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Article
Study of Serum Uric Acid in a Group of Insuline Dependant Diabetes Mellitus Iraqi Patients

Authors: Dhammyaa H. Salih --- Wifaq M.Ali Al-Watar*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 436-440
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACK ROUND:The long duration of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus eventually ends with complications like renal impairment especially if it was badly controlled ,the first sign of renal involvement is the elevation of serum uric acid above or near upper normal values(1).OBJECTIVE:One hundred and thirty type1 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study, they represent a selected sample of patients who attend the Specialized Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes (Baghdad Russafa Directorate) during the period from November 2006 to April 2007 compared with forty healthy individuals as control group of similar age group.METHOD :The determination of fasting blood sugar ,uric acid and blood urea were done by enzymatic colorimetric test following the Procedure performed by manufacturers.RESULTS:The level of serum uric acid and blood urea were normal in all cases of juvenile diabetes but as the duration of the disease increases the values of the serum uric acid started to raise and could be the first sign of renal impairment in diabetic patients even before albuminuria..CONCLUSION:The concentration of uric acid in the blood is an independent marker of failing kidneys and may even play a causative role in the decline of renal function.

Keywords

serum uric acid --- IDDM --- blood urea


Article
Study of Serum Uric Acid in a Group of Insuline Dependant Diabetes Mellitus Iraqi Patients .

Authors: Dhammyaa H. Salih --- Wifaq M.Ali Al-Watar
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 436-440
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACK ROUND:The long duration of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus eventually ends with complications like renalimpairment especially if it was badly controlled ,the first sign of renal involvement is the elevation ofserum uric acid above or near upper normal values(1).OBJECTIVE:One hundred and thirty type1 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study, they represent a selected sampleof patients who attend the Specialized Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes (Baghdad RussafaDirectorate) during the period from November 2006 to April 2007 compared with forty healthyindividuals as control group of similar age group.METHOD :The determination of fasting blood sugar ,uric acid and blood urea were done by enzymatic colorimetrictest following the Procedure performed by manufacturers.RESULTS:The level of serum uric acid and blood urea were normal in all cases of juvenile diabetes but as theduration of the disease increases the values of the serum uric acid started to raise and could be the firstsign of renal impairment in diabetic patients even before albuminuria..CONCLUSION:The concentration of uric acid in the blood is an independent marker of failing kidneys and may even playa causative role in the decline of renal function

Keywords

serum uric acid --- IDDM --- blood urea


Article
Impact Of Hypoxemia In Patient With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease On Renal Function Tests

Authors: Amjed Hassan Abbas --- Samir Sawadi Hammuod
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 140 -147
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic diseases and is expected to be progressively increasing. There are many co-morbidities associated with it, but the relation between it and changes in renal function tests is still unclear. The aim of this work was to illustrate the extent of kidney dysfunction in patients who suffer from COPD. This study was performed in Merjan Medical City, the period of study was from November 2013 to June 2014, it included 86 patients with COPD and 70 control healthy subjects who completed medical questionnaires, pulmonary function tests and measurement of blood urea and serum creatinine. The data was statistically analyzed, the level of statistical significance that was depended for this study was P values ≤0.05. The results of this study revealed significant difference in the mean values of blood urea (Bur), serum creatinine (Scr), and creatinine clearance (Ccr) before and after treatment for all patients, Bur increased and Ccr decreased significantly in hypoxic group in comparison with non hypoxic group (P ˂ 0.05); while no significant changes in Scr (P = 0.1). In addition, the study showed a significant correlation between blood urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) with SPO2 (before treatment) (p < 0.05), while non-significant negative correlation between serum creatinine and SPO2 (before treatment) (r = 0.1, P > 0.05).The results illustrated that the Bur and Scr increased; while Ccr decreased significantly in male group in comparison to female group (P˂0.05). Also there was no significant correlation between blood urea, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance with forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) (before treatment) (P > 0.05). From this study, we conclude that abnormalities of renal function tests are common in patients with COPD at the first days of admission to hospital.


Article
Acute Toxicity Study of Indomethacin and Oxytetracycline in Rabbits

Author: Rebin Kanabi Majeed, Hawraz Farhad Muhammed1, Harseen Mahmud Rahim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 218-221
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: The toxic effect of nonsteroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs (NASIDs) and broad‑spectrum antibiotics in human and animal sciencehas been studied widely. The advantages and the adverse impact of these medications could be determined by measuring some biochemicalparameters such as the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and bloodurea nitrogen (BUN). In addition, the changes in some hematoimmunological parameters could also be measured; for instance, red bloodcell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, white blood cell (WBC) count, and differential WBC count. Objectives: The aim of this study is toevaluate the effect of both indomethacin, as a NSAID example, and oxytetracycline, as a broad‑spectrum antibiotic separately and together,on some biochemical and hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male albino rabbits were used, with age about 1 yearand body weight about 1.5 kg. They were divided into four groups and each group contains four rabbits. The first group served as a controlgroup, which receives only food and water. One of the groups were administered with oxytetracycline at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The secondwas administered with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg, and the final group was administered with both oxytetracycline and indomethacinwith the same previous dose. All the drugs were dissolved in the distilled water before administration of dose to each animal in the grouporally using a stomach cannula for 14 days. The rabbits were kept for 14 days under the room temperature with free access to food andwater. Serum was separated from the clotted blood obtained by ear vein. Total RBC and WBC counts were made by the hemocytometermethod. The differential WBC counts were made by finding the percentage average of the different types of cells counted in ten fields fromGiemsa‑stained slides. Serum enzymes such as ALP, AST, and ALT were determined by procedures of Sigma Diagnostics, BUN by method ofCrocker. Results: The level of ALP has shown great increase in all groups, while the level of AST and ALT was increased only in the groupthat administered with indomethacin. However, both parameters showed a significant decrease in the other groups. Regarding hematologicalchanges, WBC increased in all groups, while RBC and Hb level showed sharp decrease. Lymphocytopenia occurred in only the group thatadministered with oxytetracycline. Conclusion: The results showed toxic effect of these two most popular using drugs in animals specificallywhen it is used chronically. In addition, there is no great difference when it is used separate or together. Further study is required to investigatethe level of damage that happens in the organs.


Article
Comparative Study on Renal Function Parameters During Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia
دراسة مقارنة على معلمات وظائف الكلى أثناء الحمل الطبيعي وتسمم الحمل

Author: Widad A. Hasan وداد عبد الرحمن حسن
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2019 Volume: 24 Issue: 6 Pages: 21-25
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Pre-eclampsia is a disease of pregnancy that affects many system in the body, characterized by elevated blood pressure with protein in urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy in pregnant women with no history of hypertension or proteinurea in previous pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to determine the renal function parameters as blood urea and serum creatinine levels in preeclamptic patients and to compare it with the normal pregnant women.This case-control study was conducted among the pregnant women visiting AL-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital and AL-Khansa Hospital, Mosul, Iraq. Total 150 participants were evaluated out of which 75 were normotensive pregnant women (control group) and 75 were enrolled as preeclamptic group (study group). Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured using standard procedures. Results indicate a significant rise in the mean concentration of serum urea (4.72 ± 1.01 mmol/L vs. 2.48 ± 0.62 mmol/L), serum creatinine (88.8 ± 12.49 µmol / L vs. 56.61 ± 8.2 μmol/L), as compared to that of normotensive pregnant women( P < 0.0001). The findings of the present study are consistent with previous studies, suggesting increased level of serum creatinine and urea in preeclamptic group. Proper history tacking, examination and estimation of serum urea and creatinine may be helpful for management of pre–eclampsia in order to prevent fetal and maternal complications.

ارتفاع ضغط الدم المحرض بالحمل هو اضطراب متعدد الأنظمة للحمل, يتميز بارتفاع ضغط الدم مع وجود البروتين في الادرار بعد الاسبوع العشرين من الحمل في النساء الحوامل ذوات ضغط الدم الطبيعي. هذا الارتفاع بالضغط مرتبط بتخلف النمو داخل الرحم والولادة قبل الأوان وخطورة موت الأمهات والاطفال بعد الولادة. الهدف من الدراسة الحالية هو قياس معلمات وظائف الكلى مثل اليوريا والكرياتينين في مصل الدم لدى مرضى قبل التشنج الحملي ومقارنته مع النساء الحوامل العاديات. أجريت هذه الدراسة على النساء الحوامل اللاتي كن يراجعن مستشفى البتول التعليمي ومستشفى الخنساء في الموصل. اجريت الدراسة على150 مشاركا من بينهم 75 امرأة حامل ذوات ضغط دم طبيعي (المجموعة الضابطة) و 75 امرأة حامل مصابة بقبل التشنج الحملي (مجموعة الدراسة). تم قياس مستويات الكرياتينين واليوريا في المصل باستخدام الإجراءات القياسية. تشير النتائج إلى زيادة معنوية في متوسط مستويات اليوريا في المصل (4.72 ± 1.01 مللي مول / لتر مقابل 2.48 ± 0.62 مللي مول / لتر)، والكرياتينين في الدم (88.8 ± 12.49 مايكرومول/ لتر مقابل 56.61 ± 8.2 مايكرومول/ لتر)، بالمقارنة مع النساء الحوامل اللواتي يعانين من ارتفاع ضغط الدم (P <0.0001).نتائج الدراسة الحالية تتفق مع الدراسات السابقة ، مما يشير إلى زيادة مستوى اليوريا والكرياتينين في المصل في مجموعة قبل الحمل التشنجي. قد يكون من المفيد فحص اليوريا والكرياتينين في المصل في علاج قبل الحمل التشنجي من أجل منع حدوث مضاعفات الأم والجنين


Article
Effects of sorbitol fermenting STEC (O157: H-) in experimentally infected mice on blood urea and histology of colon and kidney
تأثير الاشيريشية القولونية الفارزة لسموم (stx) والمخمرة للسوربيتول النمط المصلي (O157: H- ( للإصابة التجريبية في الفئران على مستوى اليوريا في الدم وعلى التغيرات النسيجية للقولون والكلى

Authors: A. S. Jarad احمد سامي جراد --- E. R. M. Al-Samawy ايهاب رزاق محسن
Journal: Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences مجلة الانبار للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 19996527/27070603 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-68
Publisher: University of Fallujah جامعة الفلوجة

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Abstract

Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) are an important zoonotic disease and a food contaminated pathogens of human prompting serious illness in gastrointestinal tract such as hemorrhagic colitis and intense renal failure. This study was intended to research the influence of tentatively infected mice with STEC O157: H- on blood plasma urea and histopathological changes in colon and kidney. STEC Strain, which has been used in this study was (O157: H- positive to both stx1 and stx2) by PCR analysis, Sixty male mice ranged from 8 to 12 weeks old, were partitioned haphazardly into two groups (n=30), first one (infected group) were orally inoculated with (10 10 CFU/ml in PBS), while the second gathering (control group) was gotten PBS orally. Three, seven and fourteen days post infection, blood were collected from 10 animal to each group by cardiac puncture to measure the blood plasma urea, then the colon and kidney were removed for histopathological analysis to recognize the influence of contamination on these organs. The results demonstrated huge expand (P<0.05) in infected at contrasted with a control set at all experimental period meanwhile infected group showed a significantly increased (P<0.05) in urea level at day 7 and 14 in contrast with day 3 of a test. The histopathological investigation includes; colon and kidney illustrated mild diffuse inflammation which includes expanded inflammatory cells in tissue intraepithelial and goblet cells hyperplasia. Renal tubules showed contracting lumen with epithelial cell extensive injured, swelling and generalized necrotic characterized by acute tubular necrosis. The study concluded that tentatively contaminated mice with isolated strain (O157: H-) from children showed elevated of blood plasma significantly urea after infection, with sever pathological changes in colon and kidney at all time of investigation portrayed by sever colitis and intense kidney necrosis

لاشيريشيا القولونية الفارزة لسموم (stx) تعتبر من الجراثيم الانتقالية ومن الملوثات المهمة لطعام الانسان والتي تسبب امراضا حاده له وبخاصة في الجهاز الهضمي حيث تسبب التهاب القولون النزفي وكذلك تسبب الفشل الكلوي الحاد. تهدف هذه الدراسة الى التحري عن تأثير الاصابة المستحدثة تجريبيا في الفئران بواسطة النمط المصلي (O157: H-) المعزولة من الاطفال المصابين بالإسهال والتي كانت موجبه لـ ( stx1وstx2) عند فحصها بالـ (PCR) على مستوى اليوريا في الدم والتغيرات المرضية النسجية للقولون والكلى. تم استخدام ستين فأرا ذكرا بعمر 8-12 تم تقسيمها بشكل عشوائي الى مجموعتين: المجموعة الاولى (مجموعة الاصابة) استحدثت فيها الاصابة بالعترة المصلية (O157:H-) عن طريق الفم ويتركيز (10 10 CFU/ml) في حين ان المجموعة الثانية (مجموعة السيطرة) تم تجريعها بمحلول الملح الفسلجي 1 مل وبعد 3، 7 و14 يوما من الاصابة (10 فئران من كل مجموعة ولكل فترة) حيث تم جمع الدم من القلب مباشرة لقياس كمية اليوريا في الدم وبعد ذلك تم التضحية بها وتم استخراج القولون والكلى لإكمال الدراسة المرضية النسجية. اظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (P<0.05) في مستوى اليوريا للحيوانات في المجموعة المصابة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة في كل مراحل التجربة كما كان هنالك ارتفاعا معنويا (P<0.05) في اليوم السابع والرابع عشر مقارنة مع اليوم الثالث في مجموعة الاصابة اما التغيرات النسجية المرضية للقولون فقد اظهر القولون مستويات مختلفة من الالتهاب تميزت بارتفاع نسبة الخلايا الالتهابية مع فرط عدد وحجم الخلايا الكأسية الفارزة للمخاط وكذلك زيادة افرازاتها اما الكلى اظهرت تضييق في قطر النبيبات الكلوية مع تفجي خلوي للبطانة الخلوية للنبيبات ومع تقدم الاصابة ازداد النخر الحاد والتدمر في الخلايا البطانية للنبيبات. استنتجت الدراسة ان الاصابة قد سببت ارتفاعا في مستوى اليوريا في الدم وتدمير حاد في نسيجي القولون والكلى في الفئران المصابة تجربيا بالعترة (O157:H-) كل مراحل التجربة


Article
Prolonged Bleeding Time in Uraemia

Authors: Riyadh al- Saigh --- Fuad Al- Kasab
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2007 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-17
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Bleeding is a common and sometime fatal event in uraemic patients. Its etiology is multifactorial.Eighty uremic patients were included in this study. 39 were males and 41 were females. Their ages ranged 18-70 years. They received haemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or both. Bleeding time (BT) was measured by intravenous method. BT is considered prolonged if it is > 10 minutes.This study found neither the patients' age nor their sex affect the BT. The effect of duration of the illness on BT is remarkable. HD affects BT while no effect for PD was found.The commonest clinical manifestation of uraemic bleeding tendency is epistaxis.Among the variable characters of uraemic patients that adversely affect BT were raised serum creatinine (S. cr.), low packed cell volume (PCV), and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT).This study recommends measurement of BT as a simple bedside test for uraemic patients to identify the risk of bleeding at early time. Corrections of abnormal variables like:Anemia by eryhtropoiten and/or blood transfusion,azotemia by dialysis,3-DDAVP usage and/or cryoprecipitate for acute bleeding episode,and estrogen therapy and others.Have a good impact on treating bleeding in uraemics.

يعتبر النزف حدث شائع و أحيانا مميت لدى مرضى بولينية الدم وهو متعدد الأسباب . لقد تضمنت هذه الدراسة ثمانين مريضا مصابا ببولينية الدم , تسع و ثلاثون منهم ذكورا و واحد و أربعون إناثا. لقد تراوحت أعمار المرضى بين ثمانية عشر إلى سبعين سنة. لقد عولج المرضى بالديال الدموي , الديال الصفاقي أو بكلاهما معا.اعتبر زمن النزيف طويلا إذا كان اكثر من عشر دقائق بطريقة داخل الوريد. لم يؤثر كلا من عمر أو جنس المرضى على زمن النزيف , بينما كان لمدة المرض الأثر الواضح عليه. إن ديال الدم كان مؤثرا على زمن النزيف و لم يكن للديال الصفاقي اثر يذكر.اكثر المضاهر السريرية لنزعة النزف لدى مرضى بولينية الدم شيوعا هو الرعاف. إن أهم المتغيرات المؤثرة سلبيا على زمن النزيف لدى مرضى بولينية الدم هي : ارتفاع نسبة مصل لحمينين الدم ,هبوط النسبة المؤوية الحجمية لكريات الدم الحمراء و إطالة زمن الثرمبوبلاستين الجزئي.لقد زكت هذه الدراسة زمن النزيف كفحص جانب سريري بسيط لتحديد خطر النزف لدى مرضى بولينية الدم. إن لتصحيح المتغيرات غير الطبيعية الدفع الجيد في علاج النزيف لدى مرضى بولينية الدم و تشمل هذه المغيرات ما يلي:تصحيح فقر الدم بإعطاء معزز تكون الكريات الحمراء أو بنقل الدم,تصحيح تنترج الدم بالديلزة, استعمال علاج1-Deamino-S-D-Arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) أو الراسب البارد لنوبات النزيف الحادة و المعالجة بالا ستروجين أو غيره.

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