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Article
Assessment of Apoptosis in Women Using Oral Contraceptives

Authors: Saad M. Nada --- Abdalgani I.Yahya --- Worood K. Shalish
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1247-1252
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of the study was the examination of the effect of birth control pills (Yasmin) on women who utilized the pills by measuring the percentage of apoptosis. The investigation was based mainly on the calculation of the apoptosis percentage of blood lymphocytes in women who used the pills for different durations. The results of the presented study was obtained from 25 women handling birth control pills and 15 women who had not used pills. According to the period of contraceptive pills treatment, the samples were classified into two categories: (2-5) years and (6-8) years. Results showed that the percentage of apoptosis in pills handling women (2-5) years were (7.08%) while the results were (12.2%) in women who used birth control pills (6-8) years. In addition, the results values were significantly different (P≤0.05) from those in control, which were (0.18%). Based on the results obtained in this study, it is concluded from that the percentage of apoptosis increase with the prolonged use of Yasmin.

Keywords

apoptosis --- Yasmin.


Article
Alteration Of Trophoblastic Tissue Apoptosis And Their Role In Toxoplasmosis Induce Miscarriage
تغييرات موت الخلايا الفسلجي في النسيج المغذي للجنين (التروفوبلاست) ودوره في حث الإجهاض في داء المقوسات الكوندية

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ABSTRACT:Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii) , a common protozoan parasite. T. gondii infection occurs worldwide and it is one of the most common infections in humans. The infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingestion of food and water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats . In addition, it has been established that T. gondii can be transmitted from a recently infected mother to her fetus. During pregnancy the primary infection may lead to severe if not fatal complications for the fetus. These direct effects can lead to spontaneous miscarriage, stillbirth or congenital anomalies .apoptosis in villous trophoblast is increased in pregnancy complications such as Toxoplasmosis infection. From our study we found that Toxoplasma gondii downregulated apoptosis when caspase 3 and caspase 9 levels were investigated using immunohistochemistry technique .Aims of Study: So the aims of this search are to investigate the levels of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 expression within T.gondii infected trophoblastic cells and their association with infection. Method: Fifty patients (aborted women), Their range age between (16 − 46) years, were included in this study. All patients sera were subjected to Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG . In addition , trophoblastic tissues from the same patients were taken to confirm the infection of the T.gondii and to evaluate the expression of caspase 9 and caspase 3 using immunohistochemstry method.Results : Immunehiostochamical technique is more sensitive than ELISA in diagnosis of T. gondii when 18 patients were positive for Toxoplasmosis by immunohistochemistry While in ELISA only 16 patients were positive for specific anti – Toxoplasma IgM. The levels of Caspase3 and caspase 9 were downregulated in infected group.Conclusion : Caspase 9 expression and Caspase 3 expression are significantly highly decreased in women with spontaneous miscarriage in T.gondii positive group compared to patients control group indicating that Toxoplasma gondii downregulated apoptosis.

خلاصة البحثالمقوسات الكوندية هي طفيليات وحيدة الخلية شائعة . وتحدث الإصابة بها في كل أنحاء العالم . وهي واحدة من اهم الإصابات الشائعة في الإنسان . وتحدث الإصابة بها عادة بهضم اللحم النيئ او المطبوخ بصورة غير كافية والحاوي على كيس النسيج الحي اوبهضم الغذاء او الماء الملوث بالبيوض المطروحة من قبل القطط .بالإضافة الى ذلك داء المقوسات الكوندية ممكن انتقاله من الام المصابة حاليا الى جنينها .خلال الحمل الاصابة ممكن إن تسبب مضاعفات شديدة إن لم تكن مميتة الى الجنين . هذه التأثيرات المباشرة تقود الى الإجهاض التلقائي , ولادة جنين ميت وتشوهات خلقية . موت الخلية الفسلجي في النسيج المغذي للجنين يزيد من مضاعفات الحمل مثل الاصابة بالمقوسات الكوندية .من دراستنا وجدنا انه المقوسات الكوندية تؤدي الى تقليل موت الخلايا الفسلجي عندما تم قياس مستويات انزيم قاطع متسلسلة حامض الاسبارتيك الثالث والتاسع في النسيج المغذي للجنين ( التروفوبلاست ) باستخدام الفحص الكيميائي النسيجي .أهداف البحث :-لملاحظة مستويات تعبير إنزيم قاطع متسلسلة حامض الاسبارتيك الثالث والتاسع ضمن خلايا التروفوبلاست المصابة بالمقوسات الكوندية وعلاقتهم بالإصابة .طرق البحث :- تضمن الدراسة خمسون مريضة ( امرأة مجهضة إجهاض تلقائي ) أعمارهم ما بين 16-46 سنة . أخضعت مصل المريضات الى فحص الاليزا للكشف عن IgMو IgG الخاص بالمقوسات الكوندية بنفس الوقت النسيج المغذي للجنين اخذ من نفس المريضات لتأكيد الإصابة بالمقوسات الكوندية ولقياس تعبير إنزيم قاطع متسلسلة حامض الاسبارتيك الثالث والتاسع باستخدام الفحص الكيميائي النسيجي . النتائج:-الفحص الكيميائي النسيجي أكثر حساسية من الاليزا في فحص المقوسات الكوندية . عندما وجد 18 مريضة موجبة لمستضدات المقوسات الكوندية باستخدام الفحص الكيميائي النسيجي بينما في فحص الاليزا وجد 16 مريضة فقط موجبة للمــضاد المناعي نوع (م (. وان مستويات إنزيم قاطع متسلسلة حامض الاسبارتيك الثالث والتاسع قد قلت في المجموعة المصابة . الاستنتاج :- مستويات تعبير إنزيم قاطع متسلسلة حامض الاسبارتيك الثالث والتاسع هناك فرق معنوي عالي بين المجموعة الموجبة للمقوسات الكوندية مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة مما يدل على إن المقوسات الكوندية قد قللت الموت الفسلجي للخلايا.


Article
PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN PATIENTS WITH
الموت المبرمج للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون

Author: أریج حمد جعفر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 242-249
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn this study forty cases were investigated for evaluation of apoptosis in patientswith colon cancer by using the TUNEL assay. The results showed that the number ofTUNEL positive colonic epithelial cells were significantly different from that in thecontrol group and the frequencies and percentages of apoptosis between patients andcontrols were statistically significant (p < 0.05)

الخلاصةفي هذه الدراسة تم أستقصاء 40 عینة لتقییم الموت الفسلجي للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون بالاعتماد علىبین (Tunel positive) أظهرت النتائج وجود إختلاف معنوي في عدد الخلایا الموجبة .(Tunel) تقنیة ال.(p< المرضى ومجموعة السیطرة ( 0.05

Keywords

Colon Cancer --- Apoptosis.


Article
Nickel Nitrate induce apoptosis in liver of mice

Author: Khalid H. Gathwan
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الاول للتربية للعلوم الصرفة Pages: 37-42
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Liver is a vital organ of the body engaged in various metabolic, secretary and biotransformation activities. Any damage to liver can impair any all of these functions. In the present study the toxic effects of nickel (Ni) on the liver structure of male of mice . Nickel (Ni) is an industrial and environmental pollutant of aquatic system has attracted the attention of research's all over the world. Male Balb /c mice weighing 30-32 gm, 50 days old, was treated orally with (1-12 ) mg/kg body wt., NiNo3. The liver weight, histological examination of liver, along with DNA ladder for apoptosis was studied . Nickel induced both a time, and dose dependent increase in apoptotic, severity of necrosis. Liver weight, decreased with increase of dose. It has been concluded that nickel caused necrotic effect in liver and apoptotic as well as decrease liver weight

Keywords

: Nickel --- necrosis --- mice --- apoptosis


Article
Effects of Exhaustive Exercise on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

Authors: Israa F. Ja'afar اسراء فائق --- Balsam F. Abid بلسم فاروق
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Acute exercise stress is associated with a lower lymphocyte functional response. It is suggested that exercise can enhance or reduce immunity depending on the frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise.Subjects and Methods: From November 2007 to January 2008, thirty healthy Volunteers were recruited from medical, paramedical staffs, and students of Baghdad College of Medicine (all males). Participants were chosen according to the following: (1)Age (between 20 and 35 years), (2) Non obese : Body mass index (BMI in kg/m2) was used as an index of obesity, (3) Non-smoker, (4) No recent medical problem, (5) No recent medications, and (6) No musculoskeletal complaint. After a general medical checkup, the thirty subjects were subjected to the exercise protocol. Blood samples were taken before, and immediately after the end of exercise. Results: The mean age of individuals enrolled in the study was 29 ± 4years. Exercise induced significant granulocytosis whereas lymphocytes declined to a level significantly below the baseline. Trypan blue exclusion test showed that the initial percentage of nonviable lymphocytes was 2.90% ± 0.2%. After exhaustive exercise, cell viability decreased where percentage of nonviable cells was 4.3% ± 0.3% (p<0.005). Early apoptotic lymphocytes showed membrane blebbing and did not take the dye, while dead cells appeared blue from dye uptake. MDA was 3.0 ± 0.23 nmol/ml. An increment in the mean value of MDA was observed in the post exercise blood sample that was withdrawn immediately after exercise (p<0.005).Conclusion: The present study shows that exhaustive exercise induces apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes manifested by increased level of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. This finding supports the hypothesis that apoptosis could be involved in exercise-induced lymphocytopenia and this effect depends on exercise intensity. Keywords: Apoptosis, Exercise, MDA, lymphocyte.

Keywords

Apoptosis --- Exercise --- MDA --- lymphocyte.


Article
Novel Synthetic 3-Amino-2-Methylquinazolin-4(3H)- one (L) Induce Apoptosis and Modulate Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Some Cancer Cell Lines
مقدرة مركب amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one(L على حث الموت المبرمج وتحوير فعالية الأنزيمات المضادة للأكسدة في عدد من الخلايا السرطانية

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Abstract

A quinazoline ring possess interesting biological activities, we study the combined cytotoxic activity, induction ofapoptosis and antioxidant enzyme modulation of new synthetic aquinazoline compound in several cancer cell lines.This compound is 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (L), it was synthesized in the laboratories of Department ofApplied Science - University of Technology – Iraq. Its showed potent cytotoxic and growth inhibition effect on all cancercell lines tested. Cells death was due to the induction of apoptosis through modulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione S transferase (GST) and glutathione (glutathione L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH). These results indicatethat this compound has desirable drug-like properties; it’s of great significance to understand its full anti-proliferativemechanism.

تمتلك المركبات المشتقة من حلقة الكوينازولين فعالية بايولوجة مميزة ، جرى التحري عن تثبيط النمو و السمية الخلوية وحث الموت المبرمج وقدرة تحوير فعالية الأنزيمات المضادة الأكسدة لأحد المركبات الجديدة المشتقة من هذه الحلقة والذي صنع في مختبرات قسم العلوم التطبيقية-الجامعة التكنولوجية وهو المركب3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one(L) وذلك في عدد من الخطوط الخلايا السرطانية . والذي أظهر مقدرة عالية على قتل الخلايا السرطانية عن طريق حث الموت المبرمج من خلال تحوير فعالية الأنزيمات المضادة للأكسدةSOD و GST و GSHفي تلك الخلايا . يظهر هذا المركب قدرة دوائية مثيرة للأهتمام تتطلب المزيد من البحث.


Article
Histological study of the effect of aflatoxin on liver and kidney of female Wistar rats
دراسة نسيجية لتأثير الافلاتوكسين على كبد وكلية إناث الجرذان البيض

Author: Fareed H.Abdul-Ahad فريد حنا عبد الأحد
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2006 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-42
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Female albino rats were given different oral doses (20 , 40 , and 80 μg/kg) of aflatoxin for 6 weeks. Clear suppression in the body weights was recorded especially in higher doses.The lower doses caused increase in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes in the liver ,while the higher dose (i.e.80 μg/kg )caused necrosis of the hepatocytes accompanied by lymphocytes infiltration . Dose-dependent histological alterations in epithelial cells lining kidney tubules were noted. The main mode of cell death detected in kidney was programmed cell death having the main characteristics of apoptosis such as shrinkage of the cells , condensation and fragmentation of nucleus , hypereosinophilia of cytoplasm and in which no inflammation was seen .

تم إعطاء إناث الجرذان البيض جرعات عن طريق الفم (20،40 ،80 ملغم /كغم من وزن الجسم ) من مادة الافلاتوكسن لمدة ستة اسابيع متتالية. لوحظ كبت واضح لوزن الجسم ولاسيما في الجرع العالية. وقد سببت الجرع الواطئة زيادة في أعداد الخلايا الكبدية الميتة غير أن الجرع العالية ولاسيما 80 ملغم /كغم من وزن الجسم سببت تنخر الخلايا مصحوباً بترشحات لمفاوية. ولوحظت تغييرات نسيجية وحسب الجرع في الخلايا الطلائية المبطنة للنبيبات الكلوية0ان طريقة الموت الرئيسية للخلايا هي الموت الخلوي المبرمج والمتصفة بانكماش الخلايا وتكثف النواة أو تقطعها وفرط الايوسين للسايتوبلازم مع عدم حدوث التهاب.

Keywords

aflatoxin --- liver --- kidney --- apoptosis --- necrosis


Article
Effect of Moderate Exercise on the Level of Melatonin Hormone and Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Israa F. Ja'afar --- Huda Arif Jassim --- Alaa G. Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 88-94
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is important for promotion of the immune system. The immune responses to exercise are dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise performed. During exercise, metabolic and hormonal changes occurred that can induce lymphocyte apoptosis. Melatonin is one of the hormones that are affected by exercise, it is a pineal gland hormone, its production and secretion followed a circadian pattern, onset of darkness stimulate its secretion, while day light suppress its production. Melatonin is regarded as an anti-aging hormone; it has a role in the elimination of harmful lymphocytes which may give rise to chronic inflammation and possibly to autoimmunity. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to elucidate the effect of moderate endurance exercise on melatonin hormone and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis in healthy subjects. METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects with a mean age of (37.05 ± 13.02) year, participated in the study. They were subjected to moderate exercise session which lasted for 60 min and repeated 3 times per week for 3 months. The exercise intensity was 50-60% of heart rate reserve (according to Karvonen formula). Two exercise stages were performed; the first stage include 30 minute of physical activity program and the second stage include 30 minute of treadmill exercise. Blood sample were collected before and after exercise to examine its effect on the level of melatonin hormone and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocyte. RESULTS: This study showed significant increment in the level of melatonin hormone and the percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis after exercise in comparison to pre exercise values for each week along the period of the test (P < 0.05). Three months exercise showed a significant correlation with the levels of melatonin hormone (P= 0.008, r= 0.44), and with percentage of lymphocyte apoptosis (P = 0.001, r= 0.701). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that moderate exercise for three months was associated with increased percentage of periphral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and increased level of melatonin hormone in the first two months while in the third month this anti aging hormone had reached a steady state after the subjects get trained to exercise


Article
Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2)-Induced Apoptosis in Liver of Mice

Author: Khalid Hamdan Gathwan خالد حمدان
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Pages: 309-312
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that affect adversely a number of organs in humans and other mammals.Objectives: To study the effect of cadmium on liver of mice. Material and Methods: Male Balb/c mice weighing 30-32 gm, 60 days old, were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with (1-10mg/kg body wt. /CdCl2). The body weight, liver weight, histological examination of liver, SEM, metal analysis along with DNA ladder for apoptosis.Results: Cadmium induced both a time, and dose dependent increase in apoptotic, severity of necrosis. Liver weight, body weight decreased with increase of dose, while metal content was increased by increase of dose.Conclusion: It has been concluded that cadmium caused necrotic effect on liver and apoptotic as well as decreased body weight and liver weight.Key words: Cadmium, mice, metal analysis, apoptosis.

Keywords

Cadmium --- mice --- metal analysis --- apoptosis.


Article
Apoptosis and Necrosis Levels in Chemotherapy Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients
مستوى الاستماتة و التنخر عند مرضى ابيضاض الدم المزمن المقاومين للعلاج الكيميائي

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Abstract

The results showed that CLL patients chemotherapy treatment increase the expression of Bcl2 gene (via measuring the phosphatidylserine -PS level) which increased apoptosis and necrosis percentage. It is also showed that the Necrotic cells (%) were found to be significantly higher in patients samples (1.07 ± 0.03) than in healthy (0.17 ± 0.02) with no significance in viable cells (%) (82.88% in patients and 86.8% in healthy). The apoptotic cells % were found to be significantly higher in patients (15.04 ± 1.03) than healthy (4.40 ± 0.5). On the other hand, late apoptosis % showed no significant results (0.639 % in patients and 0.803 % in healthy).

بينت النتائج أن المعالجة الكيميائية لمرضى ابيضاض الدم المزمن أدت الى زيادة تعبير المورث و ذلك من خلال قياس مستوى الفوسفوتايدل سيرين و الذي أدى الى زيادة نسبة الاستماتة و التنخر. بينت النتائج أيضا أن نسبة التنخر كانت عالية معنويا عند مجموعة المرضى (1.07 ± 0.03) مقارنة مع الاصحاء(0.17 ± 0.02) وعدم وجود فرق معنوي بينهما في حيوية الخلايا 86.8%) و 82.88% على التوالي ) . كما أن نسبة الخلايا المستماتة كانت عالية معنويا ايضا عند المرضى مقارنة (15.04 ± 1.03) مع الاصحاء(4.40 ± 0.5) بينما كانت نسبة الاستماتة المتأخرة غير معنوية بينهما ( 0.803 % و 0.639 % على التوالي ) .

Keywords

CLL --- Apoptosis --- Bcl2 --- Mutations --- PCR

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