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Article
Study The Relationship Between The Ability of Biofilms Formation and Antibiotic Sensitivity for Klebsiella pneumonia Isolated From Different Clinical Sources
دراسة تأثير الأغشية الحيوية بواسطة Klebsiella pneumonia المعزولة من مناطق سريرية مختلفة على بعض دفاعات الجهار المناعي

Authors: Ali Hussein Alwan علي حسين علوان العامري --- Sura Mouaid Abas سرى مؤيد عباس العبيدي
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a dangerous pathogens that can cause severe diseases. The aim of this study is to examine the ability of K.pneumoniae to produce biofilms and the relationships between biofilms formation and antibiotics resistance.This study included isolation of 50 isolates of K.pneumoniae from different clinical sources from different hospitals in Baghdad city, the number and percentage of isolates according to the sources (urine, blood, sputum, burns, ear swabs, pus, wounds and stool ) were 22(44%), 11(22%), 4(8%), 4(8%), 3(6%), 3(6%), 2(4%) and 1(2%) respectively. Antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates was done by vitek 2 compact system using antibitics ( amikicin, azteronam, cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, impenem, meropenem, minocycline, piperacillin, piperacillin/ tazobactam, ticracillin, tobaromycin and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole). The obtained results showed that the antibiotics amikicin, impenem and meropenem were more effective against the isolates. On other hand, the isolates showed different ability to produce biofilms according to the clincal sources was test by using two methods (Congo-red agar methods-CRA- and Tissue culture plate methods-TCP-), the results showed that the percentages of isolates formed biofilms in (CRA) 72% produce biofilms and 20% non productive and 8% non-specific. The percentages by TCP methods were 80% produce biofilms and 20% was not able to form biofilms. Higher production of biofilms isolates were exposed to Ciprofloxacin and Meropenem to make a comparison the antibiotic resistance between planktonic and biofilms producers isolates, the results showed that the resistance to antibiotics became 10 times higher than planktonic isolates.Form this study we can conclude that K.pneumoniae could be isolated from differents sources (that were multi-drug resistant) had the ability to produce biofilm in different methods.

تعتبربكتريا Klebsiella pneumonia من الممرضات الخطرة التي من الممكن أن تسبب اصابات حادة. شملت الدراسة عزل 50 عزلة من البكتريا من مصادر سريرية مختلفة من مستشفيات مختلفة في مدينة بغداد لغرض دراستها من محاور عدة بعد أن شخصت البكتريا بالإعتماد على الطرق التقليدية بالتشخيص من حيث الإعتماد على الصفات الزرعية والكيموحيوية ومن ثم أستعمل جهاز vitek2 compact system لتأكيد التشخيص.أظهرت النتائج أن عدد ونسبة عزل وفقا للمصادرالسريرية (البول ,الدم ,القشع، حروق, مسحة الأذن، القيح, الجروح والخروج) كانت 22 (44٪)، 11 (22٪)، 4 (8٪) (3) (6٪)، 3 (6٪)، 2 (4٪) و 1 (2٪) على التوالي.تم دراسة المقاومة للمضادات المختلفة وتحديد التركيز الادنى للمضادات الحيوية لتثبيط نمو البكتريا, ولوحظ أن المضادات amikicin, impenem and meropenem أكثر فعالية ضد هذه البكتريا, ومن جهة أخرى أظهرت العزلات قدرة مختلفة على إنتاج الأغشية الحيوية، حيث أستخدمت في هذه الدراسة طريقتان لمعرفة قدرة العزلات لتشكيل الأغشية الحيوية، كانت النسبة في طريقة Congo-Red Agar (CRA) 72 % مكونة للغشاء و 20 % غير منتجة و 8 % غير محددة , في حين طريقة أطباق المعايرة الدقيقة 80 % مكونة و20 % غير قادرة على تكوين الغشاء. العزلات الأقوى لإنتاج الأغشية الحيوية اختيرت لمعرفة مقاومتها للمضادين Ciprofloxacin and Meropenem لأجراء مقارنة المضادات بين الخلايا المفردة والخلايا المكونة للاغشية الحيوية, وأظهرت النتائج أن المقاومة للمضادات تصبح أكثر بحوالي 10 مرات بالنسبة للخلايا المكونة للاغشية الحيوية مقارنة مع الخلايا المفردة


Article
Estimate Antimicrobial activity and Anti-biofilm formation of bark Cinnamomum zeylanicum on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Urinary Tract Infections

Author: Enass Ghassan Sweedan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3C Pages: 1560-1566
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Five isolates (25%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from urine samples. In addition also isolated bacteria were (10) 50% Escherichia coli, while (3)15% Proteus spp., (2)10% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark were tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae by using the well agar diffusion test, the alcoholic bark extract from (200 -12.5) mg/ml possessed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganism. At 200 mg/ml, and 100 mg/ml concentrations was diameter of inhibition zone rang from (18-26mm), (14-16mm) respectively, and these results compared to antibiotics Norfloxacin(10µg) inhibition zone (24-30mm), and Cefotaxim (10 µg) (26-27mm) as control. Antibiotics sensetivity were used ten antibiotics with disc diffusion method against K. pneumoniae, they were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Imipenem /Cilactin,Sparfloxacin, and Norfloxacin antibiotics only, and were resisted to the others antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration was tested for plant extract, and was ranged versus Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5-25) mg/ml. It could be concluded that alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum had a good antimicrobial effects and anti-biofilm on Klebsiella pneumoniae with significant difference (p< 0.05). This caused a decrease in the biofilm of the tested bacteria. Hence, it may be used instead of antibiotics to treat UTIs caused by bacteria used in current study.


Article
Effect of Sofrodax, Acetic Acid and Ear Wax on Biofilm Formation on Bacterial Isolates from Otitis Media

Authors: Juman Oday Sabri --- Ilham A. Bnyan --- Safaa H. Al-Terahi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 961-970
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this study, one hundred otitis media (OM) swabs were collected from (100) patients who were referred to Hilla Teaching Hospital (ENT unit) and privacy clinic during a period (from November 2013 through March 2014) suffering from OM. The collected samples were investigated for bacterial isolation. Bacterial culture was positive in (96%) patient's verses (4%) patients revealed negative bacterial culture. The most common types of bacterial isolated were S. epidermidis (23.6%), followed by S. aureus (17%), Proteus spp. (14.1%), Ps. aeroginosa (9.4%), Streptococcus spp., K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. (7.6%), Acinetobacterbummanii (5.6%), Serratiamarecence (5.6%) and E. coli (0.9%).Biofilm formation was investigated in all bacterial species, and the results showed that the most isolates that form biofilm in gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in high rate (100%).The effect of ear wax, vinegar and acetic acid on biofilm formation were studied the results showed that these materials have some effect on biofilm formation.


Article
Study the Effect of some Medical Plants in Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Sensitivity for Klebsiella Pneumoniae
دراسة تأثير بعض النباتات الطبية على انتاج الغشاء الحيوي وحساسية المضادات الحيوية للكلبسيلا الرئوية

Author: Israa AJ. Ibrahim اسراء عبد الجبار ابراهيم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 2C Pages: 971-983
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Twenty clinical and fecal samples (ten clinical samples from patients attending to Imam Ali Hospital and ten chicken faeces samples collected from local poultry farm in Baghdad city) collected during December 2015, for isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae. All K. pneumoniae isolates were extended-spectrum β- lactamase producers and biofilm formation. The activities of two selected K. pneumoniae isolates for their biofilm formation and susceptibility to antibiotics after treatment with several plants extracts were investigated. The results of water and 60% ethanol extracts for Matricaria chamomile flowers, Alhagi maurorum leafs, Syzygium aromaticum buds (clove) and Arctium minus leafs were showed reduction of biofilm formation and change the ability of antibiotic susceptibility for these two tested K. pneumoniae isolates. The indirect effect of plants extracts on the bacterial growth may be causing indirect effect on the metabolic activity and DNA (chromosome or plasmid) of cells. All tested plant extract contain many antimicrobial and antioxidant component by using GC-mass.

اخذت عشرون عينة سريرية و برازية (عشر عينات سريرية معزولة من مرضى مستشفى الامام علي وعشر عينات براز الدجاج جمعت من مزرعة دواجن محلية في مدينة بغداد) خلال كانون الاول 2015 , لعزل الكلبسيلا الرئوية. كل عزلات الكلبسيلا الرئوية كانت منتجة للبيتالاكتميز وللغشاء الحيوي. انتخبت فعالية عزلتين للكلبسيلا الرئوية لانتاج البايوفلم وحساسيتها للمضادات الحيوية بعد المعاملة بالمستخلصات النباتية. اظهرت نتائج المستخلصات المائية والكحولية وبتركيز 60% لازهار البابونج, واوراق العاقول, وبراعم القرنفل, واوراق الارقطيون اختزال لانتاج البايوفلم وتغيير قدرة الحساسية للمضادات الحياتية لعزلات الكلبسيلا الرئوية المختبرة. التأثير غير المباشر للمستخلصات النباتية على نمو البكتريا ربما يسبب تأثير غير مباشر على الفعاليات الايضية والدنا الكرموسومي والبلازميدي للخلايا. اظهر استعمال كروماتوغرافيا الغاز (GC-mass) للمستخلصات النباتية وجود عدد من من المواد مضادة للمايكروبات ومضادة للاكسدة.


Article
Study the antibacterial Effect of CO2 Laser againstMultidrug Resistant Biofilm formationAcinetobacterbaumanniiIsolated from Different Samples
دراسة ألتأثير المضاد لليزر ثنائي اوكسيدالكاربون 10600 نانوميتر على بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii المتعددة المقاومه للمضادان الحيويه والمكونه للغشاء الحيوي المعزولة من مصادر مختلفه

Author: Eman Natiq Naji ايمان ناطق ناجي
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 148-162
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Acinetobacterbaumanniihas become known as an imperative healthcare associated and multidrug-resistant microorganismwarrants the training of novel methodologies for prevention and treatment. This report aimed to estimate the antimicrobial properties ofCO2laser at 10600 nm on A.baumannii isolates. Two hundred specimens were collected from patients suffering from wound infections, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections and medical equipment samples. 50 samples for each. These samples were gathered from diverse hospitals in BaghdadIraq. The collected specimens were streaked directly on CHROM agar Acinetobacter. The positive culture results were diagnosed genotypicaly, recA gene (a house keeping gene) was used for this purpose. All isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity testing and 13 divers of antibiotics were used. Also, the ability of biofilm formation was detected. CO2laser 10600 nm at power densities (1000,1500,2000 and 2500) W/cm2 with exposure time (15,30, 45 and 60) second was used for the irradiation experiment.17 isolates were positive to A. baumannii which were distributed as follows 4 ,6, 3 and 4 isolates from wounds,urine , sputum and medical equipments samples respectively. Antibiotic sensitivitytest results considered ten of A.baumanniias MDR isolates because of its capability to resist ten antibiotics belong to cephalosporins, carbapenems,ampicillin-sulbactam, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides groups. In additions 14(82.35%) out of the 17 isolates were biofilm producer ranged from weak, moderate to strong biofilm produer. Four isolates, one from four different isolation sources were chosen for CO2 laser irradiation each isolate resisted to all antibiotics used in this study and strong biofilm producer. In general, in this study the results showed that when using power densities (2000 and 2500 W/cm2 at exposure time 30s and 45s) of CO2 laser irradiations the maximum rate of killing percentage was ranged from 97% to 100% for A.baumannii isolated from clinical samples while more exposure time were needed (45s and 60s) to get the same killing percentage for A.baumannii isolated from medical equipments. Consequently, the use of CO2 laser 10600 nm which is independent towards the antibacterial agents resistance pattern of MDR A.baumannii could verify advantageous in treatment of various types of infections caused by these bacteria in addition it may be used in sterilization of some medical equipment surfaces.

لقد اصبحت بكتريا Acinetobacterbaumanniiتعرف بمقاومتها المتعدده للمضادات الحيويه مما دعى الى تجربه طرق جديده لعلاجها وتجنب الاصابه بها .كان الهدف من هذا البحث هو الكشف عن مدى تأثير ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكربون 10600 نانوميتر على هذا النوع من البكتريا .تم جمع 200 نموذج من المرضى المصابين بالتهابات الجروح والمجاري البوليه والتهابات الجهاز التنفسي اظافة الى نماذج من العدد الطبيه المختلفه .50 نموذج لكل نوع.جمعت هذه النماذج من مستشفيات مختلفه في مذينة بغداد/العراق.زرعت النماذج التي تم جعها مباشرة على وسط اسنتوبكتر كروم اكار .شخصت النماذج الزرع الموجبه جينيا واستخدم لهذا الغرض recA جين احد انواع الجينات المصنفه للنوع في هذه البكتريا .اختبرت حساسيه كافة العزلات الى 13 نوع مختلف من المضادات الحيويه كذلك تم الكشف عن قابلية هذه العزلات على تكوين الغشاء الحيوي.اجريت تجربة التشعيع باليزر نوع ثاني اوكسيد الكربون 10600 نانوميتر وعند قوة 1000,1500,2000و2500 واط/سم2 وباوقات زمنيه 15,30و45 ثانيه. تم عزل وتشخيص 17 عزله من بكتريا ووزعت على التوالي الى 4,6,3و4 عزلات تم عزلها من نماذج الجروح,البول,القشع والعدد الطبيه. اظهرت نتائج فحص الحساسيه الى ان 10 عزلات من اصل 17 عزله كان لها القدره على مقاومة 10 مضادات حيويه تنتمي الى مجاميع مختلفه.اضافة الى ذلك كانت 14 (82.35%) من اصل 17 عزله منتجه للغشاء الحيوي بدرجة ضعيف-متوسط الى قوي. . تم اختيار عزله واحده لكل مجموعه من العينات تميزت بتععد مقاومتها للمضادات الحيويه وقدرتها العاليه على انتاج الغشاء الحيوي. اضهرت نتائج هذه الدراسه الحصول على اعلى نسبة قتل لبكتريا A.baumannii المعزوله من النماذج المرضيه تراوحت من 97%الى 100% عند 200 الى 2500 واط/سم2 وزمن تشعيع 30-45 ثانيه بينما احتاجت عزلات Abaumannii المعزوله من العدد الطبيه الى وقت اطول تراوح من 45-60 ثانيه .استنادا الى هذه النتيجه ,يمكن ان نعتمد استخدام التشعيع باليزر نوع ثاني اوكسيد الكربون 10600 نانوميتر كعلاج من الامراض المختلفه او لتعقيم بعض انواع العدد والمستلزمات الطبيه ضد هذا النوع من البكتريا المتعدد المقاومه للمضادات الحيويه والنتج للغشاء الحيوي .


Article
Identification and Characterization of OXA-48 Carbapenemase- Producing Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Baghdad

Author: Issam Jumaa Nasser
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Enterobacteriaceae is the most frequent Gram-negative pathogens that are accountable for many serious infectious diseases. The emergence and widespread carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have increased dramatically and have become a burden on public health with increasing challenge in treatment with classical antibiotics.Objectives: The goal of this research was to detect of OXA-48 carbapenemaseproducing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates using a new in vitro phenotypes technique“OXA-48 K-SeT assay”.Methods: A total of 40 Enterobacteriaceae strains was involved in this investigation. Antibiotics susceptibility rates were carried out by modifying Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion technique. Biochemical tests were performed using the API 20 E kit. Identification of OXA-48 carbapenemase was tested by OXA-48 K-SeT assay and modified Calgary biofilm method were used for detection of biofilm formation.Results: The majority of Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained from urine samples 23 (57.5%) followed by sputum and wound exudate samples 6 (15%), 5 (12.5%) respectively. The prevalence of infection with E. coli and K. pneumoniae was significant among age groups of 40 -59 years old (P <0.001), and patients with age below twenty or over sixty years old showed lower susceptibility to infection withEnterobacteriaceae. The strains of k. pneumoniae obtained from urine samples exhibited a strong propensity to develop biofilms and it showed an excellent biofilm propensity score, whereas E. colistrains showed a lower propensity to form biofilm. In addition, K. Pneumonia was displaying a predisposition to resistant to OXA-48 carbapenemase with 7 (17.5%) positive for OXA-48 K-SeT, while only 4 (10%) E. coli exhibit positive results for OXA-48 K-SeT.The most OXA-48-positive and OXA-48-negative of Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed markedly resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitor combination (amoxicillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam) with different resistance rates were noted against cephalosporin groups (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, and cefoxitin) and less resistance to monobactam groups (aztreonam) were observed, while no resistance was observed against colistin. The higher levels of antibiotic resistance correlated dramatically with increase biofilm-producing of Enterobacteriaceae, regardless of types of antibiotics (β-lactam and non- β-lactam antibiotics).Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the OXA-48 K-SeT assay were exact phenotypic method and significant test for direct detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study found clearly correlating of biofilm formation and increased level of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The quick recognition and confirmation of carbapenemases resistance in these bacteria is important for proper choice of antibiotics and avoidance multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Article
Isolation and Biofilm Forming Ability of Bacteria Attached to Urinary Catheter Undergoing Long-Term Bladder Catheterization
عزل وقدرة تكوين الغشاء الحيوي للبكتريا الملتصقة على القسطرة البولية المستخدمة على المدى الطويل

Author: Khansa M. Younis خنساء محمد يونس
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2018 Volume: 27 Issue: 5E-Microbiology Pages: 19-27
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Catheter associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to isolate, identify and biofilm forming ability of bacteria attached to urinary catheters particularly catheters that had been in place for prolonged periods in preventing catheter-associated infections caused by hospitalized ICU patients. Urinary catheters from (Clinical center of University Kebangsaan Malaysia) were used, one from Acute Vascular Rejection patient (Urinary catheter B), and two from Benign Prostate Hyperplasia patient (Urinary Catheter C and D).The urinary catheters and urine evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively used colony-forming unit and bacteriological assessment, respectively for each portions of urinary catheter for identifying infections. Bacterial population on agar plates showed varying density for all parts of three urinary catheters and urine samples. Altogether 100 isolates including 96 bacterial isolates and 4 yeast isolates have been successfully obtained from the three urinary catheters. Pathogens were Proteus 22 isolates followed by E.coli 5 isolates, Enterobacter 4 isolates, Klebsiella 3 isolates, Pseudomonas 1 isolates For UC(B), while in UC(C and D) which represent the catheters to same diseases were Pseudomonas 23 isolates showed the highest isolates followed by E.coli 16 isolate, Proteus 10 isolates, Enterobacter 7 isolates, Klebsiella 4 isolates, Candida 4 isolates, Bacillus 1 isolate. Results of biofilm forming on microtiter plate and sterile Foley catheter revealed that these isolates possess a high capacity for biofilm formation on the both surfaces at different degrees with delay in the initiation of biofilm formation on silicone coated Foley catheter compared to polystyrene microtiter plate. It is concluded that Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for UTI infections in our patients and almost all of the isolates have the abilities to form visible growing biofilms on both surfaces

تعد عدوى المسالك البولية المرتبطة بالقثطرة واحدة من أكثر حالات عدوى المستشفيات شيوعًا. تهدف هذه الدراسة الى عزل وتشخيص البكتريا الملتصقة على القسطرة البولية المستخدمة لفترة طويلة ودراسة قدرة تكوينها للغشاء الحيوي للوقاية من العدوى المرتبطة بالقثطرة للمرضى الراقدين في وحدة العناية المركزة في المستشفيات. تم استخدام ثلاث نماذج من انابيب القثطرة البولية من (المركز الصحي للجامعة الوطنية الماليزية في ماليزيا) ، أخذ النموذج الاول من مريض مصاب برفض الأوعية الدموية الحاد (قثطرة بولية B) ، واثنان آخران من مرضى تضخم البروستات الحميد (القثطرة البولية C و D). تم تقدير وتشخيص الخلايا البكتيرية المسببة للتلوث كميا ونوعيا لكل جزء من ألاجزاء الاربعة لانبوب القثطرة البولية باستخدام الفحوصات البكتريولوجية. اظهرت الاوساط الزرعية تفاوت في اعداد البكتيريا لانابيب القثطرة البولية وعينات الادرار. تم الحصول على 100 عزلة من بينها 96 عزلة بكتيرية و 4 عزلات خميرة من النماذج الثلاث للقثطرة البولية. تضمنت العزلات من انبوب القثطرة B ،22 عزلة تابعة لجنس Proteus ، 5 عزلات E.coli ، 4 عزلات Enterobacter ، 3 عزلات Klebsiella وعزلة Pseudomonas 1، بينما العزلات من انبوبي القثطرة C و D والتي تمثل القثطرة لنفس المرض كانت 23 عزلة Pseudomonas ومثلت اعلى العزلات تليها 16 عزلة E.coli ، 10 عزلةProteus ، 7 عزلات Enterobacter، 4 عزلات Klibsiella ، 4 عزلات Candida، عزلةBacillus 1 . بينت نتائج اختبار القدرة على تكوين الغشاء الحيوي على انبوب القثطرة البولي المعقم Foley urinary catheter واطباق 96-microtiter plates (MTP) ان معظم العزلات تمتلك قدرة عالية على تكوين الغشاء الحيوي على السطحين مع تاخر البدء بتشكيل الغشاء الحيوي على سطح انبوب القثطرة المغلف بالسليكون مقارنة باطباق MTP . استنتجت الدراسة أن العصيات سالبة الكرام كانت مسؤولة عن التهابات المسالك البولية المرتبطة بالقثطرة البولية وان معظم العزلات لديها القدرة على تشكيل الأغشية الحيوية على كلا السطحين.


Article
Evaluation of Biofilm Formation Capacity of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples in Baghdad Hospitals using Phenotypic Methods

Author: Haider Turky AL-Mousawi1 , Mohammed I. Nader AL- Taee1 , Qabas Nima AL-Hajjar2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 47-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

During the period from November/2016 to March/2017, a total of 475 specimens from various clinical sources (wounds, burns, urine, sputum, blood and throat) were collected from patients suffering different infections from a number of hospitals in Baghadad city (Karkh and Resafa), as follows: (Al-Yarmuk, Al-Karama, Al-Karkh, Al- Kadmia, Martyr Gazi Al-Hariry, the Medical city, Al-Kindi Teaching, Al-Imam Ali, Ibn-Al Balady and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals). Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in selective (CHROMagar) and specific differential medium, microscopic features, biochemical tests and API20 NE and VITEK-2 system at probability 98%. Furthermore the identification of isolates depending of molecular method by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique which is used to amplify specific gene by using special primers, to genus level was confirmed finally by detection of 16SrRNA gene while identification of A.baumannii isolates to species level was done by blaOXA-51-like gene, gaving ratio 100%. The results showed that the 83 A.baumannii isolates were obtained from clinical specimens (17.47%), distiributed according to the sources from highest to lowest percentage as follow in 31(25.20%) wound, 21(19.81%) burn, while 10(12.82%) urin, 8(11.94%) sputum, 7(12.72%) blood and low percentage 6(13.04%) from throat. This study focused on the phenotypic to determine methods the ability of biofilm production using three methods includes: Congo red agar (CRA), Tube method (TM) and microtiter plates (MTP). The results showed a significant differences between all 83 A.baumannii isolates. A seventy four isolates (89.15%) have the ability to adherence and produce slim layer with significant differences in thickness degrees (strong, moderate and weak). While 9 isolates which represented (10.84%) from isolates have no ability to adherence and produce slim layer. When comparing between these methods to detect strong biofilm production isolates, the results showed that MTP assay was excelled on CRA and TM at 58(69.87%), 48(57.83%) and 45(54.21%), respectively measured by optical densities values at 630 nm. Conclusion: The study concludes that there a positive correlation between biofilm formation and multi drug resistance A. baumannii. Each of the three phenotypic methods used for detection of biofilm formation has its advantages and disadvantages. But MTP method is most widely used and was considered as standard test for detection of biofilm formation.


Article
Detection of Biofilm in Staphylococci isolated from different clinical infections
الكشف عن تكوين الغشاء الحيويBiofilm في بكتريا العنقوديات Staphylococci spp. متعددة المقاومة لمضادات الحياة والمعزولة من أخماج سريرية مختلفة

Author: م.د. ازدهار محمد جاسم
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 101/ علمي Pages: 54-62
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study aimed to detection of biofilm in multi drug resistant especially to beta –lactam of Staphylococci spp. isolated from different clinical infections ,which includes (burn swab, wound swab, ear swab, urine samples and pharynx swab ) , We obtained 12 isolates of staphylococci spp . six were to be S. aureus , while other six isolates were to be S .epidermidis characterised by laboratory of bacteriology in teaching baquba hospital and the characterised is certain by using vitek 2 compact system .Sensitivity of isolates against 6 antibiotics were performed by using Kerby-Bauer ,The isolates were appeared different resistant to antibiotics , the percentage of resistance of S. aureus isolates to Erythromycin ,clindamycin , Vancomycin , Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin were to be(66.7% , 50%, 33.3%, 66.7%, 50%, 33.3%)While the resistance to S.epidermidis to same antibiotics were to be (66.7%, 50%, 33.3%,33.3% 50%, 50%)Detection to Biofilm tests of Staphylococci spp. also performed , detect was performed by two methods micro titer plate and congo red agar , the results appeared that 4 isolates of S.aureus (66.7%) were positive results gave black growth and crystal density while 2 isolates (33.3%) were negative , while S.epidermidis isolates 5 isolates were positive and only one isolates was negative .while the microtiter plates 4 isolates of S.aureus were strong producer and 2 isolates were to be medium ,and S.epidermidis 3 isolates were to be strong producer and 3 other were to be medium.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية الى التحري عن تكوين الغشاء الحيوي Biofilm في عزلات من بكتريا المكورات العنقودية Staphylococci المتعددة المقاومة لمضادات الحياة ولاسيما البيتا لاكتام والمعزولة من مصادر سريرية مختلفة شملت (مسحات الحروق، مسحات الجروح مسحات الأُذن، عينات إدرار ومسحات البلعوم)، تمَّ الحصول على 12 عزلة 6 منها كانت عائدة لبكتريا S.aureus والـ6 الاخرى عائدة لبكتريا S.epidermidis مشخصة مختبريا" وتم تأكيد التشخيص بأستخدام جهاز Vitek 2 compact system في مختبر البكتريولوجي في مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي .أُجري إختبار الحساسية لستة من مضادات الحياة بإستعمال طريقة Kerby- Bauer, أظهرت العزلات مقاومتها لمضادات الحياة بشكل متفاوت , وبلغت نسبة مقاومة عزلات S.aureus للمضاداتErythromycin وClindamycin وVancomycin و Gentamicin و Chloramphenicol و Ciprofloxacin (66.7%و50%و 33.3%و 66.7%و 50%و 33.3%)على التوالي . بينما بلغت نسبة مقاومة عزلات S.epidermidis لنفس المضادات (66.7%و50%و 33.3%و 33.3%و 50%و 50%) على التوالي.كما أُجري التحري عن تكوين العزلات البكتيرية للغشاء الحيوي بأعتباره عامل ضراوة مهما" في أحداث المرض ,تم الكشف بطريقتين وهي طريقة صفيحة المعايرة الدقيقةMicro Titer plate وطريقة وسط أحمر الكونغو Congo red agar , اظهرت النتائج ان 4 عزلات وبنسبة 66.7% من بكتريا S.aureus أعطت نتيجة موجبة اذ كان نمو المستعمرات باللون الاسود وذا كثافة بلورية وعزلتين كانتا سالبتين اذ بقي نموهما باللون الوردي وبنسبة 33.3% اما عزلات بكتريا S.epidermidis فكانت 5 عزلات منتجة للغشاء الحيوي وعزلة واحدة كانت سالبة لهذا الاختبار، أما بطريقة صفيحة المعايرة الدقيقة فاعطت 4 عزلات من بكتريا S.aureus انتاجية عالية وعزلتان انتاجيتهما متوسطة اما عزلات بكتريا S.epidermidis فكانت 3 عزلات انتاجيتها عالية و3 عزلات انتاجيتها متوسطة .

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