research centers


Search results: Found 11

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by

Article
Prevalence of Silent Bacteriuria in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Firas Elias Douri
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 60-64
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus and it’s complications continue to carry a major health problem. There is evidence thatdiabetics are more prone to urinary tract infection.AIM OF THE STUDY:The study was done to assess the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in patients with no urinarysymptom.METHODS:Midstream urine samples were collected from 200 diabetic patients. There were 102 females and 98 malesand 80 urine samples from non diabetic persons as control were screened for bacteriuria.RESULTS:Out of 200 diabetic urine samples 18 patients [9%] had significant bacteriuria while 2 urine samples[2.5%] of non diabetic samples has significant bacteriuria. Three types of bacteria were isolated fromurine samples,Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus, and Proteus and Escherchia coli was the high in numberamong the other genera.CONCLUSION:Analysis of the results showed significant bacteriuria in diabetic patients compared with non diabeticpatients {p value < 0.05}.


Article
Validity of pyuria and bacteriuria (detected by Gram-stain) in predicting positive urine culture in asymptomatic female children

Authors: Rajah JT Al-Ma'amoory --- Saleh J Alwan --- Ahmed S AlNaaimi --- Tariq Al-Hadithi --- et al.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 349-353
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

AbstractBackground & Objectives: Early diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a cost effective tool in preventing harmful complications in asymptomatic children. The present study assess the validity of two simple and cost saving parameters, namely pyuria determined by general urinalysis and bacteriuria (detected by Gram-stain), in predicting urinary tract infection (established by positive urine culture).Methods: A total of 600 healthy females children less than seven years of age were included in this study. Urine was collected by clean-catch technique. Fresh uncentrifuged urine specimens were examined for pyuria, while Gram-stained specimens were used to detect bacteriuria. Bacterial cultures were set on agar plates. A bacterial colony count of 105/ml of urine was considered as an evidence of significant bacteriuria and established the diagnosis of UTI.Results: The rate of positive urine culture tends to increase with the increasing number of pus cells detected by urinalysis. It also shows a significant positive trend with bacteriuria detected by Gram-stain. Pyuria at cut-off value of  10 pus cells/mm3 of urine provides the best working parameter for validity giving a positive predicting value (PPV) of 92.3% and a negative predicting value (NPV) of 94.2%. Bacteriuria (detected by Gram stain) at cut-off value of  3 bacteria/HPF provides the best working parameter for validity giving a positive predictive value of 85.7% and negative predictive value of 94.1%. Parallel combination of the two criteria is associated with 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value. On the other hand, serial combination of both criteria is associated with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value.Conclusion: It is recommended to use both significant pyuria and bacteriuria (detected by Gram-stain) in parallel combination as a screening tool for asymptomatic UTI since their joint sensitivity is 100% in addition to being cheep and easy to perform.Key words: Asymptomatic UTI, pyuria, bacteriuria.


Article
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant and Diabetic Women

Authors: Shaymaa Ali Gauad --- Falah Salim Manhal غلاح سالم منهل
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen from an individual without symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection. Aim of study: To evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria according to age, pregnancy, and type II diabetes mellitus in a sample of Iraqi women. Patients and Methods: A total of 125 female individuals were involved. The study participants were classified into the following groups: non-pregnant women with type II diabetes mellitus, pregnant women with type II diabetes mellitus, pregnant women without type II diabetes mellitus, and apparently healthy non-pregnant women. Urine and blood specimens were tested to record positive urine culture, pyuria, and blood glucose according to standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: Frequency of positive urine culture and pyuria in the total pregnant women was 7 (14%) and 15 (30%), respectively, whereas frequency of positive urine culture and pyuria in the total diabetic women was 8 (16%) and 23 (46%), respectively. The bacterial isolation rate in the studied groups was 13 (10%). E-coli recorded the highest isolation rate, 6(5%). There was no significant culture positive of urine specimens in the groups of diabetic non-pregnant, diabetic pregnant, and women with normal pregnancy (P-value< 0.05). Pregnant women with culture positive urine and pyuria were more likely to have perinatal mortality. Sterile pyuria was detected in pregnant women aged 18-45, those in third trimester, and in multiparous pregnant women. There was significant positive urine culture and a highly significant pyuria in diabetic women with BMI > 25. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality. Sterile pyuria is a significant observation in pregnant and diabetic women; therefore it should bring more attention. Recommendations Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is appropriate for pregnant women but it is not recommended for diabetics. The study advised to perform urine culture as a part of the antenatal check-up for pregnant women.


Article
Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Baquba- Diyala Province

Authors: Sawsan Talib Salman سوسن طالب سلمان --- Nadhim Ghazal Noaman ناظم غزال نعمان --- Anfal Shakir Motib انفال شاكر متعب
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Pregnancy causes many changes in the pregnant women, due to mechanical and hormonal changes which lead to ureteral dilatation and urinary stasis which contribute to the  increased risk of developing urinary tract infection. Subject and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in antenatal care clinic from March during October 2012 to study the epidemiology of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Results: out of 200 pregnant women who were included (24%) and (14%) with ≤20 years old age group were asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively, and (56%), (64%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic in age group 21-30 years old , while in those ≥ 31 years age group was (20%) and (22%) asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively. The asymptomatic bacteriuria was (77%) and it was higher among 31-40 weeks of gestation than other weeks of gestations (p= 0.006).The nulliparous was (27%) asymptomatic and (21%) symptomatic, where para1- para3 was (56%) asymptomatic and (65%) symptomatic and para4 and above was (17%) asymptomatic and (14%) symptomatic. Escherichia coli was (42.3%) more than other species.Conclusion: Urinary tract infections is a public health problem, Routine urine culture test should be performed on all antenatal asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women to identify unsuspected infection.


Article
Early Detection of Bacteremia and Bacteriuria after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy By C-Reactive Protein Measurements

Author: Ehab Jasim Mohammad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-46
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT :BACKGROUND:Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has long been accepted as the least invasive and reliable method in the treatment of urolithiasis. The success rates have been very high in renal and upper ureteral stones . OBJECTIVE:Is early detection of bacteriuria and bacteriemia after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of calcium and infection stones by measurement of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.METHODS: A total of 150 patients who had infection stones (n 54) and calcium stones (n 96) were included in the study. All patients had sterile urine before ESWL. The mean age was 41.6+_ 4.85 and male/female ratio was 2.12. Blood cultures were obtained within 1 hour post-ESWL period. Urine cultures were obtained 3 times just after and on the first and seventh day of ESWL. RESULTS: Post-ESWL evaluations showed 6 positive blood cultures with 4(5.32%) patients in infection stone and 2 (2.66%) patient in calcium stone groups, whereas urine cultures revealed 12 (16%) positive results in infection stones and 8(10..66%) in calcium stones. The patients who had positive cultures also had elevated plasma CRP levels when compared to the levels in patients with negative cultures (p 0.000). CONCLUSION: Bacteriuria and bacteriemia after ESWL have been well-identified entities and may be responsible from some of the post-ESWL complications. CRP can be useful for early detection of such complications.


Article
Assessment of Pregnant Women Knowledge toward Urinary Tract Infection in Primary Health Care Centers at Kirkuk City
تقييم معارف النساء الحوامل تجاه التهاب المسالك البولية في المراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية في مدينة كركوك

Authors: Manar Mohammad منار محمد --- Fatin A. AL- Saffar فاتن الصفار
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2018 Volume: 31 Issue: 2 Pages: 68-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract Objective: To assess pregnant women Knowledge toward Urinary Tract Infection at Kirkuk City. Methodology: A descriptive and analytical study was conducted from 1st of November 2013 and up to the 19 th of August 2014 in five typical primary health care centers at Kirkuk City. A Probability (randomly sample) was used to select the sample of 180 women aged (15-44) years. A questionnaire format was used as a tool for data collection , content validity of the questionnaire achieved through reviewing it by (24) experts in numerous scientific fields and reliability of the questionnaire was determined through a pilot study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.Results : The results of the study revealed that most of the study sample (31.1%) & (31.1%) were in age groups ( 20-24) & (25-29) years respectively, with Mean ± SD (29.2 ±1.33) years. Nearly one third of them ( 32.2%) were primary school graduates , (83.3%) were housewives, the vast majority (98.8%) were livining in urban areas , and (65%) were from low socioeconomic class. Assessment of women's knowledge about UTI , the results reported '' inadequate knowledge '' for most UTI knowledge categories including: 1.General information about UTI , 2. Causes, Mode of transmission, Complications , Investigation. While '' adequate knowledge '' of women for the following categories : 1.Sign &symptoms of UTI , 2. Treatment, 3. Prevention.

المستخلصالهدف : تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى تقييم معارف النساء الحوامل تجاه التهاب المسالك البولية في مدينة كركوك.المنهجيــة دراسة وصفية وتحليلية أجريت من 1 نوفمبر 2013 حتى 19 آب 2014 في خمسة مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية النموذجية في مدينة كركوك. تم استخدام الاحتمالية (عينة عشوائية) لاختيار عينة من 180 امرأة تتراوح أعمارهن بين (15-44) سنة. تم استخدام الاستبانة أداة لجمع البيانات . تم تحديد صدق المحتوى من قبل (24) خبير في مختلف الاختصاصات العلمية . وتم تحديد ثبات الاستبانة من خلال دراسة استطلاعية . تم استخدام الإحصاء الوصفي والاستدلالي لتحليل البيانات.النتائــج : أظهرت نتائج الدراسة إن أكثر عينة الدراسة (31.1%) و (31.1%) من الفئات العمرية (20-24) سنة و (25-29) سنة على التوالي ومتوسط أعمارهن ( 29.2± 1.33) سنة, , ثلثهم تقريبا ( 32.2%) خريجات ابتدائية , (83.3%) ربات بيوت, الغالبية العظمى (98.8%) يعيشون في الأماكن الحضرية , (65%) من طبقة اجتماعية اقتصادية واطئة . تقييم معارف النساء الحوامل حول التهاب المسالك البولية أظهرت النتائج أن معارف النساء " غير كافية " لمعظم المحاور والتي تشمل : 1- معلومات عامة عن التهاب المسالك البولية, 2- الأسباب, 3- طرق الانتقال, 4- المضاعفات, 5- الفحوصات. بينما كانت المعارف " كافية " للمحاور: 1- علامات وإعراض التهاب المسالك البولية, 2- العلاج, 3- الوقاية .كما أظهرت نتائج الدراسة وجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية 0.05 ) ( P< بين معارف النساء وبعض متغيرات الدراسة من الخصائص الديموغرافية والإنجابية.التوصيات : أوصت الدراسة بزيادة وعي النساء الحوامل تجاه مضاعفات الحمل وبالأخص التهاب المسالك البولية من خلال وسائل الأعلام والبرامج التعليمية . إجراء دراسات أكثر حول التهاب المسالك البولية وتأثيرها على صحة الأم وناتج الحمل. الكلمات المفتاحية: التهاب المسالك البولية، الام الحامل، الادوية المضادة للبكتريا


Article
Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Bacteriuria during Pregnancy
انتشار واختبار تحسس البيلة الجرثومية للمضادات الحيوية اثناء الحمل

Authors: Hassan M. Tawfeeq حسن محمد توفيق --- Kameran M. Ali كامران محمد علي --- Khalil A. Mustafa خليل عزيز مصطفى
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 - part 1 Pages: 135-148
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Numerous studies reported that symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. It may be related with serious obstetric complications. Therefore, the current study aimed to finding the prevalence of bacteriuria, bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogens. A total of 140 pregnant women were participated in this study from November 2015 to February 2016. The result revealed that the overall prevalence of bacteriuria was 47.14%, while prevalence of bacteriuria with symptomatic and asymptomatic were (43.28%) and (50.68%) respectively, which shows that there was not statistically significant differences between the two studied groups. The pregnant women with age between 15-19 years had the highest rate of bacteriuria (85.71%). The high frequent bacteriuria also was found in third trimester (56.25%) compared with first (30.43%) and second (43.40%). Escherichia coli (22.73%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.7%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.61%) were the predominant isolated uropathogens. Antibacterial susceptibility test was achieved for all isolated strains by the Kirby-Bauer’s disk-diffusion method. Our result revealed that more than 90% of the isolates were resistant to cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. However amikacin was the most potent of all studied antibiotic 77.3% of uropathogens were sensitive to it. The resistance rates to ≥3 antimicrobial agents was 98.5% while, only 1.5% were resist to all antimicrobial tested

عدة دراسات ذكرت ان البيلة الجرثومية ذات الاعراض وبدون اعراض شائعة في النساء الحوامل, قد تترافق هذه مع مضاعفات الولادة. وبالتالي, فإن هذه الدراسة تهدف إلى تحديد مدى انتشار البيلة الجرثومية, لمحة بكتيرية ونمط المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية من البكتيريا الممرض للمجاری البولية. تم تسجيل مجموع 140 امرأة حوامل في هذه الدراسة من نوفمبر 2015 إلى فبراير 2016 . وكشفت النتيجة أن معدل انتشار البيلة الجرثومية كان 47.14 ٪, بينما بلغ معدل انتشار البيلة الجرثومية ذوات أعراض وبدون أعراض (43.28 ٪) و (50.68 ٪) على التوالي, مما يدل على أنه لا توجد فروقمعنوية بين المجموعتين. وكان للنساء الحوامل مع التقدم في العمر بين 15 - 19 سنة أعلى معدل للبيلة الجرثومية (85.71 ٪). و البيلة الجرثومية ذو المتكررات العالية وجد أيضا في الثلث الثالث (56.25٪) مقارنة مع الأولى (30.43 ٪), والثانية (43.40 ٪) للحمل. نسبة بكتيريا (%19.7), Escherichia coli (%22.73), Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (%10.61) كانوا من العزل السائدة. تم إجراء اختبار الحساسية المضادة للبكتيريا لجميع السلالات المعزولة بطريقة القرص نشر كيربي باور. كشفت لنا النتيجة أن أكثر من 90 ٪ من العزلات مقاومة للسيفالكسين وأموكسيسيلين / حمض كلافولانيك. ومع ذلك كان أميكاسين الأكثر فعالية من كل المضادات الحيوية المدروسة 77.3 ٪ من العزلات كانت حساسة لذلك. وكانت معدلات مقاومة ل ≤ 3 من مضادات الميكروبات 98.5 ٪ في حين كانت 1.5 ٪ فقط مقاومة لجميع المضادات الحيوية المستخدمة التي تم اختبارها.


Article
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with significant bacteriuria

Author: Firas Srhan Abd Al- Mayahi
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 20 Pages: 29-49
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study was to the isolation and identification of E. coli bacteria from patients with significant bacteriuria and Antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During the period from March 2011 to May 2012, a total of 2000 urine samples were collected from patients with suspected UTI. Isolates were identified by traditional biochemical tests, and then confirmed by VITEK 2 system. 455 (22.8%) samples were recognized as significant bacteriuria. The study documented that E. coli is the most important uropathogen causing UTI and recovered from 207 (45.5%) patients. However, of the patients with significant bacteriuria, a total of 143 (31.4%) positive urine cultures were implicated in nosocomial infections. Additionally, 312 (68.6%) positive urine cultures were implicated in community-acquired infections. According to demographic data, it was observed that the number of patients with significant bacteriuria was higher in females, 309 (67.9%) compared to males, 146 (32.1%). The mean age of these patients was 39.1 years range from 2-90 years (standard deviation, 18.1years). Majority of patients with significant bacteriuria (269, 59.1%) were in the age group 20-50 years. Sensitivity of all isolates was tested against 23 Antibiotics. Results showed all isolates of E. coli were resistant 100% to ampicillin but sensitive100% to imipenem, the antibiotics resistance rate among the tested E. coli isolates ranged from 92.7%-74.9%, 69.6%-31.4% and 48.3%-10.2%, present to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycosides respectively.


Article
Prevalence of Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iraqi Pregnant Women of Babylon Governorate

Author: Najlaa Abass Al-Mamoryi, Abdulrazzaq Salman Al‑Salman
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 5-12
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections among pregnant women. It can be lead to poor maternal andperinatal outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of symptomatic UTIs and asymptomatic bacteriuriaof pregnant women in the Babylon Governorate and to determine its association with sociodemographic, obstetrical, and other factors.Materials and Methods: Cross‑sectional study between March 2018 and June 2018 involves examining 300 pregnant women at primary healthcenters; Maternity and Pediatrics Hospital of Hilla city, with and without symptoms of UTI were employed for this study. Midstream urinesamples were taken, and general urine examination was performed. Results: The results of this study revealed that the overall prevalence ofUTI among pregnant was 64.6% which include (symptomatic bacteriuria 8.0%, asymptomatic bacteriuria 6.3%, and UTI 50.3%). The higherrate of UTI was found in lower age, multiparous women, and during the second trimester. Factors such as socioeconomic status, history ofUTI, dysuria, and positive laboratory results were found to be significantly associated with UTI. Conclusion: UTI is still the common healthproblem in pregnant women especially during their second trimester. Urinalyses are essential for all pregnant women during the antenatal period.The screening will be assisted to early detection and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria which prevent complication for mother and baby.


Article
DETERMINATIN OF THE BACTERIAL TYPES THAT CAUSE URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN DIYALA PROVEN
تحديد أنواع البكتيريا التي تسبب التهاب المسالك البولية المثبتة في ديالى

Authors: Sundus Adil Naji --- Adawia Fadil Abbas
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 274-283
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common confusion a physician must deal with both in outpatient and hospitalized patients. U.T.I. is important because it may involve the urethra, the bladder, ureterus and kidneys.UTIs cause considerable discomfort and inconvenience to the patient and are occasionally responsible for protected symptoms or more serious manifestation ,such as sepsis, and death .To determine the important species of bacteria species that cause the U.T.I in diyala proven and other statistical information's. A total of 150 patient with signs and symptoms of UTI, and 150 randomly sampled as controls from out-patient clinicals with no signs or symptoms of UTIs were enrolled in this study .Urine specimens were subjected to general urine analysis for bacteria, pus, and renal casts, and then these specimens were cultured on blood,maCconkey & nutrient agar using loop method to differentiate the bacterial species .Only 39(26%) patients were positive for significant UTI. UTIs are less common in females than males (6%and 20%) respectively. The higher prevalence fond in older cases (more than forty years ).Escherichia coli is the predominant organism to be isolated (56%).From the total patients and throughout the general urine analysis examination , it seems that only 111(74%) excreted pus cells.

التهاب المسالك البولية هو خلط شائع جدا. يجب على الطبيب ان يتعامل مع كل من في العيادات الخارجية والمرضى في المستشفيات..يو تي اي مهم لأنه قد ينطوي على مجرى البول، المثانة، و ureterus and kidneys.UTIs تسبب عدم ارتياح كبير وإزعاج للمريض، وأحيانا هي المسؤولة عن أعراض المحمية أو مظهر أكثر خطورة، مثل تعفن الدم، والموت. لتحديد الأنواع الهامة من البكتيريا الأنواع التي تسبب التهاب المسالك البولية التي أثبتت جدواها في ديالى ومعلوات احصائية اخرى. مجموع 150 مريض مع علامات وأعراض التهاب المسالك البولية، و 150 عينة عشوائية كسيطرات من العيادات الخارجية مع عدم وجود علامات أو أعراض للعدوى المسالك البولية في هذه الدراسة. تعرضت عينات البول لتحليل البول العامة للبكتيريا، والقيح، و تم زرعها يلقي الكلوي، ومن ثم هذه العينات في الدم، وأجار ماكونكي المغذيات باستخدام طريقة حلقة للتمييز بين الأنواع البكتيرية. وفقط 39 (26٪) من المرضى ايجابية لالتهاب المسالك البولية كبيرة. عدوى المسالك البولية هي أقل شيوعا في الإناث أكثر من الذكور (6٪ و 20٪) على التوالي. ومولعا أعلى نسبة انتشار في حالات كبار السن (أكثر من أربعين عاما). كولاي هو الكائن السائد أن تكون معزولة (56٪). من مجموع المرضى وعلى مدار فحص البول تحليل عام، يبدو أن فقط 111 (74٪) تفرز صديد الخلايا.

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (11)


Language

English (10)

Arabic and English (1)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (1)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

More...