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Article
Effect of Promoters on the Catalytic Activity of the Iosmerization Catalyst

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Abstract

The crystalline zeolite, namely faujasite type Y with SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of 5 was used as raw material for preparation of isomerization catalysts. A 0.5 wt % Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst was prepared by impregnation of the decationized HY-zeolite with chloroplatinic acid. The dectionized HY-zeolite was treated with HCl, HNO3 and HI promoters using different normalities and with different concentrations of Sn, Ni and Ti promoters by impregnation method to obtain acidic and metallic promoters' catalysts, respectively. A 0.5 wt% of Pt was added to above catalysts using impregnation method. Isomerization of n-hexane was carried out at different prepared catalysts. The isomerization temperature varied from 250–325° C over weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 1.6 h-1. The pressure and hydrogen to feed mole ratio were kept constant at 1bar and 2 mol/mol, respectively.The comparison between the above prepared catalysts shows that the total isomer yield during the process with Sn-Pt /HY- zeolite catalyst was higher than the other catalysts and, reached to 63.95% vol. A 0.5 wt% of W and Zr was added to Sn-Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst by impregnation method to obtain W and Zr co-metal promoters catalysts. Isomerization of n-hexane was investigated using W and Zr co-metal promoters catalyst at the same operating conditions and the yield of isomers reached to 81.14% vol.and 79.07%vol.,respectively.


Article
Conversion of Glycerol into Value Added Products by Catalytic Processing
انتاج مركبات ذات فائدة صناعية تطبيقية من مادة الكلسرول باستخدام العوامل المساعدة

Author: Nidal Al Derzi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 15 Pages: 2715-2724
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The conversion of glycerol into value added chemicals have emerged in recent years as a result of glycerol unique structure, properties, bioavailability, and renewability. Glycerol is produced in large amounts during trans-esterification of fatty acids into biodiesel, and as such represents a useful by-product. In this paper, the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol has been studied over gold nanoparticles supported on TiO2, and synthesized by using deposition-precipitation method. The catalysts are characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and activity towards CO oxidation. Active catalysts comprise particle size distributions (2-5 nm diameters) for gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the Au/TiO2 catalyst showed the best performances both for activity and selectivity toward glyceric acid. We have also studied the effect of reaction conditions such as, amount of catalyst and concentration of base in the catalytic activity.

في الآونة الأخيرة يتزايد الأهتمام في انتاج مركبات كيميائية ذات قيمة عالية من مادة الكليسرول وذلك كونه يمتلك صفات استثنائية من ناحية خصائصه وتركيبه بالأضافة الى وفرته وقابليته للتجديد. يتم انتاج الكليسرول بكميات كبيرة خلال عملية استرة الأحماض الدهنية لأنتاج الوقود الحيوي ، وبذلك يمثل ناتج عرضي ذو فائدة . يتناول البحث اختبار أكسدة الكليسرول في الطور السائل باستخدام دقائق الذهب النانوية محملة على أوكسيد التيتانيوم TiO2 وتم تحضيرها بطريقة الترسيب. تم تشخيص العامل المساعد باستخدام الأشعة السينية الحيودية XRD , المجهر الألكتروني النافذ TEM , مطياف الأشعة السينية XPS , والفعالية في أكسدة أول أوكسيد الكربون. وأظهرت الفحوصات ان العوامل المساعدة الفعالة تحتوي على الذهب بحجم دقائق يتراوح قطرها (2-5 ) نانومتر. لقد أظهرت النتائج ان العامل المساعد نوع Au/TiO2 يمتلك فعالية عالية وانتقائية في توليد حامض الكليسريك . كذلك تم دراسة ضروف التفاعل كتأثير تركيز القاعدية وكمية العامل المساعد على الفعالية.

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