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Article
Prevalence of dental attrition among 5-11 year-old children in Albu-Etha village (Baghdad)

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي --- Shanaz M. Ghafour شاناز غفور
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 105-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental attrition is one of the problems affecting the tooth structure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental attrition.Materials and methods: a sample of 98 children aged 5-11 years in Albu-Etha village in Baghdad was examined according to Hansson and Nilner classification.Results: The results showed that boys had higher attrition scores than girls and most of the diagnosed dental wear was of a grade II and mostly in the canine regions. Dental wear of primary teeth was found mostly in the canines while dental wear of permanent teeth was found mostly in the incisors.Conclusion: Dental attrition was found to be higher in permanent teeth than in primary teeth.


Article
Probabilities Maps In Homogeneous Combat
الخرائط الاحتمالية في المعارك المتجانسة

Authors: buraaq subhy براق صبحي كامل --- essam kamal عصام كمال خليل
Journal: Journal of Research Diyala humanity مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية ISSN: 1998104x Year: 2011 Issue: 50 Pages: 616-648
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Lanchester- type attrition models refer to the sct of differential equation models that describe changes, over time, in the force levels of combatants and other significant variables that describe the combat process. Lanchester-type models express casualties attrition in terms of force size, and other associated variables and how they change over time Lanchester differential equation models have gained importance through their ability to provide insight into the dynamics of combat.This paper focused on derivative Mathematics of the Lanchester Square Law (aimed fire) and Mathematics of the Lanchester Linear Law (area fire) , we calculated the rate and attrition equations by The Kolmogorov Differential equations and markov transition equations finally we offered Discussion & Conclusion.

تشير نماذج الاستنزاف التفاضلية نوع Lanchester الى مجموعة من المعادلات التفاضلية التي تصف تغيرات مستويات قوة المعركة ومتغيرات اخرى مهمة في المعركة عبر الزمن.
تعبر النماذج المذكورة اعلاه عن الاصابات (الخسائر) من حيث حجم القوة ومتغيرات اخرى مرتبطة بها , لقد كسب نموذج الاستنزاف نوع Lanchester اهمية من خلال اعطاءها معرفة وبصيرة للمعارك الديناميكية .
تناول البحث اشتقاق معادلة قانون التربيع الرياضي النار المصوبة (Aim Fire)
لنموذج Lanchester والمعادلة الخطية (Area Fire) للنموذج ذاته وتمت حساب نتائج المعركة وحالة الانتصار لكل طرف من اطراف التنافس .
كما تناول البحث نماذج Lanchesterللخرائط الاحتمالية العشوائية وقد تم حساب معادلات ومعدلات الاستنزاف لكل حالة من حالات الانتصار والهزيمة لكل متنافس وقد جرى الحل من خلال معادلات Kolmogrov كذلك معادلات Markov الانتقالية واستعرضت الاستنتاجات والنتائج .


Article
Tooth attrition patterns in a group of Iraqi adults sample with different classes of malocclusion (A comparative study)

Authors: Issam M. Abdullah عصام عبد الله --- Ausama A. Al- Mulla اسامة احمد الملا
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-119
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Tooth attrition is wearing away of tooth structure during mastication. This study investigated tooth wearpatterns in adults with different classes of malocclusion and compared them with normal occlusion.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 363 subjects that were divided into 5 groups with an age range “18-25” years: 85 normal occlusion, 128 class I with crowding, 90 class II division 1, 30 class II division 2 and 30 class III.Dental wear was assessed by using a modified version of the tooth wear index.Results:1. The class I malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in incisal surfaces of maxillary central and lateralincisors, and mandibular lateral incisors than did the normal occlusion.2. The class II division 1 group had statistically greater tooth wear in the occlusal surfaces of maxillary secondpremolars, mandibular first and second premolars. Buccal surfaces of mandibular canines, mandibular secondpremolars and mandibular first molars than did the normal occlusion.3. The class II division 2 malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in labial surfaces of mandibularcentral and lateral incisors. Buccal surfaces of mandibular second premolars, mandibular first molars. Occlusalsurfaces of maxillary first and second premolars and mandibular second premolars than did normal occlusion.4. The class III malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in the occlusal surfaces of maxillary first andsecond premolars than did normal occlusion.Conclusion: In conclusion subjects with normal occlusion and those with different classes of malocclusions havedifferent tooth wear patterns


Article
Occupational dental wear among El-Kubasis cement factory workers - An observational study

Authors: Mohammed I. Abdulla محمد عبد الله --- Athraa M. Al-Waheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 135-137
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Loss of tooth structure may be due to tooth to tooth contact and presence of abrasive components inthe work environment. The aim of study was planned to evaluate the occurrence of dental attrition among Cementfactory workers.Material and Method: The Sample included all workers chronically exposed to cement dust in the EL-Kubaisa cementfactory (95 workers). A comparative group of workers (97) were non-exposed to cement dust was selected. Allworkers were males in gender with age range (25-55) years. The assessment of tooth wear was based on the criteriaof smith and knight, 1984.Results: The maximum tooth wear score for exposed workers was 84.2% while non exposed workers was 38.1%,withstatistical differences between two groups was highly significant (P<0.01). The maximum tooth wear score amongworkers exposed to cement dust according to duration (<10years), (10-20 years) and >20 years) was (52.2 %), (92.3%)and (100%) respectively, with statistical differences was highly significant (P< 0.001). While the maximum tooth wearscore among workers exposed to cement dust according to wearing mask was found to be statistically notsignificant (P> 0.05).Conclusion: Work environment was related to dental wear

المقدمة : إن فقدان بنیة الأسنان قد یكون سببھ الرئیسي ھو تآكل الأسنان مع وجود مواد تساعد على الاحتكاك في بیئة العمل. إن الھدف من ھذه الدراسة ھو تقییم وقوع تآكل الأسنان بینعمال مصنع الاسمنت.المواد و العمل : شملت العینة جمیع العمال المعرضین بشكل مزمن لغبار الاسمنت في مصنع اسمنت كبیسة ( 95 عاملا) . مقارنة مع ( 97 عاملا) غیر معرضین للغبار . جمیع العمال. 55 ) سنة. واستند تقییم تآكل الأسنان على معاییر سمیث و نایت ، 1984 - ذكور و في الفئة العمریة ( 25النتائج : الحد الأقصى لدرجة تآكل الأسنان للعمال المعرضین للغبار كان 84.2 ٪ بینما العمال غیر المعرضین للغبار كان 38.1 ٪ ، مع فروق ذات دلالة إحصائیة بین مجموعتین20 سنة) و ( اكبر من 20 سنة) ھو ( 52.2 - وكان أقصى درجة تآكل الأسنان بین العمال المعرضین لغبار الأسمنت وفقا لمدة ( اقل من 10 سنة) , ( 10 . (P< كان كبیرا للغایة ( 0.01في حین تم العثور على الدرجة القصوى لتآكل الأسنان بین العمال المعرضین لغبار الأسمنت وفقا . (P < ٪ 92.3 ) و ( 100 ٪ ) على التوالي ، بفروق إحصائیة عالیة ( 0.01 ) ،(%.(P> لارتداء الكمامات مع فرق غیر معنوي ( 0.05الاستنتاج : بیئة العمل متعلقة بحالة تآكل الأسنان.


Article
Syrian War of Attrition - (Israeli) in 1974
حرب الاستنزاف السورية - (الإسرائيلية) عام 1974

Author: Ahmed Ali Abdullah Salih أحمد علي عبدالله صالح
Journal: Journal Of Al-Frahedis Arts مجلة آداب الفراهيدي ISSN: 26638118 (Online) | 20749554 (Print) Year: 2018 Volume: I Issue: 34 Pages: 220-241
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The sectarian conflict between Jewish and Palestinian Arabs arose in the early 20th century، culminating in a large-scale war in 1947، which included a campaign of ethnic cleansing and massive displacement of Palestinians from their villages and towns، and became the first Arab war in May 1948 following the declaration of the State of Israel . The Palestinian cause and the conflict with the enemy (Israeli) a large amount of time، after the Arab countries fought a number of wars with the Zionist enemy، especially countries that have a common border with (Israel). Began with the so-called war of attrition that began in Syria in early 1974 to drain the capabilities and energies of the enemy (Israeli)، as well as to achieve military and political gains before the signing of the separation of forces agreement. It was necessary for the Syrian political leadership to recalculate and work to regain the initiative، not only the political and military reactions، so it decided not to reject the political negotiation process and at the same time to confirm its military presence. A war of attrition started on the Golan Heights beginning March 12، 1974، (82) days in which the Israeli occupation forces inflicted heavy losses on lives and equipment. The Syrian military operations led to the achievement of the objectives set by the Syrian leadership، and after having suffered large losses، Israel had to abandon its intransigent position، which affected its internal situation after it saw the determination and hardness of the Syrian leadership to continue this war until its results were achieved. On the walls by the soldiers (the Israelis) indicate their low morale.

نشأ الصراع الطائفي بين اليهود والعرب الفلسطينيين في أوائل القرن العشرين، وبلغ ذروته في حرب واسعة النطاق في عام 1947 تخلله حملة تطهير عرقي وتهجير كبرى للفلسطينيين من قراهم ومدنهم، وتحول إلى الحرب العربية (الإسرائيلية) الأولى في أيار 1948 عقب إعلان قيام دولة (إسرائيل(. أخذت القضية الفلسطينية والصراع مع العدو (الإسرائيلي) متسعاً كبيراً من الوقت، بعد أن خاضت الدول العربية عدد من الحروب مع العدو الصهيوني ولاسيما الدول التي لها حدود مشتركة مع (إسرائيل). بدأ بما يعرف بحرب الاستنزاف التي انطلقت في سورية في مستهل عام 1974 لاستنزاف قدرات وطاقات العدو (الإسرائيلي)، فضلاً عن تحقيق مكاسب على الصعيدين العسكري والسياسي قبل توقيع اتفاق فصل القوات . كان لابد للقيادة السياسية السورية أن تعيد حساباتها وتعمل على استعادة زمام المبادرة، فلا تكتفي بردود الفعل السياسية والعسكرية، لذلك قررت أن لا ترفض عملية التفاوض السياسي وفي الوقت نفسه تؤكد وجودها عسكريا، فبدأت حرب استنزاف في هضبة الجولان ابتداءً 12 آذار 1974 واستمرت بها قرابة ثلاث أشهر (82) يوماً كبدوا فيها قوات الاحتلال ا(لإسرائيلي) خسائر فادحة في الأرواح والمعدات. أدت العمليات العسكرية السورية إلى تحقيق الأهداف التي وضعتها القيادة السورية، واضطرت إسرائيل بعد أن تكبدت خسائر كبيرة إلى التخلي عن موقفها المتعنت مما أثر على وضعها الداخلي بعد أن شاهدت تصميم وصلابة القيادة السورية على الاستمرار في تلك الحرب حتى تحقيق نتائجها المرسومة لها، وقد شوهدت كتابات على الجدران من قبل الجنود (الإسرائيليين) تدل على تدني الروح المعنوية لديهم .


Article
An Investigation into Non Carious Tooth Wear and Associated Clinical findings

Author: Faraedon M. Zardawi
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-48
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction: Non carious lesions are multicausal clinical status with wide diversity of prevalence among individuals and populations.Several etiologic backgrounds may simultaneously play role in the incidence of this condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of non carious tooth wear and to point out the strength of correlation between occlusal, incisal and cervical tooth wears and the most eminent associated clinical findings.Materials and methods: 338 patients 174 male and 164 female their age ranged from 20 to an opened range over 50 years were examined by one examiner. A comprehensive dental and periodontal examination was performed to identify presence and extension of non carious lesions by applying simplified scoring criteria for tooth wear index. Examination of hypersensitivity was performed by applying Wong-Backer faces pain rating scale. A questionnaire form included information regarding oral hygiene performance, type of tooth brush, method and frequency of tooth brushing. Dietary habits such as snakes and acidic food or drink consumption. Parafunction and smoking habit was also included. (Chi Square test) was applied to present the strength of association between tooth wear and the other variables investigated in this study.Results:A significant association was detected between the 3 types of tooth wear. These lesions are age dependent with no significant differences in their incidence between male and female. Frequency and type of tooth brush found to have a significant effect on non carious tooth wear. Furthermore, the study recorded significant relations of tooth wear to parafunction, extracted posterior teeth and gingival recession. However, no significant relation was detected between tooth wear and some other variables examined in this study such as dietary habits acid food and drink, smoking, dental caries, gingival bleeding and periodontal pockets.Conclusion: Several causes found to participate in the occurrence of tooth wear. Frequently develops under functional and parafunctional occlusal and incisal contact between the teeth in maxillary and mandibular arch that wear enamel and dentine away with age. It also weakens dental structure at the cervical portion of the teeth to wear off under the effect of tooth brushing and acid food and drink.

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