and was used for statistical analysis. For immunostained PCNA cells, thelabeling index scoring system of Alves et al was adopted for estimating the percentage of positive nuclear staining.
Results:This study revealed that there was a significant increase in bone marrow angiogenesis and in the expression of PCNA in plasma cells of patients with multiple myeloma compared to control cases. Moreover this study showed that PCNA correlated significantly with bone marrow microvessel density and both parameters correlated significantly with the percent of plasma cell in the bone marrow of patient with multiple myeloma.
Conclusion : Both PCNA and angiogenesis as expressed by MVD were increased in multiple myeloma and both of them correlated with the percentage of plasma cell infiltration which reflected the activity of the disease .Moreover the proliferative activity of plasma cell as represented by PCNA expression was closely related to angiogenic activity , thus it can be proposed that both markers reflect the disease activity and they may provide additional information when included in the initial evaluation of myeloma bone marrow biopsies .


Article
Angiopoietin-2 Immunohistochemical Expression in Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma

Authors: Ban F. Al-Drobie --- Intisar Abdel-Jabbar Al-Sarraf
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2019 Volume: 31 Issue: 4 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: There are various secreted proteins affecting the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and one of them is Angiopoietin-2(Ang-2) which is thought to have an essential role in the development and progression of the tumor.Aim of the study: This study was conducted to determine the expression of (Ang-2) in (OSCC) to assess its correlations with clinicopathological parameters of the tumor.Material and Methods: 36 formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks histologically diagnosed as OSCC were examined for Ang-2 immunohistochemical expression semi quantitively. Results: The expression of Ang-2 was significantly associated with histopathological grade (P value=0.023), while there is no significant association with the clinical parameters analyzed in OSCC patients. Conclusion: A significant association between Ang-2 expression and histopathological grade of OSCC may predict its biological behavior.

Keywords

OSCC --- angiogenesis --- Ang-2


Article
The Prognostic Role of (CD34) In The Angiogenesis of Endometrial Adenocarcinoma

Author: Lubab Fadhil Talal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-86
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastases. Recently ,studies showed that microvessel density (MVD),a measure of tumor angiogenesis has found to have a prognostic significance for predicting metastases and survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma and identifying patients at high risk for recurrences . The aim of this study is to understand the correlation between the MVD and various clinicopathological factors in endometrial adenocarcinoma in order to evaluate the role of angiogenesis in the assessment of the biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma and to prove that MVD can be used as a valuable prognostic factor and can detect high risk patients for post-operative recurrence who may need adjuvant therapy after surgery . PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-one (41) cases were included in this study ; one case is normal endometrium in the proliferative phase , 5 cases with sever endometrial hyperplasia and 35 cases with endometrial adenocarcinoma taken from the Pathology Department at the Medical City and Private Pathology Laboratory between the years 2000-2004 . Paraffin blocks cut in two sections ; one for Haematoxylin & Eosin stain and the other for CD34 immunostaining slides were studied well for tumor grade ,stage ,myometrial invasion and pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes metastases . The mean MVD was studied by scanning the tumor sections at a low power X40 and X100 then identifying areas of highest neovascularization (hot spots) .Five hot spot areas were selected from each section ,and the MVD were counted at X200 magnification (x10 ocular ,x20 objective) by taking the mean of those microvessels. The correlation between mean MVD and various clinicopathological factors were studied including the age ,tumor grade ,stage ,myometrial invasion and pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes metastases . RESULTS : CD34 is a reliable and sensitive endothelial cell marker used in the assessment of tumor angiogenesis The study showed that a significant statistical correlation was found between the mean MVD and patients age , tumor grade and myometrial invasion. While there were no statistical correlation significance between the mean MVD and tumor stage and pelvic & paraaortic lymph nodes . CONCLUSION : We conclude that MVD is important in the assessment of the biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma , where it is an indicator for the emergence and growth of tumor and it is important to detect patients at high risk of recurrences and to decide the post-operative adjuvant therapy


Article
Uses of CD31 monoclonal Antibody for the Assessment Of Angiogenesis as a prognostic Factor in Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Author: . Ikbal A.H.AI-Kaptan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-59
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background &objectives: Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, progress and the metastasis of solid tumors. This study was done to determine the significance of angiogenesis as another prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma in an attempt to identify the patients at high risk of recurrences after surgical therapy who may benefit from postoperative adjuvant therapy.In this study the correlation between the microvessel count(MVC) and the various clinicopathological factors was investigated. A highly significant statistical correlation was found between the mean microvessel count in different histological grades and the stage of gastric adenocarcinoma .No correlation was found between the MVC and the age and sex of the patients , the size, location and the macroscopical appearances of the tumorsPatients and Methods: Fifty seven cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were reviewed from private pathology laboratories during the period between 2000-2002 , including 33 males and 24 females. The age ranged between 20-80 years ,the peak incidence was in the sixth decade . The specimens were formalin- fixed paraffin embedded, and the 5 microns thick sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin stains .Immunohistological staining with CD 31 was performed on all sections. The microvessel count (MCV) was performed on the areas of the highest neovascularization i.e. hot spots. Five hot spots were selected the MVC was done under X200 magnification in light microscope .The relationship between the MVCand the variousclinicopathological factors were assessed. ( Statistical analysis was done using SPSS system version 10.0 computer software. Student “T” and “F” test were used and the differences were regarded as significant when the P value was less than 0.05.Result:: Using CD 31 an endothelial cells marker monoclonal antibody shows that the MVC was 35 in well differentiated adenocarcinoma and 48.22 in the poorly differentiated tumors. In tumors with no serosal invasion the MVC was 26.5 while in case s with serosal invasion the MVC was 87.7. In cases of negative lymph nodes metastasis the MVC was 27.7 while in cases with positive lymph nodes metastasis the MVC was 43.56.Conclusion : Evaluation of angiogenesis by counting the microvessels using the monoclonal antibody CD 31 as an endothelial cell marker on tissue sections proved to be a helpful and a useful prognostic factor to predict the poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.


Article
A Study Of Angiogenesis In Human Colorectal Tumors By Using Anti-Cd34 Antibody

Author: Nabil Salmo
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 4 Pages: 425-433
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumorigensis; several reports have described a significant increase in microvessel density (MVD) in colorectal carcinogenesis There are several methods to measure the angiogenesis in neoplasms, but immunohitochemistry seems to be the mainstay of all. This method enable us to measure the tumor microvessel densities highlighted by using antibodies directed against endothelial cell markers like CD31,CD34 or others; then assessment of MVD by manual count of the number of microvessels in what appears to be the most vascular area of the tumor(called the hot spot) using a protocol described by Weidner et al.Automated cellular imaging system is used to analyze immunohistochemically stained slides .studies have shown that the device offers accurate precision and reproducibility of immunostained slide analysis exceeding that possible with manual evaluation which was the prevalent method . Aims of the study: To assess the angiogenesis in normal, adenomatous (benign) and malignant colorectal tissues using CD34 and the microvessels will be measured both manually by hot spot method as the MVD and by the use of computerized image analysis system as fraction area ,we correlate between microvessels density and fraction area with various clinicopathological parameters in colorectal cancer (CRC), and to a compare between the results which obtained from both methods. Methods: Paraffin embedded archival materials from 50 cases including three normal resection (non tumoruos) margins, 12 benign colonic lesions and 35 colonic adenocarcinoma were used . 5mm section were cut and they were stained by anti CD34 antibody Angiogenesis was measured as MVD by two methods : manually by light microscope and by a computer image analysis system (as fraction area). Then the MVD and fraction area were correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. Results : This study demonstrate that there is a statistical difference in MVD and fraction area in both hot spot method and CIAS respectively between benign and malignant tumors . P value < 0.05 in hot spot method and less than 0.001 in CIAS and there was highly significant correlation between MVD and fraction area with the grade . There was significant increase in MVD and fraction area from well differentiated to moderately differentiated and to poorly differentiated .There was no significant correlation between MVD and lymph node involvement by hot spot method but CIAS proved a significant correlation between fraction area and lymph node involvement.Both methods (hot spot and CIAS) proved no significant correlation with age , sex , size of the tumor , site of the tumor , stage of the tumor and the number of lymph node involverment . Conclusions: Assessment of tumor vascularity by counting the microvessels using anti CD34 antibody is useful in quantifying angiogenesis in colorectal adenocarcinoma . Intratumoral microvessels count (by manual and computerized method) is important in the assessment of the biological behavior of CRC. Microvessel count is higher in malignant tumors than benign tumors and it is correlated with the tumor grade and higher MVD is associated with lymph node metastasis . Statistically no significant correlation was found between MVD and age, sex of the patients, tumor size, site, stage, histological type and number of lymph node metastasis . The use of CIAS for assessment of angiogenesis is reliable, reproducible and more precise than the manual method.


Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF CD34, SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN AND TYPE IV COLLAGEN IN BREAST CARCINOMA. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

Authors: Ban J Qasim بان جمعة قاسم --- Alaa G Hussein علاءغني حسين --- Rasha F Salih رشا فوزي صالح
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 148 -153
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Tumoral angiogenesis is essential for the growth and spread of breast cancer cells.Objective: To evaluate angiogenesis by measuring microvessel density (MVD) with CD34 and its maturity with smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry and to study invasion of basement membrane by tumor cells using type IV collagen.Methods: In the present study microvascular quantification was undertaken on 52 cases of breast carcinoma and 5 cases of benign breast lesions after immunohistochemical staining of tumor vessel, using CD34 antibody and SMA antibody. Microvessel quantification was performed at x400 magnification in the three most vascular areas of the tumors (hot spots).Results: The difference in MVD between benign and malignant cases is significant (P= 0.001). MVD is significantly correlated with L.N. involvement (P=0.004) and lymphovascular permeation (P=0.001), no statistical significant correlation between MVD and age of patient (P=0.656), tumor size (P=0.052), tumor grade (P=0.324).Conclusion: Measurements of angiogenesis may have clinical utility in the evaluation of breast cancer, particularly for estimation of metastatic risk. A high MVD may be a poor prognostic marker of breast carcinoma and a target for antiangiogenic therapy.Key words: Angiogenesis, CD34, SMA, Collagen IV, breast carcinoma.

Keywords

Angiogenesis --- CD34 --- SMA --- Collagen IV --- breast carcinoma


Article
Assessment of microvessels density and inflammatory status in oral lichen planus

Author: Ban F. Al- Drobie بان فاضل الدروبي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 43-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune inflammatorypathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of OLP, usingCD34 stain to highlight the blood vessels for measuring the microvessel density (MVD) as well as to evaluate therelation of this marker with the degree of inflammationMaterials and Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining technique was used to evaluate angiogenesis usingCD34 in 46 paraffin blocks 10 of them obtained from normal mucosa and 36 from cases diagnosed as lichen planus ,20 of them diagnosed as Reticular type while 16 as erosive type. Severity of inflammation was divided into mild,moderate and severe according to the number of mononuclear cell infiltrate.Results: The mean MVD as determined by the mean number of CD34 positive vessels in hot areas for OLP group washigher 39.2 (31.9 for reticular group & 48.375 for erosive group), whereas the mean MVD for control group 19.5 so thatthere was statistically significant difference between OLP group and the control group (p value<0.001). Regardingthe severity of inflammation mean MVD was significantly increased as the degree of inflammation increased ( pvalue<0.001).Conclusion: Angiogenesis may be an integral component associated with the development of the OLP


Article
Assessment of Periodontal Health Status and Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Areej A. Abdul-Hafidh اريج عبد الفتاح --- Maha Sh. Mahmood مها شكري محمود
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases that affect theperiodontium which lead to alveolar bone and attachment loss.Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide.Expression of (VEGF) is elevated in both diseases and it is themarker of angiogenesis related to cancer development. 1. Todetermine the periodontal health status and the serum levels of(VEGF) in women with breast cancer in comparison to womenwithout breast cancer. 2. To correlate between serum levels ofVEGF with clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD,and CAL) in women with breast cancer in comparison to womenwithout breast cancer. Eighty women with age ranged from (30-60) years old, 40 women with breast cancer and another 40 womenwithout. Periodontal health status were taken for all participantsand then they were subdivided into four groups: the (BC +CP)group which included participants with breast cancer and chronicperiodontitis (n=20), the (BC+ G) group included participants withbreast cancer and gingivitis (n=20), the (CP) group which includedparticipants with chronic periodontitis only (n=20) and the (G)group which included participants with gingivitis only (n=20).Other than breast cancer, all subjects were systemically healthyfemales. Periodontal health status was determined by clinicalperiodontal examination of (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD and CAL). Bloodsamples were collected from each participant, serum levels ofVEGF were determined by enzyme -linked immune-sorbent assay(ELISA). The results of this study showed that the median valuesof PLI and GI were slightly increased in BC+G group incomparison to other groups with non-significant differences, thepercentages of BOP showed highly significant differences amongthe groups (P <0.01). The median values of PPD showed slightincrease in BC+CP group than CP group with non-significantdifferences. Median values of CAL were increased in CP groupthan BC+CP group with non-significant differences. VEGF serumlevels were elevated in BC+CP group than other groups with nonsignificantdifferences. Also by using Spearman’s rank CorrelationCoefficient, serum levels of VEGF were correlated positively withall clinical periodontal parameters. VEGF serum level could beassociated with progression of both periodontal diseases and breastcancer.


Article
Vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and polymorphism C936T in Iraqi patients with ovarian carcinoma

Author: Maisaa G. Jumaa1 , Khalid K. Tobal2 , Mohammed Ghanim3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 137-148
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study aimed to shed light on the association between the angiogenic factor VEGF gene expression and its genetic polymorphism VEGF C936T in the angiogenesis of ovarian cancer. A total of 44 Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from patients with different stages of newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were provided by certain Iraqi hospitals as well as 14 samples of patients with benign ovarian tumors tissues as a control group were used in this study. The results detected that VEGF mRNA in ovarian cancer samples was statistically significant compared to benign tumors(p value=0.039<0.05). The samples were divided into high and low mRNA-expression depending on the mean value of VEGF gene expression in benign tumors which used as a cutoff, the results showed that high statistical significant differences (P value = 0.0023<0.01) between high mRNA-expressing samples 30(76.9%), and low mRNA-expressing samples 9(23.07%). Statistical no significant differences were detected in compare with other histopathology tumor types. In correlation with stages, statistically significant difference was found between 31 (79.4%) of samples with stage I which showed the highest level of expression(P=0.0210<0.05). The result of VEGF C936T polymorphism showed that out of 42 ovarian cancer patients 24(57.14%) were homozygous for the C/C genotype, 11(26.2%) were heterozygous C/T and 7(16.66%) were homozygous T/T. High significant prevalence of the VEGF 936C allele was detected in both ovarian cancer patients (P value 0.0019 <0.01) and benign ovarian tumors (P value 0.0026 <0.01) as compared with VEGF 936T allele. The study showed that the average of VEGF gene expression in ovarian cancer patients carrying the +936CT+TT genotypes (1.815116, 2.298769) was significantly lower than that in ovarian cancer patients with the VEGF+936CC genotype (4.395884). Same results were obtained from patients with benign ovarian tumors. In conclusion the present study investigated that the presence of the VEGF+936 T allele is associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer since the C936T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with lower VEGF plasma levels.


Article
The Endoglin (CD105) Expression as a Marker of Tumour Vasculature in Urinary Bladder Tumours of Iraqi patients

Authors: Hind M. Mousa --- Amna N. Jassem --- Munther J. Hussain
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2017 Issue: Special Issue C Pages: 93-98
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The Endoglin CD105 is a good marker for metastatic in solid tumors . It has a role in angiogenesis process which mediates blood vessels formation. The aim of this study to evaluate CD105 immunoexpressions in bladder tumors, and to determine its relation with clinico-pathological grades in patients with UBC . The study included 50 biopsies from patients with urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC) and 15- benign bladder biopsies from patients with other bladder disorders rather than cancer (UBD). CD105 immunostaining was assessed using Envision method . Immunohistochemical (IHC) studying showed that (CD105) proteins were significantly high expressed in UBC compared with UBD patients (80% vs. 33.3 % ; p≤ 0.01) , and there was significant difference in the positive IHC results of this protein in correlation to clinico-pathological grades in UBC patients (p≤ 0.01) . we conclude that CD105 IHC expressionin bladder cancer may be consider as prognostic marker .

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