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Article
Open Osteotomy of ulna as a ModelFor Fracture Healing Studies in Rabbits

Author: Mahmood A. Aljumaily
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 3 Pages: 258-261
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Bone healing of fractures is still an open field for research due to its biological complexity. Adequately adapted experimental model is essential for understanding the factors influencing the biological process of bone healing. Rabbits provide a good animal model for bone healing studies; its bone had Haversian system similar to human.
Material and Methods: Six young locally breaded New Zeeland male rabbits were used in this study, the study conducted in animal house in college of medicine at November and December 2009. Surgical fracture (osteotomy) induced operatively in right ulna under general anesthesia by a hand saw. At the end of fifth weeks, the animals' scarified and the specimens taken for radiological, computerized tomography (CT) scan densimetry and histological examination carried out for bone healing in site of osteotomy
Results: All bone osteotomy united at end of fifth weeks macroscopically and radiologically. There was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum phosphate, and serum alkaline phosphatase preoperatively and at end of fifth weeks. The callus density was measured in site of osteotomy by CT scan densimetry and its mean was 302 ± 142. The histological examination of the bone at site of osteotomy show healing with woven bone predominantly with some lamellar bone and cartilage. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the ulnar osteotomy without use of external splintage or internal fixation model is a new, easy to perform and can be used as a model for fractures healing studies.

Keywords

rabbit --- ulna --- osteotomy --- and bone healing.


Article
Histopathological evaluation of bone healing using Nanobone in experimentally induced frontal bone defects of rabbits

Authors: Alaa S. Jaber علاء جبار --- Kadhim A. Al-Soudani كاظم السوداني
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 40-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The bone substitute biomaterials are used in reconstruction of bone defects and one of them isNanobone. It consists of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a highly porous matrix of silica gel. It promotesthe healing of bone defects and increases the amount of new bone formed. It is degraded and resorbed byosteoclasts after a period of time. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of Nanobone on bone healing inexperimentally frontal bony defects of rabbits.Materials & Methods: Thirty five indigenous rabbits were used in this study. Granules of Nanobone were implanted insurgically induced defects of 5mm size in one side in the frontal bone of rabbits, while the other side defects were leftfree to heal spontaneously as controls. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks and demineralized. Theamount of new bone formed around implanted granules and the inflammation present were analyzed by means oflight microscopy in both Nanobone granules-filled defects and controls.Results: At 2 weeks, there was no new bone formed in both defects with few amount of inflammation whichconsiders normal at this time. At 6, 9 and 12 weeks , the amount of new bone formed in Nanobone filled defects wasmuch more than that formed in controls (statistically significant correlation, P<0.05), no inflammation seen in boths. At24 weeks, the Nanobone granules were degraded and completely replaced by new bone while in controls therewas few spaces not filled with bone (statistically highly significant correlation, P<0.01), no inflammation seen also.Conclusions: Results of present study revealed that Nanobone material promotes healing of bony defects incomparison to controls and is degraded and replaced by new bone after a period of time


Article
Effects of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation on bone healing in rabbits

Author: Mahmood A. Aljumaily محمود عبد الجميلي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2011 Volume: 37 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the daily oral adminstration of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation on bone healing in experimental animals (rabbits).Material and methods: Eight young male rabbits divided into two groups after induction of open ulnar osteotomy, the experimental group received daily dose of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation from the second post operative day for 28 days. The control group received ordinary diet without any food supplementation. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens taken for radiological and CT scan densimetry, and histological evaluation carried out for calluses at site of osteotomy. Results: All ulnar bone osteotomies in both groups united at the end of the fifth week macroscopically and radiologically. There was no significant difference in serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase preoperatively, and at the end of the fifth week. The callus density was measured in site of osteotomy by CT scan densimetry and its mean in experimental group was 331.1 ± 81.3, and control group was 199.7± 32.1. The difference between the experimental and control group was highly significant, (P value is < 0.001). The histological examination of the bone at site of osteotomy showed healing with woven bone predominantly and some lamellar bone and cartilage.Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that a daily oral administration of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation enhance bone healing and increase callus density.Keywords: Vitamin D, calcium, fluoride, vitamin C, dietary supplementation, bone healing.

الأهداف: من أجل دراسة تأثير الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي كمضاف غذائي على التئام كسور العظام في الحيوانات المختبرية (الأرانب) من دون استخدام وسائل التثبيت الداخلي.المواد وطريقة العمل: تم استخدام ثمانية من الأرانب النيوزلندية الذكور المكثرة محليا في هذه الدراسة. تمت هذه الدراسة في بيت الحيوانات بقسم الجراحة التجريبية في كلية الطب في الشهرين الأخيرين من 2009. تم إحداث كسر جراحي (قص العظم) في عظم الزند الأيمن بقطع جراحيا تحت التخدير العمومي وبواسطة المنشار اليدوي وبدون التثبيت الداخلي. قسمت الحيوانات إلى مجموعتين كل مجموعة تتكون من أربعة حيوانات. أعطيت المجموعة الأولى جرعة يومية من الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي فيما كانت المجموعة عينة ضابطة. وبعد خمسة أسابيع تم قتل الحيوانات وأخذت عينات العظام للفحص ألشعاعي وقياس كثافة العظم الملتئم بواسطة التصوير الطبقي المحوري وتم فحص نسيجي للعظم لملاحظة التئام العظم في مكان قص العظم.النتائج: التأمت كل العظام بعد قصها في نهاية الأسبوع الخامس ظاهريا وإشعاعيا. لم يظهر فرق معنوي في مستوى الكالسيوم والفوسفات وإنزيم الفوسفات القاعدي في مصل الدم قبل التجربة وفي نهايتها بعد خمسة أسابيع. كانت كثافة العظم الملتئم بواسطة التصوير الطبقي المحوري في محل القطع بعد خمسة أسابيع في مجموعة التجربة بمعدل 302 ± 124 وأما المجموعة الضابطة فكانت كثافة العظم في محل القطع 199,8 ± 32,1. أظهر الفحص النسيجي التئام العظم في محل القص بعظم متموج أولي مع بعض الغضاريف وبعض العظام المكتملة.الخلاصة: إن هذه الدراسة تبين بان إضافة الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي كمضاف غذائي يساعد في التئام كسور العظام.


Article
Histologic evaluation of bone healing following lowenergy laser irradiation (experimental study)

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Abstract

AbstractThe application of laser is widely used in many branches of medicine and surgery.The high energy laser has coagulating, cauterizing and destructive effect, while thelow energy laser has a bio- stimulating effect.A hole was made using a surgical bur in zygomatic bone of four rabbits and a lowenergy laser was applied on zygomatic bone of experimental group and compared tocontrol non- irradiated group.This study showed that application of low-energy laser has a promoting effect andfacilitate bone deposition in the bony defect of the experimental group whencompared to control group.It may be concluded that application of low-energy laser have promoting effect onacceleration of bone healing.


Article
Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the effect of local exogenous application of VEGF on bone healing (experimental study in rat)

Authors: Enas Fadhil ايناس فاضل --- Athraa Y. Alhijazi عذراء يحيى الحجازي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 108-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The repair of bone defects remains a major clinical orthopaedic challenge. Bone is a highlyvascularised tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal connection between blood vessels and bone cells tomaintain skeletal integrity. Angiogenesis thus plays a pivotal role in skeletal development and bone fracture repair.The role of angiogenic and osteogenic factors in the adaptive response and interaction of osteoblasts andendothelial cells during the multi step process of bone development and repair will be highlighted in this study. Thisstudy aimed to identify the role of local exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in bone healing and toanalyze the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemistry in created bone defect after application with differentbiomaterials in a rat model.Materials and methods: In this experimental study eighteen male Albino rats, weighing (300-400) gram, aged (6-8)months were used and maintained under control conditions of temperature, drinking and food consumption. Theanimals were subjected for a surgical operation of medial sides of both tibiae bone ( right side was considered asexperimental site ,while left be the control one), in control group the bone defect treated with local application of1μm of normal saline, while experimental treated with local application of 1μm of VEGF .The rats were sacrificed at3,7,10 days after surgery(six rats for each period). Bone healing was histologically examined withimmunohistochemical localization of VEGFResults: Bone defect treated with local application of VEGF shows an early osteoid tissue deposition with high cellcount for osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast. Immunohistochemical evaluation for VEGF by stromal cells, reportedto be higher with significant difference in VEGF group in comparison to control.Conclusion: The study illustrated that low application of VEGF could be an effective therapeutic expression for boneinjuries; these data are promising for a possible future clinical usage


Article
Histological Evaluation for the Use of β-Tricalcium Phosphate as a Bone Substitute in Accelerating Bone Healing: An Experimental Study on Rabbits

Authors: Atalla F Rejab --- Bara S Minwah --- Yahya A Ameen
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 205-211
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The present study designed to assess the effects of a bone substitute consisting of β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on acceleration of bone healing of surgically created defects. Materials and Methods: Ten rabbits were included in the study. Before the operation, each rabbit was weighed and given anesthesia accordingly. Surgery was performed under aseptic conditions. The left and right mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incision. Two rectangular full thickness defects (10×5 mm) were created in each side. The anterior defect was left untreated to serve as a control while the posterior one was filled with β-TCP in each side. Five rabbits were sacrificed one week after surgery and the other five rabbits were sacrificed one month after surgery. The bony mandibles were dissected from the heads and immediately immersed in 10% formalin solution and sent for histological analyses. Results: Microscopic examination of the experimental section of one week group showed more organization, lesser degree of inflammatory cell infiltrate, and more granulation tissue formation than the control group. Similarly, microscopic sections from the experimental osseous defects taken at 1 month interval showed more pronounced callus formation than the control group. Conclusions: βtricalcium phosphate accelerate bony healing at both one week and one month interval which is especially important in dental implants and in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction, for both the functional and psychological aspect.


Article
The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Author: Atalla F Rejab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-20
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.


Article
Effects of dietary supplementation on bonehealing in bisphosphonate treated rabbits

Authors: Hazim K. AL-Allaf حازم خليل العلاف --- Kassim S. Ibrahim قاسم سعيد ابراهيم --- Mahmood A. Aljumaily محمود عبد الجميلي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 114-120
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the daily oral administration of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation on bone healing in bisphosphonate treated experimental animals (rabbits).
Material and methods: Eight young male rabbits divided into two groups after induction of open ulnar osteotomy, both groups received weekly 1 mg/ kg BW of alendronic acid (alendron) orally starting 6 days before osteotomy for five weeks, the experimental group received daily dose of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation from the second post operative day for four weeks. The control group received ordinary diet. At the end of the fifth week the animals' sacrificed and the specimens taken for radiological and computerized tomography (CT) scan densimetry and histomorphometric evaluation carried out for the callus at site of osteotomy.
Results: All ulnar bone osteotomies in both groups united at the end of the fifth week macroscopically and radiologically. The callus density was measured in site of osteotomy by CT scan densimetry, its mean in the experimental group was 681 ± 219 and in the control group was 492 ± 233. The difference between the experimental and control group was significant, (P value<0.05). The histological examination of the bone at site of osteotomy showed healing with woven bone predominantly and some lamellar bone and cartilage. The mean of histomorphometric evaluation of healing in site of osteotomy were 9.07 ± 0.80 in experimental group, while in control group were 8.70 ± 0.80. The difference between two means was not significant
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that a daily oral administration of vitamin D, calcium, fluoride and vitamin C as dietary supplementation in bisphosphonate treated rabbits enhance bone healing by increase callus density.
Keywords: Dietary supplementation, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, calcium, fluoride, vitamin C, bone healing.

الأهداف: من أجل دراسة تأثير الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي كمضاف غذائي على التئام كسور العظام في الحيوانات المختبرية (الأرانب) المعالجة بالبايسفوسفونيت من دون استخدام وسائل التثبيت الداخلي.المواد وطريقة العمل: تم استخدام ثماني من الأرانب الذكور المكثرة محليا في هذه الدراسة. تمت هذه الدراسة في بيت الحيوانات بقسم الجراحة التجريبية في كلية الطب في الشهرين الأخيرين من 2009. تم إحداث كسر جراحي (قص العظم) في عظم الزند بقطع جراحي وبدون التثبيت الداخلي. قسمت الحيوانات إلى مجموعتين كل مجموعة تتكون من أربعة حيوانات. أعطيت المجموعتان مركب الالدرونيت (بايسفوسفونيت) بجرعة ملغرام واحد لكل كيلوغرام من وزن الحيوان واعتبارا من اليوم السادس قبل العملية وبجرعة أسبوعية لمدة خمسة أسابيع. أعطيت المجموعة الأولى جرعة يومية من الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي لمدة أربعة أسابيع فيما كانت المجموعة عينة ضابطة. وبعد خمسة أسابيع تم قتل الحيوانات وأخذت عينات العظام للفحص ألشعاعي وقياس كثافة العظم الملتئم بواسطة التصوير الطبقي المحوري وتم فحص نسيجي للعظم لملاحظة التئام العظم في مكان قص العظم.النتائج: إلتأمت كل العظام بعد قصها في نهاية الأسبوع الخامس ظاهريا وإشعاعيا. كانت كثافة العظم الملتئم بواسطة التصوير الطبقي المحوري في محل القطع بعد خمس أسابيع في مجموعة التجربة بمعدل 681 ± 216 وأما المجموعة الضابطة فكانت كثافة العظم في محل القطع 492 ± 233 وهذا فرقا معنويا. أظهر الفحص النسيجي التئام العظم في محل القص بعظم متموج أولي مع بعض الغضاريف وبعض العظام المكتملة. كان معدل مستوى التئام محل قص العظم في حيوانات التجربة 9,07 ± 0,8 وفي العينة الضابطة 8,70 ± 0,8 وهذا ليس فرقا معنويا. الخلاصة: إن هذه الدراسة تبين بان إضافة الكالسيوم وفيتامين دي والفلوريد وفيتامين سي كمضاف غذائي يوميا يساعد في التئام كسور العظام في الأرانب المعالجة بالبيسفوسفيت بزيادة كثافتها.


Article
The percutaneous effect of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil as external topical treatment on bone healing in rabbits
تاثير استخدام زيت الحبة السوداء موضعيا من خارج الجلد على التئام العظم في الارانب

Author: E’atelaf A. Al-Mutheffer أئتلاف عبد الاميرالمظفر
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 146-154
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of black seed oil extraction as external topical treatment on bone healing. Twenty domestic rabbits were used; the animals were divided into two equal groups. Radius bone of both forelimbs were chosen for making a defect (2mm cavitation using electrical drill) in the middle shaft, the animals of control group (CG) were leaved to heal normally, while the animals of treated group (TG) were treated by rubbing the operated limb by oil extraction of black seed twice a day. The results of this study confirmed that N. sativa provided important factors which contributed in enhancement the healing process of the bone defect. However, the X-ray and histopathology section of the bone of the treated group showed enhancement of bone healing in: deposition, resorption, angiogenesis and remodeling stages, when compared to the control group. In conclusion the using of oil extract of N. sativa as percutaneous therapy enhances bone healing by enhancing different processes of cell migration and differentiation, extracellular matrix formation and organization towards calcification.

تم تصميم هذه التجربة لتقييم تأثير زيت الحبة السوداء كعلاج موضعي خارجي على التئام العظام . واستخدمت عشرين ارانب محلي ؛ تم تقسيم الحيوانات إلى مجموعتين متساويتين . وقد تم احداث ثقب في عظم الزند في كلتا القائمتين ، تركت حيوانات مجموعة السيطرة (CG) للشفاء بشكل طبيعي، في حين تم علاج الحيوانات من المجموعة التي تلقت العلاج (TG) عن طريق مسح الطرفين بزيت الحبة السوداء مرتين في اليوم. أكدت نتائج هذه الدراسة ان استخدام زيت الحبة السوداء ساهمت في تعزيز عملية الشفاء العظام. وأظهرت الأشعة و التغيرات المرضية في المجموعة التي عولجت افضل في التئام العظام من خلال : الترسيب، ارتشاف ، الأوعية الدموية ومراحل إعادة التكوين ، مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة . ويستنتج من الدراسة ان استخدام مستخلص زيت حبة السوداء كعلاج على سطح الجلد يعزز التئام العظام من خلال تعزيز العمليات المختلفة للهجرة الخلايا و التمايز، وترسب الكلس لملئ الثقوب المحدثة في العظم.


Article
The effect of low level laser therapy on bone healing in male rats
تأثير العلاج بالليزر واطئ الطاقة على التئام العظم في ذكور الجرذان

Authors: Thaier Alwan Abid ثاير علوان عبد --- Afraah Mutleq Ehnaiesh افراح مطلك احنيش
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-95
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of low level laser therapy on bone healing, and to compare between the effect of using two doses (4 and 8 J/cm2) of laser. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into three equal groups, control and two laser treatment groups 4J / cm² and 8J / cm². Bone injury (2 mm in diameter osteotomy) (limited size bone stoma) was created by drilling in the right tibia bone of each animal after making 2cm length longitudinal skin incision on the anterio-lateral aspect of the leg by use scalpel, and displaced the anterior tibials muscle laterally. After that the muscle was replaced and the incisions was sutured with 3/0 silk suture materials. The two laser groups (4J/cm2 and 8J/cm2) are received a close-contact pulsed Gallium-Aluminum Arsenide Laser (GaAlAs) on the operation site (with energy density of 4 and 8J/cm2 in a wave length of 660nm, power output (50mw), pulsing rate 146 Hz.) immediately post operation then repeated the dose daily for seven successive days. Control group left untreated. Bone healing processes were followed-up by taking histopathological specimens after euthanasia of animals at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the surgical operation. Results displayed that the laser therapy used in both doses were an evenly continuous enhance the healing process of the bone, by acceleration process of healing and reduce inflammation period in compared with the control group. Histologically the bone defect in 4J/cm2 group was filled early with a dense mass of granulation tissue interposed with polydactyl projections of spike like bony trabeculae giving the shape of new developing bone. The osteoblasts were seen large in size lining the bone trabiculae. The trabecula containing numerous osteocytes. Intra membranous and endochondral ossification were developed early. The cartilage tissue was disappearing at 28 days and the calluses seem like more developed. In 8J/cm2 group early visualization of both intramembranous and endochondral ossification surrounded by new periosteal tissue. Thick and dense branching interconnected trabeculae were appearing fill the bone defect. The endochondral ossification early invade the cartilage tissue from the periphery, also the intra membranous and the endochondral ossification were interconnected. No signs of inflammation, and early disappear of granulation tissue were seen. Finally thick highly cellularized woven bone was seen characterized by presence of wide multi-branched interconnected trabeculae connecting each other. In conclusion the both doses (4 and 8J/cm2) were used seen effective in stimulating and enhance the bone healing, and the 8J/cm2 was given better stimulation effect than the 4J/cm2.

هدفت الدراسة الى تقييم الآثار المفيدة للعلاج بالليزر واطئ الطاقة في شفاء العظم ومقارنة تأثير استخدام جرعتين (4 جول و 8 جولسم2) من الليزر . استخدمت في الدراسة 60 جرذ (ويستر) ذكر بالغ قسمت عشوائيا الى ثلاثة مجاميع متساوية (مجموعة سيطرة ومجموعتين ليزر). احدث ثقب بالثاقب (القطر 2 ملم) (فتحت العظم محدودة الحجم) بعظم الساق اليمنى لكل حيوان بعد اجراء جرح طولي في الجلد بالمشرط بطول 2سم على الجانب الامامي الوحشي للساق وازاحة العضلة القصبية الامامية جانبيا ، بعدها أعيدت العضلة الى موقعها وجرى خياطة الجرح بخيط الحرير 3�. مجموعتي الليزر أعطيت جرعتي الليزر 8 جول و4 جولسم2 (الليزر النبضي (GaAlAs) الطول الموجي 660 نانومتر، الطاقة 50 ملي واط ، معدل الذبذبة 146 هيرتز) على موقع الجرح مباشرة بعد اجراء العملية (لمرة واحدة في اليوم) ولمدة سبعة ايام متتالية. ومجموعة السيطرة تركت بدون معالجة. جرى تعقب عملية شفاء العظم من خلال الفحص النسيجي المرضي بعد اخذ عينات العظم بعد قتل الحيوان في الايام 7 ، و 14 ، و 21 ، و 28 يوم بعد العملية الجراحية. أظهرت النتائج ان العلاج بالليزر المستخدم في كلا الجرعتين عزز وبشكل مستمر عملية شفاء العظم بواسطة تعجيل عملية الالتئام واختزال فترة الالتهاب مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة. نسيجيا في المجموعة 4 جول مليء العيب العظمي مبكرا بكتلة كثيفة من النسيج الحبيبي يتخلله بروزات اصبعية متعددة من الحويجزات العظمية الشبيهة بالشوكة معطية شكل عظم حديث التكوين. الخلايا البانية للعظم شوهدت كبيرة بالحجم تبطن الحويجزات العظمية التي تحتوي العديد من الخلايا العظمية. التعظم الغضروفي والتعظم داخل الغشائي تطورا بوقت مبكر. النسيج الغضروفي اختفى في 28 يوم ولوحظ الثفن اكثر تطورا. في مجموعة 8 جول لوحظ ظهور مبكر للتعظم الغضروفي والتعظم داخل الغشاء محاطا بسمحاق خارجي جديد. العيب العظمي لوحظ ممتلأ بحويجزات بينية ثخينة وسميكة. التعظم الغضروفي غزا مبكرا النسيج الغضروفي من الجوانب والتعظمان كانا مترابطين. لم نلاحظ علامات التهابية كما حصل اختفاء مبكر للنسيج الحبيبي. وفي النهاية لوحظ عظم جديد سميك كثير الخلايا يتصف بوجود حويجزات متعددة التفرعات مترابطة مع بعضها. نستنتج ان الجرعتين المستخدمة كانت مؤثرة في تحفيز وتعزيز شفاء العظم وكانت الجرعة 8 جول افضل من 4 جول.

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