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Article
Assessment of Cortical Bone Density for Orthodontic Implants Placement: Computerized tomography study

Authors: Rana M. Fadhil --- Ali R. Al-Khatib
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 26 Pages: 393-398
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the bone density in the buccal surface of the maxilla and mandible and to assess the gender difference. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using computed tomography images for the 46 subjects (25 males and 21 females). Based on computed tomography data, the mean bone density values in Hounsfield units were recorded at 4 different locations from the crest of alveolar bone. Results: The bone density ranged from 795.72- 975.16 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and 837.58- 1339.28 Hounsfield units in the mandible for male and from 742.93- 992.14 and 769.67- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and mandible for female respectively. It was found that the mandibular posterior bone had the highest cortical bone in both sexes, followed by, mandibular anterior, maxillary posterior and maxillary anterior areas in male. In female, the sequence of bone density from highest to lowest was maxillary posterior bone, maxillary anterior and mandibular anterior areas. There was significant difference between males and females in some locations with higher bone densities in males (p<0.05). Conclusions: Bone densities in the buccal maxillary and mandibular areas were presented. They were ranged between 742.93- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in various areas. These data can be used in dental implant treatment planning to avoid associated risk factors


Article
The Effect of Long Term Use of Combined Pills and Depo-Provera on Bone Density Parameters

Author: Wafa Al- Omari * FRCOG د. وفاء العمري
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 365-371
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary: Background: Promotion of bone health is particularly important for young women at reproductive age group, as the critical years for building bone mass are from pre-adolescence to about age 30 years.patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on three groups, first group of 30 women who had used combined pills for more than 2 years, second group of 30 women who had used Depo-Provera for more than 2 years, last group contain 30 women who had used barrier method or they didn’t use any contraceptive as a control group.Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine (L2-L4), right proximal femur was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in (femoral neck, greater trochanter, ward’s triangle, and shaft of femur). Evaluation of serum calcium was performed.Results: The results of three groups were compared to predict the influence of using hormonal contraceptive measures on bone mineral density. The study showed significant increase in BMD among women using combined pills, and decrease in BMD among women using Depo-Provera in all anatomical sitesConclusions: The use of combined pills protects or increases BMD, while Depo-Provera diminishes BMD. In essence, improving BMD While using combined pills can be regarded as one of the benefits of this method.Keywords: bone density, combined pills Depo-Provera.


Article
Bone density determination for the maxilla and the mandible in different age groups by using computerized tomography (Part I)

Authors: Sarah M. Tewfiq سارة توفيق --- Hadeel A. Al- Hashimi هديل علي الهاشمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 164-170
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Mini implant stability is primarily related to local bone density; no studies have evaluated bone densityrelated to mini implant placement for orthodontic anchorage between different age groups in the maxilla and themandible. The present research aims to evaluate side, gender, age, and regional differences in bone density of thealveolar bone at various orthodontic implant sites.Materials and method: Fifty three individuals who were divided into two groups according to their age into: group I(ages 16-20 years) and group II (ages 21-29 years) had subjected to clinical examination, then 64-multislicecomputed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfield unit at 102 points(51 in the maxilla and 51 in the mandible), and mean alveolar bone density was calculated at each site in the CTaxial plane.Results: No significant differences in bone density between the sides and gender were found. Generally, the bonedensity measurements of group I and II were not statistically different at almost most sites. The mean bone density ofthe alveolar cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase fromthe anterior to the posterior area, while in the maxilla the highest bone density was at the premolars region. Themaxillary tuberosity was the region with lowest bone density. Cancellous bone had almost comparable densitiesbetween the mandible and the maxilla and its density was less than those of cortical sites.Conclusion: When mini implants are indicated, no gender and side differences affect the success rate regardingbone density; while age and area should be considered when selecting and placing mini implants for orthodonticanchorage.


Article
The Measurements of Maxillary Alveolar Bone Density at 13- 15 Years Age by Using Spiral Computerized Tomography

Authors: Azhar A.Farage --- Fakhri A. Al Fatlawi فخري عبد علي الفتلاوي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 103-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Bone density is a major factor that affect mini implant primarily stability; no Iraqi studies have evaluatedbone density related to mini-implant placement for orthodontic anchorage at age 13 -15 years. The present researchaims to evaluate gender, side and site differences in the bone density at various orthodontic implant sites for themaxillary alveolar bone.Materials and methods: Twenty nine individuals (16 males and 13 females) had subjected to clinical examination,then 64-multislice computed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfieldunit at 21 points (9 points for each side and 3 points between the right and left central incisors) .Results: The results obtained showed that there are no significant differences in bone density between males andfemales and between the left and right sides were found. There was no significant differences in bone densitybetween the maxillary buccal cortical bone and the palatal cortical bone were generally except that at lateralincisor and canine point where the palatal side had higher bone density than buccal side. The mean bone density ofthe cancellous bone in the anterior part was higher than that in the posterior of the maxilla.Conclusions: When orthodontic, mini implant are indicated, no gender and side difference affect the success rateregarding bone density


Article
Pre-implant computed tomography and insertion torque measurement in qualitative determination of trabecular bone density

Authors: Mahmood J. Hamzah محمود حمزة --- Jamal A. Al-Taei جمال الطائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 56-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Bone density is a very important factor in the successful plan of implant treatment. The aim of the studyis to evaluate the trabecular bone density of potential dental implant sites in different region of the jawbone by usingComputerized Tomography (CT) , and the relationship between bone density and insertion torque.Materials and method: In this clinical study 64 patients were treated with 120 Xive FRIADENT DENTPLY system implants.The implant recipient sites were divided in two groups according to gender; 60 in males and 60 in females and eachgroup was divided into subgroups according jaw (maxilla and mandible) and region (anterior and posterior). Thebone density of each implant recipient site was recorded in Hounsfield units (HU) using CT. The maximum insertiontorque (Ncm) values were recorded with torque controlling motor.Results: There was a significant correlation between bone density and insertion torque in males (r=0. 983, p <0.001)and females (r=0.955, p <0.001).The trabecular bone density values were (682±98 HU, 481±104 HU, 413±92 HU, and263±67 HU) values in the anterior mandible, posterior mandible, anterior maxilla, and posterior maxilla, respectively.Trabecular bone density was higher in males in comparison to females and the bone quality was higher for themandible than for the maxilla, and higher for the anterior region than for the posterior region of these bones. Infemales there is no significant difference in bone density (p<0.05) between the posterior mandible and anteriormaxilla and between males and females at posterior maxilla (p<0.001).Conclusion: Trabecular bone density is a key determinant for clinical success; CT is a useful tool for assessing thebone density


Article
The multi-detector computed tomographical analysis of bone density in impacted maxillary canines

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب --- Nadia B. Al-Ansari
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 165-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Maxillary canines are important aesthetically and functionally, but impacted canines are more difficultand time consuming to treat, the aim of this study is to investigate with multi-detector computed tomography thecorrelation between the bone density and the upper canine impaction.Material and method: A sample of Unilaterally impacted maxillary canines from 24 patients (19 female, 5 male) whowere referred to accurately localize the impacted canines at al- Karkh general hospital were evaluated by avolumetric 3-d images by the multi-detector computed tomography to accurately measure the bone density of themaxillary cortical palate of the maxillary impacted canine side and compare it with the other side of the normallyerupted canine.Results: The statistical descriptive analysis showed that the ratio of the maxillary canine impaction was higher infemales than in males, also the it revealed that the mean bone density of the cortical bone was greater in themaxillary impacted canine side (affected side) than in the control side (the side of the normally erupted canine), theWilcoxon signed ranks test showed a significant difference in the mean bone density between the affected side andthe control side.Conclusions: The increased bone density of the maxillary cortical plate could be an obstructive factor that causemaxillary canine impaction


Article
Effect of smoking on hard palate bone density
تأثير التدخين على كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب

Author: Zahraa M. Al- Fadily
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 112-119
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: The bone density of hard palate is key factor for success of palatal mini-implant. Smoking is an important determinant of osteoporosis.Materials and method: Sixty males were selected with age range 20-39 years and divided into two groups according to smoking; smokers group (30), and nonsmokers (control) group (30). The measurements of hard palate bone density by HU (unit used to measure radiodensity of bone on CT scan) were made at 20 sites at the intersection of five anterioposterior and four mediolateral reference lines using Philips, Brilliancetm, 64-multislice computed tomography scanner software.Results: The results that were obtained showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in bone density at most areas of hard palate. The comparison between the two groups in the overall cortical bone density showed a highly statistically significant difference. The comparison between the two groups in the overall cancellous bone density showed a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: Hard palate bone density decreased by smoking. In spite that, orthodontic mini-implants can be safely used for smoker persons in hard palate.

الخلفية: كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب عامل مهم لنجاح الزرعات التقويمية الحنكية. التدخين مسبب رئيسي لهشاشة العظام.المواد والادوات: شملت العينة 60 ذكر تتراوح أعمارهم بين٢٠- 3٩ سنة. قسمت العينة الى مجموعتين, المدخنين (30) وغير المدخنين (30). كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب قيست ل٢٠ موقع عند تقاطع خمس خطوط إشارة أمامية خلفية مع أربع خطوط إشارة قريبة بأستخدام برامجيات المفراس الحلزوني ٦٤- متعدد المقاطع لشركة فلبس المتألقة. النتائج: النتائج أظهرت أن هنالك فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب بين المدخنين وغير المدخنين في معظم المناطق. مقارنة كثافة العظم القشري الكلية بين المجموعتين بينت فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية . مقارنة كثافة العظم الإسفنجي الكلية بين المجموعتين بينت فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية. الاستنتاج: كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب تتناقص بالتدخين. بالرغم من ذلك, الزرعات التقويمية من الممكن وضعها للمدخنين في عظم الحنك الصلب.


Article
Validity of Hounsfield Units in Skyview Cone Beam Computed Tomography to detect bone densities at different jaw sites during implant insertion

Author: Dr. Amal R.S. Mohammed, B.D.S., H.D.D., M.Sc. Rad. د. امل رؤوف
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 105-111
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone densities byHounsfield Unit at jaw sites in sky view cone beam computed tomography andto compare these values to the optimal bone densities proposed in the literature.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients, 15 males and 21 females were assessed;CT data for different jaw sections and regions were compared using (t-test).Results: The means of bone density in all regions are higher in male than female. Themean bone density in the anterior mandible is higher ; the mean bone densitiesin the four jaw regions decreased in the following order in female or male orgeneral ( anterior mandible > anterior maxilla > posterior mandible > posteriormaxilla ) .Conclusion: The bone densities assessed by HU fell into the range of optimal bonedensities proposed in the literature.


Article
A Clinical Method for Prediction of Alveolar Bone Mineral Density in the Area between the Second Premolar and First Molar in Iraqi Adults with Class I Occlusion

Authors: Maha Ali Hasan Al-Juboori مها علي حسن الجبوري --- Hadeel A. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 161-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Orthodontic mini-implants are increasingly used in orthodontics and the bone density is a veryimportant factor in stabilization and success of mini-implant. The aim of this study was to observe the relationshipamong maximum bite force (MBF); body mass index (BMI); face width, height and type; and bone density in anattempt to predict bone density from these variables to eliminate the need for CT scan which have a highly hazardon patient.Materials and Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for 70 patients (24 males and 46females) with age range 18-30 years. The maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical and cancellous bone densitieswere measured between 2nd premolar and 1st molar at two levels from the alveolar crest (3 and 6 mm). Face heightand width were measured from CT. Clinically; Maximum bite force was measured on first molar region unilaterally bya digital device. The sample was divided into two groups according to the body mass index into; normal andoverweight.Results: The results obtained showed that there were no statistical significant differences in MBF or bone density inboth genders. Only the cortical bone density in maxilla in overweight group tended to be higher than normal BMIgroup. The face width and height correlated significantly negatively with MBF which correlated significantly positivelywith cortical bone density.Conclusions: It was concluded that a prediction of cortical bone density of preselected areas can be made frommaximum bite force, body mass index and inter-zygomatic width


Article
Association between osteoporosis and periodontitis

Author: N.A.AL-RAWI.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-36
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Systemic bone loss has been proposed as a risk factor for periodontal disease however the relationship between these two diseases is still not clear. Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the relationship between systemic bone mineral density , periodontal disease and status of smoking. Patients & Methods: The study population included 125 patients with osteoporosis, 110 of they were with periodontal disease and 15 without, 110 patients with moderate, advanced periodontitis. Aged 50-75 year (mean + SD: 65+7.1 years ). Skeletal bone density was assessed by plain x-ray of the femur , and the ant-post-view of the lumber spine. Periodontal disease severity was represented by application of community Periodontal Index (CPI). Three indicators of periodontal status were used for this assessment, gingival bleeding, calculus, and periodontal pockets (WHO, 1997). Results: Moderate osteoporosis was the most frequent grade in all patients. Periodontitis was noted in 88% of patients with osteoporosis, and 12% were non-periodontitis. Significant correlation was observed between osteoporosis severity and periodontitis.Conclusions: Skeletal bone mineral density is related to interproximal alveolar bone loss or to a less extent, to clinical attachment loss. Keywords: osteoporosis, etiology; bone density; smoking; risk factors; osteopenia; postmenopausal; periodontal diseases/etiology.

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